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Article
Publication date: 19 February 2018

Yufei Zhao, Li Yan and Hean Tat Keh

There is considerable research examining the consequences and contingency factors of customer participation in the service encounter. In comparison, there is…

2893

Abstract

Purpose

There is considerable research examining the consequences and contingency factors of customer participation in the service encounter. In comparison, there is disproportionately less research examining the antecedents of customer participation. This paper aims to propose and test an appraisal-emotive framework of the effects of front-line employees’ in-role and extra-role behaviours on customer participation.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey on 583 customers of retail banks in China has been conducted to test the framework. Structural equation modelling and dominance analysis have been used for hypotheses testing.

Findings

Employees’ extra-role behaviour (i.e. organisational citizenship behaviour or OCB) has a stronger effect than their in-role behaviour (i.e. role-prescribed behaviour) in inducing customer participation. These effects are mediated by customer emotions. Specifically, the effect of employees’ in-role behaviour on customer participation was mediated by customers’ positive and negative emotions, whereas the effect of employees’ OCB was mediated by customers’ positive emotions but not by their negative emotions.

Practical implications

The findings reveal that strategic management of employee behaviours can influence customer participation. While organisations often provide training to enhance employees’ in-role behaviour to deliver service performance, they should also recognise and encourage employees’ OCB as a means of increasing customer participation. In particular, employees who display positive emotions tend to evoke positive emotions in customers, which increase customer participation in the service encounter.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is one of the few studies in marketing to examine the differential effects of employees’ in-role and extra-role behaviours on customer participation. Importantly, the findings show that employees’ OCB is not only more effective than employees’ in-role behaviour in influencing customer participation but also these two behaviours have varying effects on customer emotions. These findings are new and contribute to the literatures on customer participation, value co-creation and human resource management.

Article
Publication date: 15 September 2021

Yang Lei, Qiang Zhou, Jifan Ren and Xiling Cui

This study aims to examine how job satisfaction (JS) affects two types of knowledge sharing (KS), in-role KS and extra-role KS. It also investigates the mediating effect…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine how job satisfaction (JS) affects two types of knowledge sharing (KS), in-role KS and extra-role KS. It also investigates the mediating effect of knowledge sharing self-efficacy (KSSE) and the moderating effect of team collaborative culture (TCC) between JS and two types of KS.

Design/methodology/approach

This study applies attribution theory to develop a cross-level model and validate it through paired data collected from 322 information technology professionals nested within 80 teams. Hierarchical linear modeling is used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

JS positively influences in-role and extra-role KS via KSSE and TCC positively moderates the relationship between JS and extra-role KS.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to investigate the mechanism underlying the influence of JS on two types of KS. It also identifies the mediating and moderating effects of this mechanism.

Article
Publication date: 7 April 2020

Tali Seger-Guttmann and Hana Medler-Liraz

Service research has highlighted the role of emotional labor in service delivery but has neglected service employees’ actions. This study aims to distinguish between the…

Abstract

Purpose

Service research has highlighted the role of emotional labor in service delivery but has neglected service employees’ actions. This study aims to distinguish between the recurrent in-role and extra-role actions of service employees and to examine the joint effect of service employees’ actions and their emotional labor, which may color these actions on customer buying behavior (number of purchased items and total bill).

Design/methodology/approach

Phase I comprised two studies: Study 1 examined 70 service interaction videos to identify employees’ service actions, and Study 2 quantitatively validated the most frequent employee actions, used for further study, by examining 40 employee–customer interactions in fashion stores. For Phase II, Study 3 derived data from 60 service employees’ diaries to predict the joint effect of performed emotional labor and service actions on customer buying behavior.

Findings

Findings revealed that emotional labor moderated the relationship between service actions and customer buying behavior. The relationship between in-role/extra-role actions and buying behavior was stronger in the lower surface-acting (less emotional faking) condition, whereas the relationship between in-role/extra-role actions and buying behavior was stronger for the higher deep-acting (more emotionally authentic) condition.

Practical implications

Service organizations should not limit training to the more easily attained service actions. This possibility may be lacking if it ignores the emotional component that accompanied the action. This may shift the focus from customer satisfaction to customer delight.

Originality/value

This study is a pioneering effort to examine the specific circumstances in which service employees’ actions (regardless of in-role or extra-role status) will not produce the desired customer-related outcome in the presence of emotional labor.

Article
Publication date: 26 October 2010

Otmar E. Varela, Elvira I. Salgado and Maria V. Lasio

Three broad behavioral categories have been related to organizational goals: task (in‐role), citizenship (extra‐role), and counterproductive behaviors. Because most…

4693

Abstract

Purpose

Three broad behavioral categories have been related to organizational goals: task (in‐role), citizenship (extra‐role), and counterproductive behaviors. Because most studies modeling these behaviors have been conducted in culturally similar contexts (individualistic and relatively low power distance settings), the purpose of this paper is to test the invariance of such a triad categorization of performance in collectivistic and high power distance contexts.

Design/methodology/approach

Data of employees' proficiencies (n = 1,022) in 34 work activities representing the three behavioral performance categories were factor analyzed. Data were collected by adapting existing behavioral‐based instruments exhibiting strong psychometric properties.

Findings

Although results corroborate the existence of a triad categorization of employee behaviors, culture‐specific variations attesting to the partitioning of in‐role behaviors according to the distribution of power in organizations were found. Results also suggest that collectivistic individuals narrowly conceptualize extra‐role behaviors by excluding discretionary interpersonal actions.

Practical implications

The paper's findings contribute to our understanding of how job performance varies in a global economy. These variations must be considered in appraisal instruments, especially in organizations operating across cultural contexts.

Originality/value

This paper is believed to be the first to test the cultural invariance of a triad categorization of relevant employee behaviors.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2009

Jo En Yap, Liliana L. Bove and Michael B. Beverland

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of different reward programs on in‐role and extra‐role behaviour; and to investigate whether specific reward programs…

5610

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of different reward programs on in‐role and extra‐role behaviour; and to investigate whether specific reward programs can be designed to enhance both in‐role and extra‐role behaviour simultaneously.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi‐structured in‐depth interviews were conducted on a total of 11 employees from four different fashion retail outlets. Informants consisted of employees from different positions within these organizations (i.e. store manager, assistant store manager and sales associates) to provide researchers with possibly differing viewpoints. Interviews were content analysed and classified, according to emerging themes.

Findings

Certain reward programs, namely individual and group financial incentives motivated sales associates to engage in both in‐role and extra‐role behaviour simultaneously. Further, compared to formal recognition programs, informal reward programs (individual financial incentives, individual social recognition and group social recognition) appeared to be more effective in motivating sales associates to enhance their in‐role and extra‐role performance.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to a better understanding of the effects of different reward programs and their administration on in‐role and extra‐role performance of retail sales associates.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 September 2019

Narges Kia, Beni Halvorsen and Timothy Bartram

Against the backdrop of the Royal Commission into Misconduct in the Banking, Superannuation and Finance Services Industry in Australia, this study on ethical leadership is…

3036

Abstract

Purpose

Against the backdrop of the Royal Commission into Misconduct in the Banking, Superannuation and Finance Services Industry in Australia, this study on ethical leadership is timely. The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating effects of organisational identification, customer orientated behaviour, service climate and ethical climate on the relationship between ethical leadership and employee in-role performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypotheses were tested using a two-wave survey study of 233 bank employees in Australia.

Findings

Evidence from the study indicated that organisational identification, service climate and ethical climate mediate the relationship between ethical leadership and employee in-role performance. Surprisingly, the proposed mediation effect of customer orientation was not supported. However, ethical leadership was positively associated with customer orientated behaviour among employees.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of the study include collecting data at two time points, thereby rendering the study cross-sectional. Employee in-role performance was a self-rated measure.

Practical implications

This study showed that ethical leadership is critical to improving employee perceptions and experience of an organisation’s service climate, ethical climate, organisational identification, customer orientated behaviour and employee in-role performance. The authors raise a number of HRM implications for the development and enablement of ethical leaders in the banking context.

Originality/value

The findings presented in this paper highlight that ethical leadership is critical to improving employee perceptions and experience of an organisation’s service climate, ethical climate, organisational identification, customer orientated behaviour and employee in-role performance.

Article
Publication date: 19 October 2022

Taejun Cho, Yongho Park and Jaeyeon Jang

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships among abusive supervision, in-role behavior, career commitment and work–life balance.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships among abusive supervision, in-role behavior, career commitment and work–life balance.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected from 310 South Korean company employees using the survey method. To investigate the research hypotheses, structural equation modeling analysis was conducted.

Findings

This study found negative effects of abusive supervision on in-role behavior, career commitment and work–life balance. Career commitment and work–life balance has the positive influences on in-role behavior. These results support the research hypotheses.

Research limitations/implications

Although this study empirically confirmed the negative effects of abusive supervision on employees’ attitudes toward their careers, lives and working behavior, the influence of cultural aspects was not considered. This study found mediating effects of work–life balance and career commitment.

Practical implications

This study points out that one leader with abusive supervision can negate all organizational efforts aimed at employees’ well-being because the influence of leaders on employees’ careers, lives and working behavior is very critical.

Originality/value

This paper provides a comprehensive understanding of the relationships between abusive supervision and other related variables from a human resource development perspective.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Sally Raouf Ragheb Garas, Amira Fouad Ahmed Mahran and Hassan Mohamed Hussein Mohamed

This paper aims to study the effect of internal branding on brand supporting behaviour (in-role and extra-role) of bank employees in Egypt. It proposes a model which…

3742

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the effect of internal branding on brand supporting behaviour (in-role and extra-role) of bank employees in Egypt. It proposes a model which examines the relationship between internal branding and employees’ brand supporting behavior, mediated by employees’ role clarity, affective commitment and continuance commitment, to provide insights into the way in which employees can become brand champions.

Design/methodology/approach

A single cross-sectional descriptive research was employed. A questionnaire was used to collect data from 400 frontline bank employees. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the validity of the scales, and structural equation modelling was used to test the research hypotheses.

Findings

The results showed that internal branding did not have a direct significant impact on employees’ in-role and extra-role behaviour. However, that impact only took place through employees’ role clarity and their affective commitment.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that banks can differentiate their offers and build powerful corporate brands through their employees’ brand supporting behaviour. Therefore, bank managers need to consider internal branding within the context of a corporate marketing orientation. Moreover, enhancing employees’ role clarity and affective commitment will ensure sustainable brand supporting behaviour.

Originality/value

This research is the first quantitative study to examine the impact of role clarity and continuance commitment as possible mediators to the proposed relationship. It further adds up to the internal branding literature, which is mostly qualitative or conceptual and thus suffers from limited conclusive evidence in terms of internal branding benefits and practical implications.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 December 2020

Talat Islam, Mubbsher Munawar Khan, Ishfaq Ahmed and Khalid Mahmood

Human misbehaviors are responsible for climate change as they waste resources and pollute water and air that dilapidate the environment. Considering the fact and…

2376

Abstract

Purpose

Human misbehaviors are responsible for climate change as they waste resources and pollute water and air that dilapidate the environment. Considering the fact and contributing to the United Nations sustainable development goals of 2019, organizations started focusing their green HRM practices to develop employees' green attitudes and behaviors. This study is an attempt in this direction. It examines the impact of ethical leadership on individuals' green in-role and extra-role behaviors with the mediating role of green HRM practices and the moderating role of individual green values.

Design/methodology/approach

The study collected data from 645 MBA executive students working in various manufacturing industries with at least one year of experience. The data were collected using a questionnaire-based survey in two-time lags.

Findings

Hypothesized relationships are tested through structural equation modeling. Findings reflected a significant impact of ethical leadership on green HRM practices, in-role, and extra-role green behaviors. Besides, green HRM practices mediated the relationship between ethical leadership and both types of green behaviors. Furthermore, it was observed that the individual green values strengthened the association between green HRM practices and both types of green behaviors.

Research limitations/implications

A cross-sectional design with time lags was used to avoid common method bias. The findings of the study contribute to supply-value-fit theory and validate the scale of individual green value.

Practical implications

This study guides management that employees only perceive their organizational practices as green when they find their leaders are ethical. Further, considering individual green values in the recruitment process can help organizations accomplishing their green goals.

Originality/value

This study is novel in examining the mediating role of green HRM practices between ethical leadership and green behaviors. Further, the analysis not only validates the scale of individual green values but also noted its moderating role between green HRM and green behaviors.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 42 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 September 2012

Aaron Cohen, Eli Ben‐Tura and Dana R. Vashdi

The goal of this study is to examine the moderating effect of two group characteristics, group size and group cohesiveness, on the relationship between organizational…

3887

Abstract

Purpose

The goal of this study is to examine the moderating effect of two group characteristics, group size and group cohesiveness, on the relationship between organizational commitment and transformational leadership, on the one hand, and in‐role and extra role behaviors, on the other. Based on social exchange theory, the main expectation was that the two group characteristics would create different conditions for exchange, influencing the relationship between determinants and outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample was 223 Israeli employees from a variety of occupations (nurses, social workers, physiotherapists, laboratory employees, administrative staff, etc.) working in 31 medical units in two health care organizations (a response rate of 59 percent).

Findings

HLM analyses showed strong moderating effects of both group cohesiveness and group size. The findings show that group characteristics strongly affect the nature and direction of the relationship between the examined determinants and the behavioral outcomes. The findings also revealed a significant three‐way interaction, demonstrating that group size and cohesiveness have an important joint effect. Cohesiveness differed in its effects on how commitment and transformational leadership are related to organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and in‐role performance depending on whether the groups were large or small.

Originality/value

This study examines group size as a possible moderator, a construct only rarely considered in studies that attempt to predict OCB. The inclusion of leadership style is an important addition, considering that a good part of the exchange processes that take place in this context are between the employee and his/her supervisor.

1 – 10 of over 4000