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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2010

Margeaux Johnson, Amy Buhler and Kristi L. Holmes

The purpose of this paper is to report on the 2010 VIVO Conference.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on the 2010 VIVO Conference.

Design/methodology/approach

Conference report.

Findings

VIVO is an open source, semantic web discovery platform for hosting information about researchers, their interests, activities, and accomplishments. The first annual VIVO Conference brought together a diverse group of researchers, developers, publishers, information system vendors, government agencies, and librarians – all united by the common goal of enabling research discovery and supporting collaboration among researchers.

Originality/value

This conference report is of interest to information professionals in academia, corporate, and governmental information centers and libraries.

Details

Library Hi Tech News, vol. 27 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0741-9058

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2018

Noraini Mahmad, R.M. Taha, Rashidi Othman, Sakinah Abdullah, Nordiyanah Anuar, Hashimah Elias and Norlina Rawi

The purpose of this paper is to validate the antimicrobial activity (both antibacterial and antifungal) of in vivo and in vitro ethanolic anthocyanin extracts of Clitoria

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to validate the antimicrobial activity (both antibacterial and antifungal) of in vivo and in vitro ethanolic anthocyanin extracts of Clitoria ternatea L. (vivid blue flower butterfly-pea) and Dioscorea alata L. (purple yam) against selected bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) and fungi (Fusarium sp., Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma sp.).

Design/methodology/approach

The freeze-dried samples (0.2 g) from in vivo vivid blue flowers of C. ternatea L. were extracted using 10 mL ethanol (produced ethanolic red extraction) and 10 mL distilled water (produced aqueous blue extraction) separately. Two-month-old in vitro callus samples (0.2 g) were only extracted using 10 mL ethanol. The anthocyanin extractions were separated with the addition (several times) of ethyl acetate and distilled water (1:2:3) to remove stilbenoids, chlorophyll, less polar flavonoids and other non-polar compounds. Furthermore, the antimicrobial properties were determined using agar diffusion technique. Three bacteria (B. subtilis, S. aureus and E. coli) and fungi (F. sp., A. niger and T. sp.) were streaked on bacteria agar and dextrose agar, respectively, using “hockey stick”. Then, the sterile paper discs (6 mm diameter) were pipetted with 20 µL of 1,010 CFU/mL chloramphenicol (as control for antibacterial) and carbendazim (as control for antifungal) in vivo and in vitro extracts. The plates were incubated at room temperature for 48 h, and the inhibition zones were measured.

Findings

Based on the results, both in vivo and in vitro ethanolic extracts from vivid blue flowers of C. ternatea L. showed the best antibacterial activity against the same bacteria (B. subtilis), 11 and 10 mm inhibition zones, respectively. However, different antifungal activity was detected in in vitro ethanolic callus extract (12 mm), which was against T. sp., contrary to in vivo ethanolic extract (10 mm), which was against F. sp.; antibacterial activity of D. alata L. was seen against the same bacteria (E. coli) with the highest inhibition zone for in vivo extract (8.8 mm), followed by in vitro extract (7.8 mm).

Research limitations/implications

Anthocyanins are responsible for the water soluble and vacuolar, pink, red, purple and blue pigments present in coloured plant pigments. These pigments (pink, red, purple and blue) are of important agronomic value in many crops and ornamental plants. However, anthocyanins are not stable and are easy to degrade and fade whenever exposed to light.

Social implications

Plant extracts containing bioactive agents with antimicrobial properties have been found to be useful in treating bacterial and fungal infections, as well as showed multiple antibiotic resistance.

Originality/value

Both in vivo and in vitro extracts from vivid blue flower petals (C. ternatea L.) and purple yam (D. alata L.) have important applications as natural antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) agents in the coating industry, instead of natural pharmaceutical products.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2014

Nancy Walter, Rachel H. McQueen and Monika Keelan

Antimicrobials may be incorporated into garments to protect the textiles, control malodour or to potentially reduce the spread of infection. Yet still not well understood…

Abstract

Purpose

Antimicrobials may be incorporated into garments to protect the textiles, control malodour or to potentially reduce the spread of infection. Yet still not well understood is how antimicrobial-treated textiles may influence a person's resident microflora during wear, as limited in vivo testing has previously been carried out. The purpose of this paper is to assess whether normal skin microflora was altered as a result of contact with selected antimicrobial-treated fabrics.

Design/methodology/approach

Three selected antimicrobial-treated fabrics (i.e. Fabric 1: triclosan; Fabric 2: zinc pyrithione derivative; and Fabric 3: silver chloride and titanium dioxide) were placed on the forearm of participants (n=19). Bacterial counts obtained under treated and untreated fabrics following 24 hours of occlusion were compared. The antimicrobial efficacy of fabrics displayed in vitro was also compared with the activity displayed in vivo.

Findings

Two of the three fabrics (Fabrics 1 and 2) reduced bacterial populations on the skin following 24 hours occlusion compared to the matched control fabrics (Fabric 1: p<0.05; Fabric 2: p<0.001). Whereas, following occlusion with Fabric 3 bacterial populations were not significantly different than the matched control. The present study demonstrated that in vitro assessment of antimicrobial capacities of fabrics do not necessarily predict the effects of such fabrics during wear.

Originality/value

The paper highlights that in vivo studies are a necessary and important tool for understanding the interactions of an antimicrobial-treated fabric with the wearer's skin. As well, the new method developed can be used by other researchers to examine the potential impact on skin microflora due to contact with antimicrobial-treated textiles.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Todsaporn Fuangrod, Peter B. Greer, John Simpson, Benjamin J. Zwan and Richard H. Middleton

Due to increasing complexity, modern radiotherapy techniques require comprehensive quality assurance (QA) programmes, that to date generally focus on the pre-treatment…

Abstract

Purpose

Due to increasing complexity, modern radiotherapy techniques require comprehensive quality assurance (QA) programmes, that to date generally focus on the pre-treatment stage. The purpose of this paper is to provide a method for an individual patient treatment QA evaluation and identification of a “quality gap” for continuous quality improvement.

Design/methodology/approach

A statistical process control (SPC) was applied to evaluate treatment delivery using in vivo electronic portal imaging device (EPID) dosimetry. A moving range control chart was constructed to monitor the individual patient treatment performance based on a control limit generated from initial data of 90 intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and ten volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) patient deliveries. A process capability index was used to evaluate the continuing treatment quality based on three quality classes: treatment type-specific, treatment linac-specific, and body site-specific.

Findings

The determined control limits were 62.5 and 70.0 per cent of the χ pass-rate for IMRT and VMAT deliveries, respectively. In total, 14 patients were selected for a pilot study the results of which showed that about 1 per cent of all treatments contained errors relating to unexpected anatomical changes between treatment fractions. Both rectum and pelvis cancer treatments demonstrated process capability indices were less than 1, indicating the potential for quality improvement and hence may benefit from further assessment.

Research limitations/implications

The study relied on the application of in vivo EPID dosimetry for patients treated at the specific centre. Sampling patients for generating the control limits were limited to 100 patients. Whilst the quantitative results are specific to the clinical techniques and equipment used, the described method is generally applicable to IMRT and VMAT treatment QA. Whilst more work is required to determine the level of clinical significance, the authors have demonstrated the capability of the method for both treatment specific QA and continuing quality improvement.

Practical implications

The proposed method is a valuable tool for assessing the accuracy of treatment delivery whilst also improving treatment quality and patient safety.

Originality/value

Assessing in vivo EPID dosimetry with SPC can be used to improve the quality of radiation treatment for cancer patients.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1974

With over 4,000 retailers and a probable current turnover of £230m., Spar Vivo's performance over the past few years has been impressive. Its success is due, primarily, to…

Abstract

With over 4,000 retailers and a probable current turnover of £230m., Spar Vivo's performance over the past few years has been impressive. Its success is due, primarily, to three factors: an imaginative and colourful approach to promotions; a persistent and developing policy of own‐brand merchandising; and a realisation that what counts, in the last analysis, is the operational performance of its retailer members. RDM interviewed the two men at the top — Michael Reynolds and John Irish.

Details

Retail and Distribution Management, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-2363

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Article
Publication date: 20 February 2017

Ryo Okuyama

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of tacit knowledge in incremental innovation, which has hitherto been neglected.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of tacit knowledge in incremental innovation, which has hitherto been neglected.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative case analysis was used to focus on two large Japanese pharmaceutical companies’ development of new antihypertensive drugs. The study uses interview data and documentary research materials to explore the knowledge bases of the companies’ research teams as they refined an existing drug to produce new products – a process of incremental innovation.

Findings

Explicit knowledge (chemical structure of preceding drug) was used in both successful and failed cases of drug discovery. In the two successful cases, the tacit knowledge of key researchers, based on their long-term experience of related research, provided insight into developing compounds with good in vivo efficacy, which led to successful clinical development.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that tacit knowledge may play an important role in incremental innovation processes, and that its influence on product development should be considered in such ways as team and organization structure.

Originality/value

This study addresses a gap in the literature regarding the impact of tacit knowledge on incremental innovation processes. It is often assumed that incremental innovation is based on existing technology. This study suggests that tacit knowledge may play a hitherto largely unrecognized role in incremental product development.

Details

Journal of Strategy and Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-425X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2016

S. Mohajer, R.M. Taha and S.Z. Azmi

The purpose of this paper is to identify the most dominant pigment of pomegranate explants for natural color coatings and detect the presence of phytochemical constituents…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the most dominant pigment of pomegranate explants for natural color coatings and detect the presence of phytochemical constituents and comparison of the antioxidant activities.

Design/methodology/approach

Extracts of leaf, stem, peel and seed of in vitro and in vivo growth cultures were prepared for phytochemical constituent and antioxidant activity. The supernatant from 95 per cent methanol was mixed with 15 per cent polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with the ratio of 1:1 to form a coating system.

Findings

Although glycosides was not found in this species, tests for tannins and flavonoids were positive in all samples. The IC50 values were also comparable to commercial antioxidant ascorbic acid with 34.92 per cent inhibition. Chlorophyll a and b were detected in stem and leaf using UV-photospectrometer in 420 and 645 nm wavelengths ranges. The effects of heat and salt on the stability of natural dye colorants mixed with polyvinyl alcohol to form a basic coating system were indicated negatively in in vivo and in vitro growth cultures.

Originality/value

The paper shows that further improvement with co-pigmentations may give a notable mixture from pomegranate extraction for the paint materials or nail varnish. It was also indicated that pomegranate contains some compounds such as polyphenolics that can donate electron/hydrogen easily.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 45 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Cui Tan, Juncen Zhou and Qing Li

The aim of this paper is to predict the in-vivo degradation behaviour of Mg-based implants through in-vitro immersion test.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to predict the in-vivo degradation behaviour of Mg-based implants through in-vitro immersion test.

Design/methodology/approach

A novel placement mode arming to mimic the in-vivo situation was investigated in this work. Specimens were mounted on bones and then immersed in dynamic Hank’s solution.

Findings

The degradation behaviour of the specimen’s two sides is unequal. The bottom side which clings to the bone was isolated from solution in the early stage. During the late immersion period, there was crevice corrosion appearing on the bottom side. Weight loss and mechanical properties of specimens were also affected by the placement mode.

Research limitations/implications

Placement mode reported here have guiding significance for degradation behaviour of bio-implants in the clinical study.

Social implications

Placement mode reported here have guiding significance for degradation behaviour of bio-implants in the clinical study.

Originality/value

A novel placement mode arming to mimic the in-vivo situation was investigated in this work, which was better fit the actual in vivo immersion situation.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 64 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

G.V. Sahakyan, G.G. Artsruni and G.A. Poghosyan

The purpose of this paper was to reveal the possible changes in membrane physical parameters, such as surface charge, ξ-potential and molecular interactions of membrane…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to reveal the possible changes in membrane physical parameters, such as surface charge, ξ-potential and molecular interactions of membrane components due to the in vitro and in vivo influences of ESF.

Design/methodology/approach

The in vitro and in vivo (one hour) influences of 200 kV/m external electrostatic field (ESF) on the erythrocyte membranes of white outbred rats were investigated by spectrofluorometric, spectral and electrophoretic methods.

Findings

It was shown that the in vivo influence of ESF leads to the intermolecular reconstructions and decrease of the positive charged groups in membrane surface layer. At the same time, the increases of the negative charged groups of membrane proteins after the field influence, is revealed. The charge redistribution in membranes due to the in vitro influence of ESF is observed.

Originality/value

The analysis of literature data and generalization of data obtained allow us concluding that in parallel with the polarization of lipid component of bilayer the changes in the structural state of membrane proteins take place due to the ESF influence on the erythrocyte membranes. These changes can be the reason and/or the result of the ESF induced redistribution of membrane charge.

Details

COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Progress in Psychobiology and Physiological Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-12-542118-8

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