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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Carrie Heilman, Kyryl Lakishyk and Sonja Radas

This paper aims to investigate the impact of in‐store sample promotions of food products on consumer trial and purchasing behavior. The authors investigate differences in…

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4259

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the impact of in‐store sample promotions of food products on consumer trial and purchasing behavior. The authors investigate differences in the trial rate for free samples across different products and consumer types, as well as the impact of sampling on product and category purchase incidence. The results of this study are relevant for retailers and manufacturers who invest in in‐store free sample promotions.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use data from a field study, which leveraged an actual free‐sample program implemented by a US grocery store chain. Data was collected on six different products promoted by in‐store free samples over six different weekends. The data collected included consumers' trial and purchasing behavior with respect to the free sample, as well as their attitudes towards the free sample that day and free sample promotions in general.

Findings

Free sampling is very effective in inducing trial, especially among lower educated consumers. For consumers who are planning to buy the product in the promoted category, free sampling can encourage switching from the planned to the promoted brand. For consumers who do not have such previous plans, free sampling can “draw“ them into the category and encourage category purchase. Samplers' interactions with the person distributing the sample or with other samplers at the scene also seem to boost post‐sample purchase incidence.

Originality/value

Despite the importance of free samples as a promotional tool, few studies have examined consumer trial and purchasing behavior with respect to in‐store free samples. This paper presents one of the first known field studies that examines this topic.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 113 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Nelson Oly Ndubisi and Chew Tung Moi

To evaluate the awareness and behaviours of Malaysian consumers towards sales promotional tools such as, coupons, price discount, free samples, bonus packs, and in‐store

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11246

Abstract

Purpose

To evaluate the awareness and behaviours of Malaysian consumers towards sales promotional tools such as, coupons, price discount, free samples, bonus packs, and in‐store display in the purchase of low involvement products.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper also recognises that certain demographic factors such as education and income of consumers could potentially confound the observed relationships hence, these factors were controlled. A total of 312 consumers in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia were surveyed using a structured questionnaire.

Findings

The results show that price discounts, free samples, bonus packs, and in‐store display are associated with product trial. Coupons do not have any significant effect on product trial.

Research limitations/implications

Only one category of product was considered. None were high involvement so these need further research.

Practical implications

Greate understanding of how Malaysian customers respond to the various sales promotions therefore increased alitity to pich the appropriate promotional miso.

Originality/value

The level of education appears to have no bearing on consumers’ preferences.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 29 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Don E. Schultz and Martin P. Block

This paper aims to investigate whether or not ongoing sales promotion contributed to the declines in “no brand preference” (NBP). Part of an ongoing series investigating…

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8104

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate whether or not ongoing sales promotion contributed to the declines in “no brand preference” (NBP). Part of an ongoing series investigating the growth of US consumer’s responses of NBP for more than 1,500 frequently purchased consumer product brands. Data were drawn from responses to a very large (1.1 million) online longitudinal consumer questionnaire during 2002-2012.

Design/methodology/approach

Additional research, combining this data set with two other major US longitudinal studies, confirmed results. This study focused on determining reasons for NBP increase. Initial data set included use of and influence of 23 in-store promotional tools. These were investigated to determine impact and effect.

Findings

Four leading sales promotional tools, based on consumer influence, were coupons, home samples, in-store samples and retail shopper cards. Shopper cards had most influence on purchase of secondary, not primary brands in categories. Shopper cards are a clearly underused promotional tool in building brand preference and sales.

Research limitations/implications

Limited to US consumer products only. No attempt made to connect media advertising and in-store media impact or effect.

Practical implications

Future investigation should focus on other geographies, synergy between media advertising and promotional techniques. Also, the study is all aggregated data; individual brand investigations should be made. Shopper cards appear to be a major opportunity for secondary brands. More focus on cooperative activities between brands and retailers would benefit both.

Originality/value

Paucity of longitudinal customer-view research on shopper cards identifies both manufacturer and retailer opportunities, particularly secondary brands.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1997

Geoffrey P. Lantos

The case is presented by a senior marketing major (Tim), who did a business internship in the new products area of a fictitious consumer package goods firm. The case is…

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811

Abstract

The case is presented by a senior marketing major (Tim), who did a business internship in the new products area of a fictitious consumer package goods firm. The case is presented as a journal Tim kept while interning. It is based on the author’s own journal, kept while working as a business professor intern in a firm similar to that in the case. Although names have been disguised, most of the activities, practices and problems described in the case are based on the author’s internship experience. Tim is simultaneously involved in two major new product projects. First is the early exploratory research done for new vegetable‐based food products. Second is a snack product which is ready to be moved from a controlled store test to test markets. Tim is also involved in other activities: a new business committee meeting, an industry forum, and a strategic plans presentation meeting. Tim works fairly closely with the new products manager, people in other areas of the firm such as marketing research and research and development, as well as with the firm’s ad agency. The case also describes informational interviews Tim conducted with various functional managers in the company involved with new products, and it gives students a feel for all of the nitty gritty implementation details involved in new product work.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 6 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Richard C. Leventhal

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129

Abstract

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 15 November 2013

Xia Liu, Alvin C Burns and Yingjian Hou

– The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the online and in-store shopping behavior towards luxury goods.

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24483

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the online and in-store shopping behavior towards luxury goods.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies are presented. Study one is qualitative in nature. It uses a mixed method approach and explores why luxury consumers decide to purchase luxury products online or in-store. The second study is a quantitative one. It tests the hypotheses drawn from the first study and validates the qualitative results.

Findings

Online and in-store luxury shoppers are influenced by different motivational factors. Online luxury shoppers are price-conscious, prefer the online product availability and have a higher level of trust towards online customer reviews. In-store shoppers who are more averse to online risks find it very important to see the product personally before the purchase and value shopping experience and interactions. In addition, differences exist between the online shopping behaviors of regular and luxury shoppers.

Research limitations/implications

It contributes to luxury consumption research and expands shopping motivation literature by investigating luxury buyer behavior in the online context.

Practical implications

Luxury retailers should pay attention to the newly emerging segment of online luxury consumers. Lack of trust prevents more luxury consumers from shopping on the internet and the trustworthiness of the sellers can help attract potential shoppers. Luxury retailers can cater to the needs of different types of luxury buyers.

Originality/value

This paper is the first exploratory, comparative study on luxury consumption in the online and physical store environments. It investigates the motivational factors that drive the shopping behavior of internet and in-store luxury shoppers.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 41 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2011

Kim‐Shyan Fam, Bill Merrilees, James E. Richard, Laszlo Jozsa, Yongqiang Li and Jayne Krisjanous

The purpose of this paper is to examine two key dimensions of in‐store marketing, namely in‐store promotions and price markdowns. These seem to be the two most important…

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9586

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine two key dimensions of in‐store marketing, namely in‐store promotions and price markdowns. These seem to be the two most important aspects of in‐store marketing, though other dimensions such as retail personal service are also worthy of study.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 287 New Zealand clothing and shoe retailers was studied. Survey questions included the perceived importance of in‐store promotions and price markdowns. The aim was to explain these perceptions in terms of marketing strategies, threat of competition and environmental uncertainty.

Findings

The results indicate that a discount marketing strategy, environmental uncertainty and emphasis on price‐promotions are key to explaining retailers' perceptions and use of specific in‐store marketing activities. In addition, seven key marketing activities were found to distinguish high‐ and low‐performance retailers with respect to in‐store promotions.

Practical implications

The study has highlighted strategic aspects of in‐store marketing, by focusing on two key components of in‐store marketing, namely in‐store promotion and price markdowns. The findings should provide much needed advice to retailers on the use of sales promotion tools in different environmental settings.

Originality/value

This paper should prove valuable to academic researchers and retailing managers (particularly to those in smaller countries), owner‐operated retail outlets, and chain stores.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Nelson Oly Ndubisi and Chiew Tung Moi

This research evaluates the impact of sales promotional tools, namely coupon, price discount, free sample, bonus pack, and in‐store display, on product trial and…

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6079

Abstract

This research evaluates the impact of sales promotional tools, namely coupon, price discount, free sample, bonus pack, and in‐store display, on product trial and repurchase behaviour of consumers. In addition, the moderation role of fear of losing face (or embarrassment) on the relationship between the sales promotional tools and product trial was examined. The sample points for the research were supermarkets in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia. A total of 420 randomly selected customers were surveyed using structured questionnaire, out of which, 312 usable responses were received. The results of data analysis show that price discounts, free samples, bonus packs, and in‐store display are associated with product trial. Coupon does not have any significant effect on product trial. Trial determines repurchase behaviour and also mediates in the relationship between sales promotions and repurchase. Fear of losing face significantly moderates the relationship between in‐store display and product trial. Details of the findings and their implications are discussed.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2013

Sung‐Joon Yoon

This paper aims to verify the hypothetical relationships between antecedent and consequence variables of consumer's shopping experiences based on an experiential typology…

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4998

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to verify the hypothetical relationships between antecedent and consequence variables of consumer's shopping experiences based on an experiential typology advocated by Schmitt.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the study takes a holistic view of shopping experiences by adopting three experiential components (sensory, affective, and rational) with a view to uncovering the roles of antecedent (shopping motives) and consequence (impulse buying) of shopping experiences. Specifically, the study seeks to affirm the effects of shopping motives on shopping experiences for three types of retail store (department store, discount store, and internet store) and two product types (perfume and detergent). Second, the study confirms whether store type and product type influence the kind of experience preferred by shoppers and verifies whether types of product and store moderate the relationship between shopping motives and shopping experiences. Thirdly, the study investigates the effects of shopping experiences on impulse buying, with special attention given to the role of store atmospherics.

Findings

The study found that shopping motives had significant effects on shopping experiences. Product‐based shopping motive exerted greater significant influence on shopping experiences than experience‐based motive. The result showed that product type (detergent) was a significant moderator between experience‐based shopping motive and sensory experience. And, both department store and discount store were found to significantly moderate between experience‐based motive and affective experience. It also found that affective shopping experience boosted impulse buying and rational experience decreased it significantly at department store. However, no consistent pattern of influence was detected for the effects of atmospherics on impulse buying when examined by store type.

Originality/value

The study results will offer important retailing implications which accommodate customers' experiential needs that are not only consumer‐centric, but also context specific. The study reflects the growing recognition of the role of sensory stimuli, as they were found to influence advertisement and brand effectiveness. Also, antecedents of experiential shopping in relation to its impact on impulse buying have not been fully explored in the past.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 47 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Monique Murfield, Christopher A. Boone, Paige Rutner and Rodney Thomas

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of logistics service quality (LSQ) on consumer satisfaction and loyalty in an omni-channel retail environment.

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7031

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of logistics service quality (LSQ) on consumer satisfaction and loyalty in an omni-channel retail environment.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical, survey-based approach is used to collect data from consumers about experiences with two different omni-channel retail scenarios: buy-online-pickup-in-store (BOPS), and buy-in-store-ship-direct (BSSD). Participants responded to questions regarding the LSQ, consumer satisfaction, and consumer loyalty relative to their actual experience in one of these situations.

Findings

Results suggest that omni-channel consumers are truly unique, and all three dimensions of LSQ (condition, availability, and timeliness) are distinct in their impact on satisfaction and loyalty. Results suggest that in the BOPS sample, consumer satisfaction partially mediates the relationship between condition and loyalty and fully mediates the relationship between timeliness and loyalty. In the BSSD model, consumer satisfaction partially mediates the relationship between timeliness and consumer loyalty.

Research limitations/implications

This research studies LSQ in two different omni-channel scenarios; additional research is needed to explore other omni-channel scenarios and extend the findings to be more generalizable.

Practical implications

Managers should recognize that for omni-channel consumers, timeliness is the essential driver of satisfaction and loyalty. Retailers need to account for this reality and dedicate substantial resources to meet delivery requirements in a timely manner. Logistics service providers need to emphasize speed and reliability of their delivery processes for omni-channel consumers.

Originality/value

This research is the first attempt at conceptualizing LSQ in an omni-channel supply chain, and testing the impact of LSQ on consumer satisfaction and loyalty.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 47 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 4000