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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Imran Pasha, Sehrish Hussain, Muhammad Issa Khan and Nadia Akram

The purpose of this paper is a study designed to utilize Vigna mungo L. (black gram) flour to improve the protein quality of wheat through supplementation. Wheat is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is a study designed to utilize Vigna mungo L. (black gram) flour to improve the protein quality of wheat through supplementation. Wheat is utilized as a cereal crop all over the world, but its protein quality is inferior owing to the deficiency of amino acids like lysine.

Design/methodology/approach

Black gram seeds were roasted and germinated and then incorporated at 10, 15 and 20 per cent level in wheat flour. The composite flour was evaluated for its chemical composition, physiochemical properties and rheological characteristics, and cookies were developed from the composite flour.

Findings

Chemical composition of composite flour revealed significant results (p < 0.05). The level of crude protein increased from 9.69 to 11.79 per cent, while ash and crude fat content enhanced from 0.33 to 1.80 per cent and 1.13 to 2.40 per cent, respectively. There was a significant effect (p < 0.05) on the sedimentation value by the addition of black gram in wheat flour. Water absorption of composite flour was higher than control (52.21 per cent), as maximum value was observed in flour having 15 per cent germinated black gram flour (69.45 per cent). Dough development time also increased from 2.90 min to 4.80 min. The pasting properties revealed significant results for all the parameters. Cookies were developed from composite flour, and sensory evaluation has shown that addition of pulse flour at 15 per cent yields cookies with better hedonic response.

Originality/value

The black gram is a locally grown legume crop, but there is a lack of systematic approach for its chemical composition and product development. Scientists are in urge to explore such economical and assessable food ingredients to cope with the nutritional deficiencies prevailing in the developing societies. In this regard, black gram has been recognized as a rich source of nutrients, so it can be exploited to improve wheat protein quality.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2010

Faqir Muhammad Anjum, Muhammad Zubair Sabir, Muhammad Issa Khan and Imran Pasha

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisae is the most important ingredient of leavened products and is best known for its characteristic physiological property: the rapid…

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1540

Abstract

Purpose

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisae is the most important ingredient of leavened products and is best known for its characteristic physiological property: the rapid fermentation of sugar to ethanol and carbon dioxide. The purpose of this paper is to exploit this feature to determine the effect of three commercially available yeast types: Instant, Dried, and Fresh on sugar utilization during the fermentation process and bread quality.

Design/methodology/approach

Three commercially available yeast types – Instant, Dried, and Fresh were used at three levels, i.e. 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 percent in order to assess sugar utilization during the fermentation process and bread quality after baking.

Findings

The rate of utilization of glucose was much faster than fructose and sucrose. Instant yeast at 1.00 percent exhibited maximum sugar utilization during the fermentation process. It also contributed to improving the bread texture, loaf volume, grain texture, crust and crumb color. Dried and Fresh types could not depict any significant difference in their sugar utilization behavior and bread quality. The results indicated that yeast quality as well as quantity is one of the major indices of bread quality.

Practical implications

The findings of the research can be used by bakers in order to select the proper yeast type and its level for production of quality bread. It also gives an idea about sugar type best suited for bread production.

Originality/value

The paper describes unique research work, as both yeast types, along with their levels, are tested for their fermentation capacity on different types of sugars, as fermentation is an important step in bread making.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2008

Faqir M. Anjum, Imran Pasha, Sarfraz Ahmad, M. Issa Khan and Zafar Iqbal

The present study was designed to enhance the nutritional and calorific value of food without affecting quality of final product with the use of emulsifiers. Lysine…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study was designed to enhance the nutritional and calorific value of food without affecting quality of final product with the use of emulsifiers. Lysine contents in potatoes are similar to animal protein and its flour can be utilized to overcome protein and calorie malnutrition.

Design/methodology/approach

Composite flours were prepared by substituting wheat flour with potato flour at 20 per cent, with guar gum 3 per cent and GMS at 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0. The blends were subject to proximate analysis and calorific value determination. Naan prepared from composite flours were evaluated by panel of judges to access suitable level of supplementation.

Findings

Statistical analysis revealed significant decrease in moisture, protein, crude fiber while increase in the fat content of composite flour. Replacement of wheat flour by potato flour has non significant effect on the ash and carbohydrates contents nitrogen free extract (NFE). Moisture, protein and fat contents decreased significantly with the passage of time during storage while crude fiber, ash content and NFE were found to be non‐significantly affected by duration of storage. Potato flour at 20 per cent level of substitution along with 3 per cent guar gum and 0.6 per cent GMS was found to be acceptable by panel of judges having maximum acceptability of naan.

Practical implications

Potato flour supplementation can be done through roller flour mills or small scale grinders (chakki) to enhance the value of flour to be used by masses in order to overcome the protein malnutrition as quantity of potato flour protein is comparable to animal protein.

Originality/value

Presently potatoes are consumed as vegetable and during peak season processed into flour, starch and dried products. Potato flour is rarely used for the production of baked products in Pakistan. Potatoes are rich in starch, vitamin B1, and vitamin B2, ash content, fiber content and essential amino acids as compared to cereals. Thus potato flour can utilized to improve the energy status of masses. Research conducted was unique in its nature as effect of both storage periods was evaluated and the suitable levels of replacement of potato flour were investigated.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2012

Muhammad Issa Khan, Faqir Muhammad Anjum, Imran Pasha, Ayesha Sameen and Muhammad Nadeem

Unleavened bread (chapatti and roti) is the staple diet of people in the Indo‐Pak region, utilizing almost 90 percent of the wheat produced in the region. To improve the…

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Abstract

Purpose

Unleavened bread (chapatti and roti) is the staple diet of people in the Indo‐Pak region, utilizing almost 90 percent of the wheat produced in the region. To improve the nutrition of chapattis, normally legume flour is used in the region. The purpose of the current study is to assess the nutritional quality and safety of chapattis supplemented with soy flour.

Design/methodology/approach

Wheat and soybean were procured and soy flour was prepared. Trypsin inhibitor contents and mineral contents of different flour and chapattis prepared were determined. Chapattis were prepared from different flour blends and whole wheat flour. To assess the quality and acceptability, the chapattis were presented to a panel of judges and the sensory evaluation was carried out for color, taste, aroma, chew ability, folding ability and overall acceptability characteristics. The data obtained for each parameter were subjected to statistical analysis to determine the level of significance.

Findings

The phytic acid and trypsin content were higher in un‐autoclaved soy flour supplement composite flour. The defattening of soy flour also increases the level of these anti‐nutrients in chapattis. The phytate and trypsin content of composite flour decreased as a result of baking. The protein, fiber and ash contents of composite flour increased while moisture content and nitrogen free extracts (NFE) decreased by the addition of soy flour. Mineral contents of chapattis except Mn increased by the incorporation of soy flour. The chapattis were found acceptable by the panel of judges at 10 percent replacement level of whole wheat flour by soy flour.

Practical implications

The results of the study indicate that 10 percent supplementation of soy flour in wheat flour was found acceptable by consumers as it did not affect the sensory attribute. For improved nutrition and to combat protein energy malnutrition, chapattis flour can be supplemented with soy flour.

Originality/value

The soy supplementation of wheat flour will improve the nutritional quality of the chapatti flour as soy flour is rich in high‐quality protein and mineral. The anti‐nutritional can be minimized or inactivated by autoclaving the soybean.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 114 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 28 March 2008

Faqir M. Anjum, Imran Pasha, Kashif Ghafoor, M. Issa Khan and M. Ali Raza

Wheat is the staple food in many parts of the world and bread is one of the most important products of wheat flour. There is a need for innovations in bread making to…

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1158

Abstract

Purpose

Wheat is the staple food in many parts of the world and bread is one of the most important products of wheat flour. There is a need for innovations in bread making to increase its shelf life and consumer's attraction. Fermentation is mostly done by yeast but it does not produce appreciable amounts of organic acids, which are required to enhance the shelf life of bread. The present study aims to determine the effect of bacterial and yeast culture blends on the quality and shelf life of sourdough bread and to observe the sugar utilization during fermentation.

Design/methodology/approach

Three treatments were made using different blends of bacterial cultures (homo‐fermentative and hetero‐fermentative) and baker's yeast compared with a control having only baker's yeast. Chemical analysis, sugar utilization (Sucrose, glucose and fructose) through high performance liquid chromatography, sensory characteristics (both internal and external) and microbial count (Bacterial and fungal count) for each treatment were conducted at different storage intervals.

Findings

The hetero‐fermentative bacteria i.e. Lactobacillus plantarum along with baker's yeast exhibited the best results regarding the utilization of sugars during fermentation (after 3 h of fermentation 0.0158 mg/ml sugar remained), objective evaluation of bread and its sensory characteristics. The bread prepared using the blend of hetero‐fermentative bacteria (0.5 per cent) and yeast (0.5 per cent) also showed greater resistance against bacteria (9×101 cfu/g after 60 h of storage) and mold (1.1 ×  102 cfu/g after 60 h of storage) growth.

Research limitations/implications

Hetero‐fermentative bacteria along with baker's yeast can be utilized in sour dough to improve major bread characteristics. This study is a step further in improving the shelf life of sourdough.

Originality/value

Presently only baker's yeast is being used by bread industry for fermentation purpose but a blend of bacterial culture along with baker's yeast can give better performance for better quality and shelf life of the bread.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2019

Muhammad Sajid Khattak and Usman Mustafa

The complexity of projects has become a serious issue and obstacle in their successful completion. In order to overcome these complexities, it has become imperative to…

Abstract

Purpose

The complexity of projects has become a serious issue and obstacle in their successful completion. In order to overcome these complexities, it has become imperative to identify the relevant management competencies of project managers. The purpose of this paper is to address the problem of cost, time and scope in engineering infrastructure projects due to their complexities through management competencies.

Design/methodology/approach

In the first phase of the study, 32 experts were interviewed through semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire. In this phase, essential elements of complexities were identified initially. This was followed by finding required dimensions of competencies to counter these complexities and to acquire improved performance. In the final stage, required levels of competencies for specific elements of complexity were identified. In the second phase, 85 “project managers” were also approached to get feedback about their recently completed public sector engineering infrastructure projects in Pakistan.

Findings

The study identified additional dimensions, i.e. honesty, enthusiasm and dedication, in the case of competencies and adverse law and order situation, political instability, land issues, energy crisis and weak authorization of project managers in the case of complexities. Leadership, management skill, communication skill, effectiveness and result orientation were identified as top quality traits required. The study concluded that there is a significant impact of management competencies and complexities on project performance.

Originality/value

The study contributes to a better understanding of how to improve performance in complex engineering infrastructure projects through adopting management competencies. It also empirically illustrates the relations among project management competencies, complexities and project performance. Although the research is grounded on public sector infrastructure projects, its findings may also be helpful for practices in project management of other sectors.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 19 November 2018

Rabia Manzoor, Abbas Murtaza Maken, Shujaat Ahmed Syed and Vaqar Ahmed

This study aims to examine the possible gains and challenges for the enhancement of bilateral trade ties between India and Pakistan. It is interested specifically in…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the possible gains and challenges for the enhancement of bilateral trade ties between India and Pakistan. It is interested specifically in analyzing and deliberating an attempt to identify the key challenges and bottlenecks in cross-border trade.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper offers in-depth case study of trade between India and Pakistan using time-series data and through various stake holders' interviews. As further discussed in the paper, the data investigation and interviews highlight impediments in India–Pakistan trade from trade policy to other policies involved in this process.

Findings

Based on time series data and stakeholders’ interviews, the study concludes that poor trade logistics and abysmal transport infrastructure, high tariffs and non-tariff measures, lengthy customary procedures, heavy import duties, port restrictions, lack of appropriate storage facilities, strict visa regime, financial transaction barriers and lack of telecommunication facilities are the major challenges in the way of regional trade.

Originality/value

The study proposes some key reforms and policy measures to boost the formal trade to minimize the trade obstacles such as public–private partnerships and inclusion of private sector in a joint trade commission to strength the business relations between the two countries.

Details

Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-0024

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Article
Publication date: 31 October 2018

Amjad Iqbal, Fawad Latif, Frederic Marimon, Umar Farooq Sahibzada and Saddam Hussain

The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the effects of knowledge management (KM) enablers on KM processes in research universities and testing the direct…

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2317

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the effects of knowledge management (KM) enablers on KM processes in research universities and testing the direct relation between KM processes and OP. This study also proposes to examine the mediating role of intellectual capital (IC) and innovation in the relationship between KM processes and performance of universities.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 217 academic and administrative personnel from research universities of Pakistan, the hypothesized relationships were tested through partial least squares structural equation modeling technique.

Findings

The results reveal that KM enablers have a significant impact on KM processes. The results also indicate that KM processes influence organizational performance (OP) directly and indirectly through innovation and IC.

Practical implications

Findings of this study reinforce the corporate experience of KM and suggest how administrators of research universities and higher educational institutions can promote innovation and IC, which in turn enhance OP.

Originality/value

Despite the augmented importance of KM in higher education institutions or research universities, there is a dearth of studies that investigate the interplay of KM, innovation, IC and OP. This is one of the earliest studies that not only empirically investigate the interaction of KM enablers, KM processes and performance of research universities but also shed insights into the existing literature by simultaneously investigating mediating role of IC and innovation in the underlying relationship.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2018

Imran Ali, Ata Ul Musawir and Murad Ali

This study aims to propose an integrated model to examine the impact of knowledge governance, knowledge sharing and absorptive capacity (ACAP) on project performance in…

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2009

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to propose an integrated model to examine the impact of knowledge governance, knowledge sharing and absorptive capacity (ACAP) on project performance in the context of project-based organizations (PBOs). This study also examines the moderating role of social processes on the relationships among these variables.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the proposed model, cross-sectional data were collected regarding projects from 133 PBOs in Pakistan’s information technology/software industry. The data were analyzed using the partial least squares – structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) method and PRCOESS tool. Finally, this study also uses causal asymmetry analysis to check asymmetric relationship in the key constructs.

Findings

The results generally support the proposed model. Knowledge governance and knowledge sharing are important antecedents for improving the ACAP of the project, which in turn significantly improves project performance. Additionally, social processes positively moderate the relationship between knowledge sharing and ACAP, as well as between ACAP and project performance.

Research limitations/implications

The findings suggest that PBOs should invest in developing a knowledge governance system that guides and stimulates knowledge sharing within and between projects. This would boost the ACAP of projects and lead to superior project performance.

Originality/value

This study addresses the important issue of knowledge management in IT/software projects. It proposes a unique model that integrates the key constructs of knowledge management and describes their effect on project performance.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 23 July 2020

Vic Benuyenah and Bharti Pandya

In this study, the authors build on the current frameworks of happiness provided by the PERMA model, the World Happiness Report Index and the theoretical framework…

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1245

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, the authors build on the current frameworks of happiness provided by the PERMA model, the World Happiness Report Index and the theoretical framework provided by the proponents of job-satisfaction model, motivation, employee engagement and commitment. The authors argue that, the existing theoretical framework in the management and the HR literature are just different aspects of a common goal – happiness. This position is consistent with the overall happiness projects championed by governments across the world, including the UK, Bhutan, several Scandinavian nations and essentially the United Arab Emirates. A chasm that currently exists in the literature is the availability of a universally acceptable definition for happiness and protocols for measuring happiness. The authors conclude that more research is required to keep pace with industry development relating to employee happiness initiatives.

Design/methodology/approach

Using quasi-literature review, the authors analysed selected studies on the theory of happiness to identify how each have treated the concept of happiness in organisations.

Findings

It is erroneous to promote national or international happiness initiatives without starting from the micro level – in this case, the institutions of society should start measuring happiness from the micro level to help understand what happiness actually means.

Research limitations/implications

As an opinion piece, its recommendations need to be applied cautiously.

Originality/value

Till date, only a few studies have explored the concept of happiness from micro-organisational level.

Details

Rajagiri Management Journal, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-9968

Keywords

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