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Book part
Publication date: 15 October 2020

Sida Liu

Professionals often dislike dirty work, yet they accommodate or even embrace it in everyday practice. This chapter problematizes Andrew Abbott’s professional purity thesis…

Abstract

Professionals often dislike dirty work, yet they accommodate or even embrace it in everyday practice. This chapter problematizes Andrew Abbott’s professional purity thesis by examining five major forms of impurities in professional work, namely impurity in expertise, impurity in jurisdictions, impurity in clients, impurity in organizations, and impurity in politics. These impurities complicate the relationship between purity and status as some impurities may enhance professional status while others may jeopardize it, especially when the social origins of professionals are rapidly diversifying and professional work is increasingly intertwined with the logics of market and bureaucracy. Taking impurities seriously can help the sociology of professions move beyond the idealistic image of an independent, disinterested professional detached from human emotions, turf battles, client influence, and organizational or political forces and towards a more pragmatic understanding of professional work, expertise, ethics and the nature of professionalism.

Details

Professional Work: Knowledge, Power and Social Inequalities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-210-9

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2021

E.V. Gijo

The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the application of the tools and techniques of Quality by Design (QbD) approach in an Indian pharmaceutical drug product…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the application of the tools and techniques of Quality by Design (QbD) approach in an Indian pharmaceutical drug product manufacturing company and to understand the challenges, managerial implications and lessons learned while implementing this initiative.

Design/methodology/approach

This work adopts the Action Research methodology for impurity reduction in a drug product manufacturing company in India by using the tools and techniques of QbD approach. Various QbD tools like Design of experiments, process capability evaluation and control charts were effectively utilized for the study.

Findings

As a part of QbD implementation in the organization, a specific drug product was identified and the impurity level in the product was studied. Significant variables impacting the impurity were identified and the optimum levels for the significant variables were identified through design of experiments. The solutions were implemented and the impurity levels were reduced significantly.

Research limitations/implications

Even though the article is based on a single case study related to tools and techniques of QbD in a single organization in India, the identified problem is a generic product quality related issue for any pharmaceutical drug product manufacturing company. Hence the findings of this research are applicable to pharmaceutical drug manufacturing industry in general.

Originality/value

This article illustrates the systematic usage of various tools and techniques of QbD methodology in a pharmaceutical drug product manufacturing company. The usage of Design of Experiments for process optimization and application of other tools and techniques are ready references for the practitioners and novice users in the field.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1987

Niru Nigam and Mrs Kumkum Srivastava

Sulphates, chlorides, nitrates and oxidising agents were studied as impurities in sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid. Presence of chlorides inhibited the dissolution of…

Abstract

Sulphates, chlorides, nitrates and oxidising agents were studied as impurities in sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid. Presence of chlorides inhibited the dissolution of mild steel in sulphuric acid whereas presence of nitrates and oxidising agents accelerated the reaction. In the case of hydrochloric acid, mild steel dissolution was inhibited by sulphate impurities and was accelerated by nitrates and oxidising agents. Ipomoea and Amaranthus (5%) were used as inhibitors. Both of them showed good performance in the two acids in the presence of impurities.

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Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1983

Y. DEPEURSINGE, L. GUEX, J.M. MORET and P. WEISS

We have simulated the technological processes for the well formation in CMOS technology. The general problem of coupled impurities diffusion under oxidizing conditions has…

Abstract

We have simulated the technological processes for the well formation in CMOS technology. The general problem of coupled impurities diffusion under oxidizing conditions has been treated by the finite‐element method. The obtained results have been compared to measured profiles. The study of the influence of the technological parameters on the well's structures allowed us to optimize the lateral diffusion, as well as the effects of the field oxidation.

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COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1991

G. Becker

German silver was tinned at three temperatures with solder containing 17 different impurities at up to five different concentration levels. The tinning process was carried…

Abstract

German silver was tinned at three temperatures with solder containing 17 different impurities at up to five different concentration levels. The tinning process was carried out in a wetting balance. After this, the samples were subjected to corrosion and tested in a wetting balance again. It was established that bismuth at high concentration levels has a corrosion resistant effect which gives superior solderability. Silver, aluminium, bismuth, cadmium and copper, in amounts accepted by specifications, make the tinned surface unsolderable after corrosion. Statistical evaluation of a large number of tests — 1755 tests with 21,060 evaluated points — gave valuable information on how a wetting balance curve should be evaluated and which criteria should be established for good soldering.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1984

D. COLLARD and J.N. DECARPIGNY

The finite element method is used to solve the non‐linear diffusion equation, taking account of the interaction between impurities due to self‐induced electric field and…

Abstract

The finite element method is used to solve the non‐linear diffusion equation, taking account of the interaction between impurities due to self‐induced electric field and charged vacancies effects, and of various boundary conditions (evaporation, segregation, oxidation growth…). An incomplete implicit scheme gives the solution of the temporal equation deduced from a quadratic space discretization. The temporal and spatial problems being proved to be quite independent, specific locally refined meshes are developed. The quadratic shape functions allow the use of evolutive mesh for the oxidation simulation without profile degradation. Two realistic industrial steps are described to demonstrate the efficiency of the code.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2008

Juozas Padgurskas, Raimundas Rukuiza, Arunas Amulevicius, Ceslovas Sipavicius, Kestutis Mazeika, Rimantas Davidonis, Antanas Daugvila and Henrikas Cesiulis

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of fluor‐oligomeric coat on the mechanical properties of steel surface, as well as the chemical interaction of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of fluor‐oligomeric coat on the mechanical properties of steel surface, as well as the chemical interaction of fluor‐oligomeric films with surface and theoretical‐phenomenological interpretation of structural processes in friction surface.

Design/methodology/approach

Four groups of specimens were studied: two groups of specimens without any wear tests – initial steel specimen as control version and a specimen which was ten times coated by fluor‐oligomer, and two groups of specimens, which were tribologically tested for one million cycles – without any coating and coated specimens. Closed kinematical profile scheme roller‐roller of steel 45 was chosen for tribological tests. Wear of friction surface after those tests was investigated. The interaction between fluor‐oligomer and iron was studied by means of Mössbauer spectroscopy. The micro‐hardness of matrix was also measured.

Findings

Affecting the surface of steel by the fluor‐oligomer and friction produces the complicated processes of carbide decay and formation occur. The mechanisms are found which are related to the weakening of chemical bond in steel during the absorption, to the generation of microscopic ruptures, to the decrease (30‐50 per cent) of the amount of carbides and its increase during the friction (up to 50 per cent). The mechanical effect which causes the regeneration of carbides during friction is revealed. Tribological efficiency of fluor‐oligomeric coats (five times lower wear of coated specimens) is explained by the balance of three processes – the softening of matrix during adsorption, the detention of dislocations, and formation of hard particles in the matrix.

Originality/value

The complex mechanism of the increase of wear resistance is explained by filling of ductile matrix with carbide particles.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 60 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1990

E.N. STEFANOV and A.M. ASENOV

The coupled set of non‐linear 2D diffusion equations for donor and acceptor type impurities with initial and appropriated boundary conditions is solved by an implicit…

Abstract

The coupled set of non‐linear 2D diffusion equations for donor and acceptor type impurities with initial and appropriated boundary conditions is solved by an implicit locally‐one dimensional finite difference method. Numerical experiments have been made to achieve a reasonable trade‐off between the desired accuracy and the CPU time. The algorithm was implemented to the process module of the 2‐D integrated process and device modeling system IMPEDANCE 2.0.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2011

Štefan Svetský

The purpose of this paper is to present the development and implementation of a system of test methods for determining the contamination level in cleaning baths and using…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the development and implementation of a system of test methods for determining the contamination level in cleaning baths and using this system for long‐term monitoring in printed circuit board (PCB) production.

Design/methodology/approach

A set of test methods was chosen that indicated the contamination of production cleaning baths in four chambers of an ultrasonic cleaning equipment filled with a commercial alkaline cleaner and isopropanol. By long‐term monitoring, the amount of mechanical impurities, residue‐on‐evaporation, pH and conductivity were measured. Depending on the contamination of the cleaning baths, the final contamination of PCB surfaces was predicted and the baths were replaced with fresh baths.

Findings

A novel system for testing and monitoring the contamination of cleaning baths was developed and implemented. The sustainable compliance with the specification was assured in PCB production, thus, the final PCB contamination achieved was under 1.5/1.2 μg NaCl/cm2 as measured using the IPC‐TM‐650 test method. Quality requirements were fulfilled. This novel system was successfully integrated into the company's quality management system.

Research limitations/implications

The set of test methods were used for an alkaline cleaner and isopropanol and for both a conventional solder and a lead‐free one. Because the course of bath contamination, monitored by the four test methods, was found to be proportional, further development should be focused on the issue – i.e. to determine if the “proportionality” would be universal for all types of PCB manufacturing.

Originality/value

The paper deals with a new approach for quality testing and assurance in PCB manufacturing. A set of test methods for monitoring contamination levels in production cleaning baths was implemented. This also supports process control and minimises the impact of cleaning processes on the environment (i.e. the production of waste from cleaning was reduced).

Details

Circuit World, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2003

Natalia Sedelnik

Following in the footsteps of pharmacy and food processing the textile industry makes recourse to enzymes on an increasing scale. Biotechnology makes the textile processes…

Abstract

Following in the footsteps of pharmacy and food processing the textile industry makes recourse to enzymes on an increasing scale. Biotechnology makes the textile processes more ecological. In the 1990's, attempts were made in Poland to lessen the undesirable effect of carbonization by using enzymes to remove vegetable impurities from wool. Pre-treatment of wool with an enzyme bath in the carbonizing process helped reduce the concentration of sulphuric acid from 6% to 1.5%. The developed technology of cleaning wool from vegetable impurities is conventionally described as the 'BIOCARBO of Wool'.

This paper presents the results of laboratory and technological trails of using enzymatic treatments for remove vegetable impurities from wool. Enzymes, which are complex proteins, are specifically active only in relation to certain substances. This is an advantage as far as grease wool is concerned, since wool and its vegetable impurities have different chemical structures. In addition, the properties of uncleaned wool and of wool cleaned by the biological method are discussed.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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