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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2021

Xuan Hau Doan, Trung Thanh Le, Cong Doanh Duong, Thi Phuong Linh Nguyen, Duc Dung Tran and Thi Phuong Hien Tran

This study aims to integrate predictions from clinical psychology and UPPS impulsivity with the theory of planned behaviors (TPB) to draw a conceptual framework and test…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to integrate predictions from clinical psychology and UPPS impulsivity with the theory of planned behaviors (TPB) to draw a conceptual framework and test the prediction that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, impulsivity would contribute to the prediction of the reasoned cognitive process of entrepreneurship over and above key predictors from an extended TPB model.

Design/methodology/approach

This study utilized a sample of 2,482 students from 14 universities/institutes in Vietnam; confirmatory factor analysis was employed to test the validity and reliability. Then, regression analysis with PROCESS macro approach (5,000 bootstrap sample and 95% confidence interval) was employed to estimate the association paths and multiple mediators.

Findings

The study reveals that ADHD symptoms and impulsivity substantially contribute to the exploration of an entrepreneurial intention throughout TPB predictors, with those higher in ADHD symptoms and impulsivity having higher intentions to engage in business venturing. Moreover, UPPS impulsiveness might valuably be incorporated with TPB predictors while predicting behaviors that are often examined as the process of rational cognitive strategies business venturing.

Practical implications

This study showed that a start-up business can be seen as a career choice for students who exhibit extensive ADHD symptoms to use their talents effectively, thus contributing to creating value for society and improving personal well-being.

Originality/value

This article stood to make contributions to entrepreneurship literature by investigating the effects of ADHD symptoms, four impulsivity traits on an entrepreneurial intention via three precursors in TPB, including attitude toward entrepreneurship, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control.

Details

Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-4323

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Article
Publication date: 27 August 2019

Eline L.E. De Vries and Bob M. Fennis

Using food brands as a case in point, the purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between a local vs global brand positioning strategy and buying impulsivity

Abstract

Purpose

Using food brands as a case in point, the purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between a local vs global brand positioning strategy and buying impulsivity, as well as the mediating role of construal level. The findings add a psychological argument to the array of reasons for firms to opt for a local instead of a global brand positioning strategy: local food brands promote higher levels of buying impulsivity than global brands by lowering consumers’ level of construal.

Design/methodology/approach

Five experiments use student and nonstudent samples, different construal level indices and generic and brand-specific buying impulsivity measures to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Local food brands promote higher levels of buying impulsivity than global brands by lowering consumers’ level of construal. Because local brands are proximal to consumers’ lifestyles, values, preferences and behaviors, they decrease the psychological distance between the brand and the consumer, compared with global brands. The smaller psychological distance lowers consumers’ construal level and renders the immediate, concrete, appetitive attributes of the product more salient, thus making consumers more prone to impulsively buy a local brand than a global one.

Practical implications

For the choice between a global or local brand positioning strategy, this paper argues in favor of the latter. Local (food) branding is a concrete brand positioning mechanism that can influence and benefit from consumers’ buying impulsivity.

Originality/value

The research reveals heretofore unknown but important implications of local vs global brand positioning strategies for consumers’ construal level and buying impulsivity.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Laura Evans, Maria Ioannou and Laura Hammond

The purpose of this paper is to develop a predictive model of criminal risk in civil psychiatric populations, by determining the relative impacts of psychopathy, drug use…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a predictive model of criminal risk in civil psychiatric populations, by determining the relative impacts of psychopathy, drug use, impulsivity and intelligence on levels of criminality.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consisted of 871 civil psychiatric patients, selected from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study, who had been diagnosed with a mental illness or personality disorder, and hospitalised less than 21 days. Each participant was administered the Hare Psychopathy Checklist Screening Version (PCL:SV), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R). In addition, information on background demographics, drug use and criminality was obtained via a self-report questionnaire.

Findings

Pearson correlations identified significant positive relationships between past arrests, psychopathy, impulsivity and drug use. Intelligence was negatively related to past arrests. Multiple regressions identified a significant main effect for Factor 2 psychopathy on past arrests when controlling for all covariates, but not for Factor 1 psychopathy, intelligence or impulsivity. Drug use and gender had small univariate effects.

Research limitations/implications

It is suggested that future research investigates the influence of specific mental disorders on different types of offending.

Originality/value

By investigating predictors of criminal behaviour in civil psychiatric patients, the present study makes valuable contributions to the research literature, enhancing our theoretical understanding of the relationships between psychopathy and criminality/recidivism. It also has notable implications in applied practice, for example in the development and refinement of risk assessment methods.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2021

Natalie Merinuk, Stephanie C. Varcoe, Peter J. Kelly and Laura D. Robinson

Substance use disorder (SUD) frequently co-occurs with other psychological conditions, such as eating disorders (EDs). Psychological factors such as emotional…

Abstract

Purpose

Substance use disorder (SUD) frequently co-occurs with other psychological conditions, such as eating disorders (EDs). Psychological factors such as emotional dysregulation, rash impulsivity (RI) and reward sensitivity (RS) play a role in the etiology of each disorder, yet little is known about the combined effects of these on comorbid SUDs and EDs or disordered eating behaviours (DEBs). This study aims to examine the role of these psychological factors in comorbid DEBs and SUDs among individuals in treatment for SUDs. The role of gender is tested as a moderator.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional self-report survey was completed by 131 participants attending Australian residential substance use treatment centres. A binomial logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the effects of emotional dysregulation, RI and RS on comorbid DEB and SUD. Further, moderation analyses were used to examine the moderating effect for gender on the relationship between these three personality variables and comorbidity.

Findings

The most commonly reported primary substance of use was alcohol (43.5%), followed by amphetamines (38.6%). Findings showed that emotional dysregulation and RI were significantly related to an increase in comorbidity likelihood; however, RS was not. Gender moderated the relationship between comorbidity and RI only.

Originality/value

The significant positive relationship found between RI and comorbidity for females only was a novel finding for the current study. Further research is needed to develop an understanding of the etiology of comorbidity.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2018

Karin Villaume, Susanne Tafvelin and Dan Hasson

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possible associations between health-relevant personality traits and adherence; and if these traits predict adherence to a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possible associations between health-relevant personality traits and adherence; and if these traits predict adherence to a web-based occupational health intervention.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 563 participants were analyzed using the Health-relevant Personality Inventory. Adherence measures were: logins, utilization of self-help exercises and time spent logged in.

Findings

Higher levels of antagonism (a facet of agreeableness) and impulsivity (a facet of conscientiousness) correlated to fewer logins, and higher levels of negative affectivity (a facet of neuroticism) and impulsivity correlated to a higher utilization of self-help exercises. Alexithymia (a facet of openness) negatively predicted self-help exercise utilization and antagonism was a positive predictor. Negative affectivity was a positive predictor of time spent logged in to the intervention. There were sex-related differences in outcomes.

Originality/value

This is the first study to investigate health-relevant personality traits in relation to adherence to a web-based occupational health intervention. The practical implications are that intervention developers could benefit from taking personality into consideration to better understand and improve adherence.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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Book part
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Corinna Laube and Wouter van den Bos

Teenagers are typically described as impulsive and risk taking. Yet recent research shows that this observation does not hold in all contexts. Rather, adolescents show…

Abstract

Teenagers are typically described as impulsive and risk taking. Yet recent research shows that this observation does not hold in all contexts. Rather, adolescents show higher impulsivity and risk taking than children or adults in affective contexts. Motivational and affective processes are therefore of particular interest when trying to understand typical adolescent behavior. Additionally, pubertal hormones are hypothesized to play a special role in adolescents’ motivated decision making. However, evidence for the mechanisms underlying this relationship is sparse. In this chapter, we aim to integrate findings from human and animal studies in order to elucidate the specific impact of pubertal hormones on motivational processes in adolescence. Against this background, we critically discuss and reinterpret recent findings in psychology and neuroscience, speculate about underlying mechanisms, and suggest new approaches for future studies of adolescent behavior.

Details

Recent Developments in Neuroscience Research on Human Motivation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-474-7

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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2013

Hugh Klein

Previous studies have shown a link between mental health functioning and involvement in HIV risk practices. The present research examines how well one specific group of…

Abstract

Previous studies have shown a link between mental health functioning and involvement in HIV risk practices. The present research examines how well one specific group of men who have sex with other men (MSM) fare in terms of their mental health functioning, and then focuses on how mental health functioning relates to HIV risk practices in this population. The study was based on a national random sample of 332 MSM who use the Internet to seek men with whom they can engage in unprotected sex. Data collection was conducted via telephone interviews between January 2008 and May 2009. Depression is more common among men in this population than in the adult male population-at-large. All other measures of mental health functioning that were examined (self-esteem, impulsivity, current life satisfaction, optimism about the future) indicated low rates of mental health problem. Contrary to expectations, in nearly all instances, mental health functioning was not related to HIV risk practices.

More work needs to be done to understand the causes of depression among these men, and to assess how, if at all, depression relates to risk practices in this population. These findings suggest that factors other than mental health problems must be considered if one wishes to understand HIV risk taking in this population.

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2014

Jennifer Jane Barton, Tanya Meade, Steven Cumming and Anthony Samuels

– The purpose of this paper is to examine the predictors of self-harm in male inmates.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the predictors of self-harm in male inmates.

Design/methodology/approach

Male inmates with and without a background of self-harm (i.e. suicidal and non-suicidal) were compared across two distal (static and trait) and two proximal (environmental and current/state psychological) domains. The factors from the four domains which may accurately classify self-harm history were also examined.

Findings

The two groups were significantly different across the four domains, particularly on psychological characteristics. The self-harm group was associated with childhood trauma, violent offences, institutional misconducts and lower levels of social support significantly more than the non-self-harm group. Being single, childhood abuse, impulsivity, antisocial personality disorder and global psychopathology were the five key predictors that contributed to 87.4 per cent of all cases being correctly classified.

Practical implications

The high levels of psychiatric morbidity and childhood trauma in the self-harm group indicated a need for interventions that address emotional and interpersonal difficulties and optimization of adaptive coping skills. Also, interventions may require a focus on the behavioural functions.

Originality/value

A novel approach was taken to the grouping of the variables. A comprehensive range of variables, was assessed simultaneously, including some not previously considered indicators, and in an understudied population, Australian male inmates. The lower levels of agreeableness, conscientiousness and generalized anxiety disorder which distinguished the self-harm and non-self-harm group, were newly identified for self-harm.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Dave Williams, Leann Collingwood, James Coles and Stefanie Schmeer

Interventions intended to aid offender re-entry, rehabilitation and desistence based around specific sports and championed by sporting institutions have been introduced in…

Abstract

Purpose

Interventions intended to aid offender re-entry, rehabilitation and desistence based around specific sports and championed by sporting institutions have been introduced in custodial settings. Though research evaluating these is positive (Meek, 2012), conclusions are often hampered by the absence of control groups in such work. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the Saracens “Get Onside” rugby-based intervention at HMP YOI Feltham, while employing a non-randomised control group.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 24 young offenders took part. Those in the treatment condition experienced a ten-week course which included a range of activities leading to accredited awards, exercises in functional skills in literacy/numeracy and 72 hours of rugby sessions. Those in the control condition were matched on key static factors, crime attitudes and aggression. Self-reported measures of pro-crime attitudes, aggression, self-esteem, and impulsivity were taken once before the start, once during, and at the end of the course for both groups.

Findings

As predicted, self-reported scores measuring attitudes towards aggression and crime did differ significantly across groups, with those experiencing the intervention showing more positive values by the end of treatment compared with others. However, measures of impulsiveness and self-esteem showed no change.

Research limitations/implications

Revisions are suggested in respect of both the self-esteem and impulsivity measures, and future work needs better control over the match between treatment and comparison groups.

Originality/value

Concerns over the potentially iatrogenic effects of contact sport interventions with offender groups may be misplaced, and the benefits of sporting interventions are replicated in a between groups design.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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Article
Publication date: 10 September 2018

Michael Lyvers, Valli Jones, Mark Edwards, Kim Wood and Fred Arne Thorberg

The treatment of severe and chronic substance dependence is challenged by high rates of treatment attrition, highlighting the need to identify factors that hinder…

Abstract

Purpose

The treatment of severe and chronic substance dependence is challenged by high rates of treatment attrition, highlighting the need to identify factors that hinder treatment retention. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study examined certain neurocognitive and personality traits in relation to treatment retention in a sample of 46 residents of an Australian therapeutic community (TC). The traits examined were previously found to be associated with problematic substance use in non-clinical samples and were also previously shown to differentiate TC clients from social drinkers. The hypothesis was thus that traits that appear to be risk factors for addictions are also likely to impact on TC treatment retention.

Findings

Group comparisons of those retained for more than the recommended 90 days vs those who left treatment prematurely showed that after controlling for the influence of depression, those who left treatment prematurely reported significantly higher levels of trait impulsivity, punishment sensitivity and executive cognitive dysfunction. There was a very high rate of alexithymia in the sample (52 per cent), but alexithymia was unrelated to retention.

Research limitations/implications

The final sample size was less than planned but reflected the strict participation criteria and temporal limitations of this study. No statistical assumptions were violated and the reliability indices of the scales completed by clients ranged from acceptable to excellent. Another limitation was that dropout cannot be assumed to mean relapse, as the reasons for client dropout were not available.

Originality/value

Findings highlight the important roles of trait factors in TC treatment retention in addition to the motivational and interpersonal factors identified in previous work.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

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