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Article

Junhua Zhang, Jianping Yuan, Wei Wang and Jiao Wang

The purpose of this paper is to obtain the reachable domain (RD) for spacecraft with a single normal impulse while considering both time and impulse constraints.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to obtain the reachable domain (RD) for spacecraft with a single normal impulse while considering both time and impulse constraints.

Design/methodology/approach

The problem of RD is addressed in an analytical approach by analyzing for either the initial maneuver point or the impulse magnitude being arbitrary. The trajectories are considered lying in the intersection of a plane and an ellipsoid of revolution, whose family can be determined analytically. Moreover, the impulse and time constraints are considered while formulating the problem. The upper bound of impulse magnitude, “high consumption areas” and the change of semi-major axis and eccentricity are discussed.

Findings

The equations of RD with a single normal impulse are analytically obtained. The equations of three scenarios are obtained. If normal impulse is too large, the RD cannot be obtained. The change of the semi-major axis and eccentricity with large normal impulse is more obvious. For long-term missions, the change of semi-major axis and eccentricity leaded by multiple normal impulses should be considered.

Practical implications

The RD gives the pre-defined region (all positions accessible) for a spacecraft under a given initial orbit and a normal impulse with certain magnitude.

Originality/value

The RD for spacecraft with normal impulse can be used for non-coplanar orbital transfers, emergency evacuation after failure of rendezvous and docking and collision avoidance.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Book part

Laura Upenieks and William Magee

The malicious impulse is a phenomenon that lies in the theoretical and ontological space between emotion and action. In this chapter, we probe this space. In the empirical…

Abstract

Purpose

The malicious impulse is a phenomenon that lies in the theoretical and ontological space between emotion and action. In this chapter, we probe this space. In the empirical part of this work, we evaluate the hypothesis that middle-level supervisors will be more likely than non-supervisory workers and top-level supervisors to report an impulse to “hurt someone you work with” (i.e., maliciousness).

Methodology/approach

Data are from a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of employed Toronto residents in 2004–2005.

Findings

Results from logistic regression analyses show that when job characteristics are controlled, the estimated difference between middle-level supervisors and workers in other hierarchical positions reporting the impulse to harm a coworker is statistically significant. Moreover, the difference between middle-level supervisors and other workers persist after controls for anger about work and job-related stress.

Social Implications

In discussing our results, we focus on factors that might generate the observed associations, and on how Bourdieusian theory may be used to interpret the social patterning of impulses in general, and malicious impulses in particular. We also discuss the implications of our findings for emotional intelligence in the workplace.

Details

Emotions and Organizational Governance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-998-5

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Article

Ivar Friis and Allan Hansen

– This paper aims to explore the role of line-item budgeting in film production in an effort to illustrate the positive effects that budgetary constraints can have on creativity.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the role of line-item budgeting in film production in an effort to illustrate the positive effects that budgetary constraints can have on creativity.

Design/methodology/approach

Using Elster’s (2000) constraint theory as a basis for the research, this paper conducted a case study on the making of a Danish adventure film and analysed the role budgeting plays from the film director’s point of view.

Findings

This paper suggests that the constraints of the line-item budget imposed on the director had positive effects in terms of the pre-commitments entailed, which aided in protecting the director against the negative aspects of passion (e.g. distorted thought processes, myopia and weakness of will) in the creative process and in terms of the ability of the constraints to channel creativity in certain directions, thus preventing the availability of too many options from hampering the creative process.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to management control research in two ways. By addressing calls to provide more insight into the positive effects management control constraints might have on creativity, this study explores somewhat ignored aspects of line-item budgeting, adding greater insight into the interrelations between creativity and control. By exploring the ways in which line-item budgeting might take on the role of pre-commitment advice and devices in the creative process, this paper further exposes the links between accounting constraints and self-control.

Details

Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1176-6093

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Article

Dwane H. Dean

A recent discovery related to risk behavior is the finding that neurobiological development of impulse control in young people greatly lags that of cognitive evaluation of…

Abstract

Purpose

A recent discovery related to risk behavior is the finding that neurobiological development of impulse control in young people greatly lags that of cognitive evaluation of risk. This suggests that self‐control could be an important variable in risk perception. The goal of the present study is investigation of the relationship between self‐control and perceived physical risk to self in off‐road motorcycling.

Design/methodology/approach

Consistent with the age range in which the developmental lag between impulse control and cognitive evaluation of risk occurs, a sample of subjects aged 18‐24 was chosen. All respondents reported at least some experience in off‐road motorcycling. Subjects filled‐out paper and pencil questionnaires addressing perceived physical risk to themselves, level of experience in the sport, relative skill, expected fun, level of self‐control, and estimated risk for an average other participant in dirt‐biking.

Findings

Self‐control exhibited a significant, inverse correlation with perceived risk to self, and this variable had a significant negative regression coefficient in multiple regression predicting risk to self. Also, self‐control was found to have little correlation to other predicting variables, suggesting that it exerts a relatively unique influence on risk to self.

Research limitations/implications

Data were not collected within a field setting and respondents did not experience the vibrancy of emotions of the live sport or the social influence of other bikers. This may have diminished the effects of these factors on perceived risk.

Practical implications

A non‐significant correlation was found for skill and perceived risk to self, suggesting that prospective participants in the sport might not let their initial lack of skill deter them from the activity. Additionally, expected fun increased with increasing experience, suggesting that participants are self‐motivated to repeat the activity.

Originality/value

Self‐control has received no apparent attention as a factor influencing perceived risk in sport. Findings from the present study suggest that this variable has a strong influence, at least in young people.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article

Maurice Yolles

Pluralities of personality schemas reside across different Maruyama universes suggesting incommensurability and isolation. Schemas may migrate across Maruyama universes…

Abstract

Purpose

Pluralities of personality schemas reside across different Maruyama universes suggesting incommensurability and isolation. Schemas may migrate across Maruyama universes given appropriate means. As illustration, the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) schema for personality temperament is migrated into a sociocognitive schema through the intermediary of knowledge cybernetics (KC). MBTI is a type approach that operates with polar opposites; however, conceptually there is no reason for it not to be associated with a trait space. Supposing that MBTI has traits at some horizon of meaning, then since traits are responsible for the creation of enduring states, sociocognitive explanations should be able to explain the stable states consistent with a variation of the McCrae and Costa proposition. As a result this paper aims to formulate for the first time a link between the MBTI type schema, a trait space, and a capacity for sociocultural descriptions.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses the meta‐framework of KC, part of the relevantial universe identified by Maruyama, to formulate a representation of MBTI. This also appears to be the first serious use of the Maruyama universe concept, and the first time that MBTI has been explored from a relevantial perspective. A consequence is the possible development of a more sophisticated trait theory that is capable of providing more complex information about personality.

Findings

The findings indicate that a more complex form of type theory is possible than has been provided by MBTI.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is limited to the investigation of MBTI. However, it offers a generic approach that can be applied to other solitary theories like MBTI. It also postulates a trait basis for the MBTI type approach.

Practical implications

The paper leads to the possibility of improved explanatory power for a type theory than is currently possible.

Originality/value

The paper adopts for the first time a relevantial meta‐framework approach to explore a development of MBTI. It has value to those researchers who may wish to explore the potential of more complex forms of type personality theory than are currently available.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Article

Chuck Huff, Laura Barnard and William Frey

The purpose of this paper is to present a four component model of ethical behavior (PRIMES) that integrates literature in moral psychology, computing ethics, and virtue…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a four component model of ethical behavior (PRIMES) that integrates literature in moral psychology, computing ethics, and virtue ethics as informed by research on moral exemplars in computing. This is part 1 of a two‐part contribution.

Design/methodology/approach

This psychologically based and philosophically informed model argues that moral action is: grounded in relatively stable PeRsonality characteristics (PR); guided by integration of morality into the self‐system; shaped by the context of the surrounding moral ecology; and facilitated by morally relevant skills and knowledge (S).

Findings

The model seeks to explain the daily successful (and unsuccessful) performance of moral action by computing professionals and to provide groundwork for a pedagogy that emphasizes ethically effective performance.

Practical implications

The model has significant implications for how ethical action might be taught to computer professionals and other design professionals. It also makes recommendations about what is needed to measure to construct a complete picture of sustained ethical action in a profession.

Originality/value

Most accepted models of ethical behavior are unidimensional, emphasizing either principled reasoning or a simplistic model of integrity/character. This model brings together a variety of disparate literatures in the light of its emphasis on sustained moral action in the profession. It thereby provides researchers and educators with a picture of what is needed to construct a complete understanding of moral action in the profession.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

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Article

Maurice Yolles, Gerhard Fink and Daniel Dauber

Modelling the organisation to enable purposeful analysis and diagnosis of its ills is often problematic. This is illustrated by the unconnected non‐synergistic plurality…

Abstract

Purpose

Modelling the organisation to enable purposeful analysis and diagnosis of its ills is often problematic. This is illustrated by the unconnected non‐synergistic plurality of organisational models each of which relates to a particular isolated frame of thought and purpose. A cybernetic approach is adopted to create a generic psychosocial model for the organisation that is used to characterise its emergent normative personality. Organisations are often complex, and seeing them in terms of their normative personality can reduce the complexity and enable a better understanding of their pathologies. This paper seeks to do two things. The first is to show that it is possible to set up a generic model of the organisation as an agency, and the second is to show that this same model can also be represented in the alternative terms of the emergent normative personality. In order to do this, an understanding of what it is that constitutes generic criteria is required. In addition, the paper shall show that organisational and personality theories can be connected generically. One of the consequences of the theory is that the patterns of behaviour which occur in an agency have underlying trait control processes.

Design/methodology/approach

A meta‐systemic view of the organisation is adopted through knowledge cybernetics that enables more flexibility and formality when viewing organisational models. The paper develops a formal generic model of the organisation that should facilitate the exploration of problem situations both theoretically and empirically.

Findings

The outcome of the research formulates the cognitive processes of normative personality as a feasible way of explaining organisations and provide a capacity to analyse and predict the likelihood of their behavioural conduct and misconduct. As an agency trait model, agency explains the socio‐cognitive aspects of self‐organisation and the efficacy of connections between the traits. These traits control the personality, and inter‐trait connections are Piagetian intelligences that orient the traits and work through forms of first‐ and second‐order autopoiesis. The development of a typology of pathologies is also suggested as feasible.

Originality/value

There are previous metaphorical notions that link agency with traits. Here, metaphor is extended to produce a formal model for the emergent normative personality. This is the first time that socio‐cognitive and trait approaches are formally linked, as it is the fist time that a typology for organisational pathologies is proposed.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 40 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Article

Gordon L. Anderson

Liberal education should consist of a healthy dynamic of mastering and transcending received traditions. This paper aims to discuss this point.

Abstract

Purpose

Liberal education should consist of a healthy dynamic of mastering and transcending received traditions. This paper aims to discuss this point.

Design/methodology/approach

This article discusses the inherent tension between the concepts of “liberal” and “education,” where “education” involves imparting conventional knowledge and “liberal” involves freeing the mind from it.

Findings

With the rise of the social sciences and the maturation of the baby-boomers, higher education in the twentieth century gained a general bias against traditional knowledge. This bias is reflected in higher education becoming more jobs oriented, more ideological, and relativistic in values.

Practical implications

Higher education should consist of greater integration of historical aspects of education pushed aside in the twentieth-century while continuing its transformation through new scientific research, making twenty-first century education more genuinely liberal.

Originality/value

The required transformation will be difficult for many baby-boomers now in positions of authority in higher education who rejected conventional knowledge in the 1960s.

Details

On the Horizon, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1074-8121

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Article

Francisco Rubio, Francisco Valero, Joseph Sunyer and Juan Cuadrado

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of the torque, power, jerk and energy consumed constraints on the generation of minimum time collision‐free trajectories…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of the torque, power, jerk and energy consumed constraints on the generation of minimum time collision‐free trajectories for industrial robots in a complex environment.

Design/methodology/approach

An algorithm is presented in which the trajectory is generated under real working constraints (specifically torque, power, jerk and energy consumed). It also takes into account the presence of obstacles (to avoid collisions) and the dynamics of the robotic system. The method solves an optimization problem to find the minimum time trajectory to perform the tasks the robot should do.

Findings

Important conclusions have been reached when solving the trajectory planning problem related to the value of the torque, power, jerk and energy consumed and the relationship between them, therefore enabling the user to choose the most efficient way of working depending on which parameter he is most interested in optimizing. From the examples solved the authors have found the relationship between the maximum and minimum values of the parameters studied.

Research limitations/implications

This new approach tries to model the real behaviour of the actuators in order to be able to upgrade the trajectory quality, so a lot of work has to be done in this field.

Practical implications

The algorithm solves the trajectory planning problem for any industrial robot and the real characteristics of the actuators are taken into account, which is essential to improve the performance of it.

Originality/value

This new tool enables the performance of the robot to be improved by combining adequately the values of the mentioned parameters (torque, power, jerk and consumed energy).

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article

Gerhard Fink and Maurice Yolles

While emotions and feelings arise in the singular personality, they may also develop a normative dimensionality in a plural agency. The authors identify the cybernetic…

Abstract

Purpose

While emotions and feelings arise in the singular personality, they may also develop a normative dimensionality in a plural agency. The authors identify the cybernetic systemic principles of how emotions might be normatively regulated and affect plural agency performance. The purpose of this paper is to develop a generic cultural socio-cognitive trait theory of plural affective agency (the emotional organization), involving interactive cognitive and affective traits, and these play a role within the contexts of Mergers and Acquisitions (M & A).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors integrate James Gross’ model of emotion regulation with the earlier work on normative personality in the context of Mindset Agency Theory. The agency is a socio-cognitive entity with attitude, and operates through traits that control thinking and decision making. These traits are epistemically independent and operate on a bipolar scale; with the alternate poles having an auxiliary function to each other – where the traits may take intermediary “balanced” states between the poles.

Findings

Processes of affect regulation are supposed to go through three stages: first, identification (affective situation awareness); second, elaboration of affect is constituted through schemas of emotional feeling, which include emotion ideologies generating emotional responses to distinct contextual situations; third, execution: in the operative system primary emotions are assessed through operative intelligence for any adaptive information and the capacity to organize action; and turned into action, i.e. responses, through cultural feeling rules and socio-cultural display rules, conforming to emotion ideologies.

Research limitations/implications

This new theory provides guidance for framing multilevel interaction where smaller collectives (as social systems) are embedded into larger social systems with a culture, an emotional climate and institutions. Thus, it is providing a generic theoretical frame for M & A analyses, where a smaller social unit (the acquired) is to be integrated into a larger social unit (the acquirer).

Practical implications

Understanding interdependencies between cognition and emotion regulation is a prerequisite of managerial intelligence, which is at demand during M & A processes. While managerial intelligence may be grossly defined as the capacity of management to find an appropriate and fruitful balance between action and learning orientation of an organization, its affective equivalent is the capacity of management to find a fruitful balance between established emotion expression and learning alternate forms of emotion expression.

Social implications

Understanding interdependencies between cognition and emotion is a prerequisite of social, cultural and emotional intelligence. The provided theory can be easily linked with empirical work on the emergence of a cultural climate of fear within societies. Thus, “Affective Agency Theory” also has a bearing for political systems’ analysis, what, however, is beyond the scope of this paper.

Originality/value

The paper builds on the recently developed Mindset Agency Theory, elaborating it through the introduction of the dimension of affect, where cognitive and affective traits interact and become responsible for patterns of behaviour. The model is providing a framework which links emotion expression and emotion regulation with cognitive analysis.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 2000