Search results

1 – 10 of over 27000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Birgit Schyns

The purpose of this paper is explore the role that the implicit leadership theories held by followers and supervisors play in the performance appraisals of specific…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is explore the role that the implicit leadership theories held by followers and supervisors play in the performance appraisals of specific leaders, as well as in the promotion recommendations to higher levels of management that these leaders receive. In particular, the focus of this paper is on the degree of match between the general images held by supervisors and followers of how leaders are/should be (i.e. implicit leadership theories), and the concrete perceptions that these supervisors and followers have of the actual leaders in question.

Design/methodology/approach

Several propositions are established taking into account the moderating role of implicit leadership theories in the relationship between performance, on the one hand, and performance evaluation and promotion recommendations, on the other hand. These propositions are based on evidence of discrimination against women and ethnic minority groups when it comes to evaluations and promotion recommendations. Recommendations for organisational practice are derived from the issues discussed.

Findings

When there is a poor match between a supervisor's implicit leadership theories and his or her perception of a subordinate leader, this leader's performance appraisal and promotion chances are believed to decrease. In a similar manner, the implicit leadership theories of followers may influence their appraisal of a leader's performance.

Originality/value

This is the first time that implicit leadership theories are connected to leaders’ careers. This connection is made both in the context of equal opportunities for leaders and in the context of optimising decisions in organisations. The implicit leadership theories of both followers and supervisors need to be taken into account when evaluating and promoting leaders.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

Sabine Hommelhoff

The purpose of this paper is to take a new look at an old idea: since McGregor’s work in the 1960s, it is common knowledge that managers’ implicit theories about their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to take a new look at an old idea: since McGregor’s work in the 1960s, it is common knowledge that managers’ implicit theories about their followers can have self-fulfilling consequences. Surprisingly, McGregor’s work has largely remained within the bounds of employee motivation and has not met with a wide response in related fields such as service management. Assuming that managers do not only hold implicit theories of their followers but also of their customers (i.e. implicit customer theories), this paper transfers McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y to the service context. It further derives a framework of possible consistencies and inconsistencies between management styles and service strategies, depending on implicit managerial theories about the average employee and customer.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual paper integrates a management classic, current empirical findings, and media reports into a new line of thought.

Findings

This paper develops and undergirds the thesis that it is conducive to the development of trustful and productive relationships both with customers and followers if managers proceed from confident assumptions about them, thereby activating virtuous circles instead of vicious cycles.

Originality/value

This paper links concepts from the organizational domain to the service domain. It implies a normative component in arguing for the productive potential of positive and the destructive potential of negative assumptions about both followers and customers. The value of this idea lies in the potential for positive relational dynamics and better customer and workplace relationships.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 April 2015

Olusegun Babalola and Nealia Sue Bruning

Contemporary careers research suggests that individuals are more likely to be proactive about their careers when they possess an internal, rather than an external locus of…

Abstract

Purpose

Contemporary careers research suggests that individuals are more likely to be proactive about their careers when they possess an internal, rather than an external locus of control (LOC). The purpose of this paper is to adopt the view that individuals can be both external and proactive depending on whether or not they possess an incremental implicit theory.

Design/methodology/approach

Self-administered surveys were completed by 127 employed individuals in Nigeria. These surveys were used to gather information on individuals’ external LOC, protean and boundaryless career orientations and implicit theory beliefs.

Findings

Results indicated partial support for positive relationships between external LOC and contemporary career orientations and that an incremental implicit theory can have a positive moderating effect on the relationship between an external LOC belief in chance and the values-driven protean career orientation.

Research limitations/implications

The study was based on a cross-sectional study in one time period and all information was self-report.

Practical implications

The results suggest that HR managers that operate in global environments should consider the importance of individual implicit theory and on career orientations and take a broader view of the role of internal and external LOC.

Social implications

The study questions whether predominant perspectives of the relationship between proactive career orientations and internal LOC applies to contexts where external LOC predominate.

Originality/value

This study is unique in the examination of positive relationships between implicit theory, external LOC and contemporary career orientations. Furthermore, the study examines these relationships in an unstable and unpredictable work environment context, Nigeria, where such positive relationships are highly necessary to improve the career self-management of individuals.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 May 2020

Yongyong Yang, Wendian Shi, Beina Zhang, Youming Song and Dezhen Xu

The purpose of this paper is to explore the structure, implicit attitude and consequences of followers' implicit followership theories in the Chinese cultural context…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the structure, implicit attitude and consequences of followers' implicit followership theories in the Chinese cultural context through three studies. Study 1 explores the structure of followers' implicit followership theories. Study 2 examines the implicit attitude of followers towards followers' implicit followership theories. Study 3 verifies the impact of followers' implicit followership theories on the quality of collegial relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for study 1 (n = 321) and study 3 (n = 243) were collected through an online self-report questionnaire, and the data for study 2 (n = 30) were collected through the go/no-go association task.

Findings

The structure of followers' implicit followership theories includes two dimensions: positive followership prototypes and negative followership prototypes. Followers' implicit attitudes were more likely to match positive followership prototypes than negative followership prototypes. Positive followership prototypes had a significantly positive impact on the quality of collegial relationships, whereas negative followership prototypes had a significantly negative impact on the quality of collegial relationships.

Research limitations/implications

The psychology and behaviour of employees can be better understood by exploring followers' implicit followership theories.

Practical implications

Employees hold a relatively positive implicit attitude towards followers. Therefore, managers should provide positive feedback to improve employees' positive self-cognition so that employees can better serve the organization and better promote its development.

Originality/value

The paper is one of the few studies to explore followers' implicit followership theories in the Chinese cultural context.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 12 August 2019

Chien-Wei (Wilson) Lin, Dipankar Rai and Trang P. Tran

This paper aims to investigate the influence of implicit self-theories and the change in CEO of a firm after product failure on consumers’ preference of the enhanced product.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the influence of implicit self-theories and the change in CEO of a firm after product failure on consumers’ preference of the enhanced product.

Design/methodology/approach

Three experiments were conducted involving product failure and CEO change scenarios.

Findings

Studies demonstrate that incremental theorists prefer the enhanced product after the CEO change (vs no change), whereas entity theorists do not prefer the enhanced product after the CEO change. This effect is mediated by consumers’ perception of the likelihood of success of the firm after the CEO change. Furthermore, entity theorists prefer the enhanced product only when the CEO change is external (vs internal).

Research limitations/implications

Future research could investigate if the impact of CEO change on product perception depends on the severity of the situation, and identify boundary conditions under which the CEO change is not beneficial.

Practical implications

The results suggest that organizations can take advantage of the leadership change by introducing new products strategically around the period of leadership change. Marketers can induce incremental mindset in their advertisement material during the period of leadership change to ensure that all consumers have a positive perception of the enhanced products.

Originality/value

This is the first research to investigate how consumers respond to leadership changes made by organizations. The findings show that different signals (internal vs external CEO change) can generate different reactions across different receivers (incremental vs entity theorists).

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 15 September 2020

Ming Kong, Li Xin, Mengyuan Chen and Haonan Li

Based on role theory, from the perspective of workplace behaviors (proactive behavior, in-role behavior and organizational citizenship behavior), this paper provides a…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on role theory, from the perspective of workplace behaviors (proactive behavior, in-role behavior and organizational citizenship behavior), this paper provides a perspective of matching process on the importance of fit in personnel selection.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 231 leader–employee dyadic in a two-wave survey, the hypotheses were demonstrated with hierarchical regression analyses.

Findings

The results presented that: (1) Employees' perceptions of implicit leadership prototype fit and leaders' perceptions of implicit followership prototype fit were positively related to employees' workplace behaviors; (2) Employees' perceptions of implicit leadership prototype fit and leaders' perceptions of implicit followership prototype fit increased person-supervisor fit; (3) The influence of the interaction between employees' perceptions of implicit leadership prototype fit and leaders' perceptions of implicit followership prototype fit on employees' workplace behaviors will be mediated, first by person-supervisor fit and then by work engagement.

Originality/value

This study introduces the perspective of matching process that reflects the relative importance of fit in personnel selection. The results also enriched role theory from the perspective of implicit prototype fit, which provides an important basis for managers to effectively use managerial cognition and inspire employees' positive workplace behaviors.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 22 December 2016

Andrea North-Samardzic and Michael Cohen

We examine the question of whether peer-mentoring programs in higher education develop leadership skills in student mentors.

Abstract

Purpose

We examine the question of whether peer-mentoring programs in higher education develop leadership skills in student mentors.

Methodology/approach

The various forms of peer mentoring are discussed, as well as the benefits that these programs can bestow on mentors. We then turn to a discussion of the relationship between peer mentoring and leadership, and place particular emphasis on implicit leadership theories and the research in this area. A case study of a large peer-mentoring program at an Australian university is undertaken and the various aspects of implicit leadership theory are examined in the light of comments collected from both mentees and mentors.

Findings

Evidence of implicit leadership skills of mentors was seen in the responses of mentees. However, the explicit treatment of leadership skills in the peer-mentoring program needs to be approached in a more deliberate manner if students are to benefit fully from the experience of mentoring.

Originality/value

While the results of this study were inconclusive, it does provide a basis for further inspection of leadership development within peer-mentoring communities.

Details

Integrating Curricular and Co-Curricular Endeavors to Enhance Student Outcomes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-063-3

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 10 April 2003

Wenquan Ling and Liluo Fang

Two interrelated theoretical schemes on leadership are presented in this paper. One is the Chinese CPM leadership behavior model, and the other, the Chinese implicit

Abstract

Two interrelated theoretical schemes on leadership are presented in this paper. One is the Chinese CPM leadership behavior model, and the other, the Chinese implicit leadership theory. The CPM model recognizes three factors: Moral Character (“C” factor), Performance (“P” factor) and Maintenance (“M” factor). The Chinese implicit theory on leadership differentiates four trait factors: Personal Morality, Goal Efficiency, Interpersonal Competence, and Versatility. As such, it corresponds well with the CPM theory’s three-factor model. Both of these studies point to the salience of a cultural aspect. It has been demonstrated in the Chinese cultural context that the Chinese still place key importance on the moral character of their leaders and their behavior.

Details

Advances in Global Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-866-8

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Charles S. Areni

A total of 90 hotel, restaurant, and pub managers completed unstructured telephone interviews exploring their implicit theories of how atmospheric music affects consumer…

Abstract

A total of 90 hotel, restaurant, and pub managers completed unstructured telephone interviews exploring their implicit theories of how atmospheric music affects consumer behavior. Many of the implicit theories emerging in the interviews were grounded in previous research, but others had no obvious counterparts in the literature. The more novel theories suggested that atmospheric music: must follow circadian rhythms to be effective; encourages or discourages anti‐social behavior; and blocks out annoying and intrusive background noise. Each of the 14 industry‐based explanations of the effects of music is compared with results reported in the academic literature, and directions for future research on the effects of atmospheric music are identified.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 January 2021

Sudipta Mandal, Arvind Sahay, Adrian Terron and Kavita Mahto

Consumers subscribe to different mindsets or implicit theories of personality malleability, namely, fixed and growth mindsets. This study aims to investigate how and why…

Abstract

Purpose

Consumers subscribe to different mindsets or implicit theories of personality malleability, namely, fixed and growth mindsets. This study aims to investigate how and why consumers’ mindsets can influence their word-of-mouth (WOM) intentions toward a brand and the consequent implications for a brand’s personality.

Design/methodology/approach

Three mall-intercept studies and one online study demonstrate the influence of consumers’ fixed and growth mindsets on their WOM intentions. The first two mall-intercept studies identify motivations underlying consumers’ WOM intentions as a function of their mindset orientations. The third mall-intercept study examines the implications of such mindset-oriented WOM intentions for a brand’s personality dimension and the underlying psychological mechanism. The fourth study tests the link between WOM intent and behavior.

Findings

Results show that fixed (growth) mindset individuals exhibit greater WOM intentions than growth (fixed) mindset individuals for motives of “impression management” (“learning and information acquisition”). Findings further demonstrate that brands that exhibit dual personality dimensions simultaneously, one salient and the other non-salient at any instant, garner equivalent WOM intentions from both fixed and growth mindset individuals, contingent on the fit between the salient brand personality dimension and the dominant consumer mindset. Finally, using a real brand, it can be seen that WOM intentions actually translate into behavior.

Research limitations/implications

The study measures offline WOM intent but not offline WOM behavior.

Practical implications

This study sheds new light on branding strategy by demonstrating how and why dual-brand personalities may attract consumers with both kinds of implicit self-theory orientations. Relatedly, it also demonstrates a technique of framing ad-appeals that support the dual-brand personality effect.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to propose and demonstrate the use of simultaneous dual-brand personalities as an optimal branding strategy.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 27000