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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Birgit Schyns

The purpose of this paper is explore the role that the implicit leadership theories held by followers and supervisors play in the performance appraisals of specific…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is explore the role that the implicit leadership theories held by followers and supervisors play in the performance appraisals of specific leaders, as well as in the promotion recommendations to higher levels of management that these leaders receive. In particular, the focus of this paper is on the degree of match between the general images held by supervisors and followers of how leaders are/should be (i.e. implicit leadership theories), and the concrete perceptions that these supervisors and followers have of the actual leaders in question.

Design/methodology/approach

Several propositions are established taking into account the moderating role of implicit leadership theories in the relationship between performance, on the one hand, and performance evaluation and promotion recommendations, on the other hand. These propositions are based on evidence of discrimination against women and ethnic minority groups when it comes to evaluations and promotion recommendations. Recommendations for organisational practice are derived from the issues discussed.

Findings

When there is a poor match between a supervisor's implicit leadership theories and his or her perception of a subordinate leader, this leader's performance appraisal and promotion chances are believed to decrease. In a similar manner, the implicit leadership theories of followers may influence their appraisal of a leader's performance.

Originality/value

This is the first time that implicit leadership theories are connected to leaders’ careers. This connection is made both in the context of equal opportunities for leaders and in the context of optimising decisions in organisations. The implicit leadership theories of both followers and supervisors need to be taken into account when evaluating and promoting leaders.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 13 October 2021

Sylwia Ciuk and Doris Schedlitzki

Drawing on socio-cognitively orientated leadership studies, this paper aims to contribute to our understanding of host country employees’ (HCEs) negative perceptions of…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on socio-cognitively orientated leadership studies, this paper aims to contribute to our understanding of host country employees’ (HCEs) negative perceptions of successive expatriate leadership by exploring how their memories of shared past experiences affect these perceptions. Contrary to previous work which tends to focus on HCEs’ attitudes towards individual expatriates, the authors shift attention to successive executive expatriate assignments within a single subsidiary.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on an intrinsic case study carried out in a Polish subsidiary of an American multinational pharmaceutical company which had been managed by four successive expatriate General Managers and one local executive. The authors draw on interview data with 40 HCEs. Twenty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with staff who had been managed by at least three of the subsidiary’s expatriate leaders.

Findings

The authors demonstrate how transference triggered by past experiences with expatriate leaders as well as HCEs’ implicit leadership theories affect HCEs’ negative perceptions of expatriate leadership and lead to the emergence of expatriate leadership schema.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that explores the role of transference and implicit leadership theories in HCEs’ perceptions of successive executive expatriate assignments. By focussing on retrospective accounts of HCEs who had been managed by a series of successive expatriate leaders, our study has generated a more nuanced and contextualised understanding of the role of HCEs’ shared past experiences in shaping their perceptions of expatriate leadership. The authors propose a new concept – expatriate leadership schema – which describes HCEs’ cognitive structures, developed during past experiences with successive expatriate leaders, which specify what HCEs believe expatriate leadership to look like and what they expect from it.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Book part
Publication date: 22 December 2016

Andrea North-Samardzic and Michael Cohen

We examine the question of whether peer-mentoring programs in higher education develop leadership skills in student mentors.

Abstract

Purpose

We examine the question of whether peer-mentoring programs in higher education develop leadership skills in student mentors.

Methodology/approach

The various forms of peer mentoring are discussed, as well as the benefits that these programs can bestow on mentors. We then turn to a discussion of the relationship between peer mentoring and leadership, and place particular emphasis on implicit leadership theories and the research in this area. A case study of a large peer-mentoring program at an Australian university is undertaken and the various aspects of implicit leadership theory are examined in the light of comments collected from both mentees and mentors.

Findings

Evidence of implicit leadership skills of mentors was seen in the responses of mentees. However, the explicit treatment of leadership skills in the peer-mentoring program needs to be approached in a more deliberate manner if students are to benefit fully from the experience of mentoring.

Originality/value

While the results of this study were inconclusive, it does provide a basis for further inspection of leadership development within peer-mentoring communities.

Details

Integrating Curricular and Co-Curricular Endeavors to Enhance Student Outcomes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-063-3

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2021

Birgit Schyns

Research reported in this manuscript focuses on the relationship between trait suspicion and the perception of abusive supervision. Based on previous research, the authors…

Abstract

Purpose

Research reported in this manuscript focuses on the relationship between trait suspicion and the perception of abusive supervision. Based on previous research, the authors assume that suspicion is positively related to the perception of abusive supervision. The role implicit theories play in this relationship is examined.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies are presented to examine the relationship between trait suspicion and the perception of abusive supervision as moderated by implicit leadership theories. The first study is a survey study, and the second study is an experimental vignette study.

Findings

Results of both studies indicate that suspicion is positively related to the perception of abusive supervision and that implicit leadership theories moderate the relationship between suspicion and the perception of abusive supervision.

Research limitations/implications

Results are interpreted in terms of biases in leadership perception as well as the reversing-the-lens perspective.

Originality/value

While there is progress in taking into account follower characteristics and the resulting perceptual biases in the study of constructive leadership phenomena such as transformational leadership, less is know about the follower perception aspect of destructive leadership phenomena. With this research, the authors extend research into the influence of follower characteristics on the perception of abusive supervision and also look at boundary conditions of this relationship by including implicit leadership theories as a moderator.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2013

Thomas W. Nichols and Rod Erakovich

This empirical study aims to consider the stability and connection of implicit leadership theories to authentic leadership using performance feedback as a first step in a…

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10179

Abstract

Purpose

This empirical study aims to consider the stability and connection of implicit leadership theories to authentic leadership using performance feedback as a first step in a larger research agenda.

Design/methodology/approach

Scenarios were created to operationalize implicit and authentic leadership, manipulate implicit leadership theory between followers and leaders, and discover perceptions of leader effectiveness. The use of scenarios was purposely intended to create anticipatory future research agendas.

Findings

Components of authentic leadership may be a part of implicit leadership theory and leadership performance feedback may alter leader and follower implicit leadership theories.

Research limitations/implications

Data collected in this study were from students’ perceptions, and did not infer causality between constructs. This study is also subject to mono‐operation and mono‐method bias.

Originality/value

This research provides an extension of theory in several ways: by looking at the authentic leadership paradigm; and by viewing perceptions of leader authentic effectiveness as a continuous influence on implicit leadership theories.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Book part
Publication date: 10 April 2003

Wenquan Ling and Liluo Fang

Two interrelated theoretical schemes on leadership are presented in this paper. One is the Chinese CPM leadership behavior model, and the other, the Chinese implicit

Abstract

Two interrelated theoretical schemes on leadership are presented in this paper. One is the Chinese CPM leadership behavior model, and the other, the Chinese implicit leadership theory. The CPM model recognizes three factors: Moral Character (“C” factor), Performance (“P” factor) and Maintenance (“M” factor). The Chinese implicit theory on leadership differentiates four trait factors: Personal Morality, Goal Efficiency, Interpersonal Competence, and Versatility. As such, it corresponds well with the CPM theory’s three-factor model. Both of these studies point to the salience of a cultural aspect. It has been demonstrated in the Chinese cultural context that the Chinese still place key importance on the moral character of their leaders and their behavior.

Details

Advances in Global Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-866-8

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

Sabine Hommelhoff

The purpose of this paper is to take a new look at an old idea: since McGregor’s work in the 1960s, it is common knowledge that managers’ implicit theories about their…

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1467

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to take a new look at an old idea: since McGregor’s work in the 1960s, it is common knowledge that managers’ implicit theories about their followers can have self-fulfilling consequences. Surprisingly, McGregor’s work has largely remained within the bounds of employee motivation and has not met with a wide response in related fields such as service management. Assuming that managers do not only hold implicit theories of their followers but also of their customers (i.e. implicit customer theories), this paper transfers McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y to the service context. It further derives a framework of possible consistencies and inconsistencies between management styles and service strategies, depending on implicit managerial theories about the average employee and customer.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual paper integrates a management classic, current empirical findings, and media reports into a new line of thought.

Findings

This paper develops and undergirds the thesis that it is conducive to the development of trustful and productive relationships both with customers and followers if managers proceed from confident assumptions about them, thereby activating virtuous circles instead of vicious cycles.

Originality/value

This paper links concepts from the organizational domain to the service domain. It implies a normative component in arguing for the productive potential of positive and the destructive potential of negative assumptions about both followers and customers. The value of this idea lies in the potential for positive relational dynamics and better customer and workplace relationships.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

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Book part
Publication date: 19 October 2020

Iain L. Densten

This chapter investigated how pre-existing ideas (i.e., prototypes and antiprototypes) and what the eyes fixate on (i.e., eye fixations) influence followers'…

Abstract

This chapter investigated how pre-existing ideas (i.e., prototypes and antiprototypes) and what the eyes fixate on (i.e., eye fixations) influence followers' identification with leaders from another race. A sample of 55 Southeast Asian female participants assessed their ideal leader in terms of prototypes and antiprototype and then viewed a 27-second video of an engaging Caucasian female leader as their eye fixations were tracked. Participants evaluated the videoed leader using the Identity Leadership Inventory, in terms of four leader identities (i.e., prototypicality, advancement, entrepreneurship, and impresarioship). A series of multiregression models identified participants' age as a negative predictor for all the leader identities. At the same time, the antiprototype of masculinity, the prototypes of sensitivity and dynamism, and the duration of fixations on the right eye predicted at least one leader identity. Such findings build on aspects of intercultural communication relating to the evaluation of global leaders.

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Book part
Publication date: 5 December 2017

Robin Martin, Olga Epitropaki and Laurie O’Broin

Leadership training has led to a large amount of research due to the belief that such training can lead to (or more precisely cause) positive changes in followers…

Abstract

Leadership training has led to a large amount of research due to the belief that such training can lead to (or more precisely cause) positive changes in followers’ behavior and work performance. This chapter describes some of the conditions necessary for research to show a causal relationship between leadership training and outcomes. It then describes different research designs, employed in leadership training research, and considers the types of problems that can affect inferences about causality. The chapter focuses on the role of randomization of leaders (e.g., into training vs. non-training conditions) as a key methodological procedure and alludes to problems of achieving this in field settings.

Details

Methodological Challenges and Advances in Managerial and Organizational Cognition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-677-0

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Article
Publication date: 15 September 2020

Ming Kong, Li Xin, Mengyuan Chen and Haonan Li

Based on role theory, from the perspective of workplace behaviors (proactive behavior, in-role behavior and organizational citizenship behavior), this paper provides a…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on role theory, from the perspective of workplace behaviors (proactive behavior, in-role behavior and organizational citizenship behavior), this paper provides a perspective of matching process on the importance of fit in personnel selection.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 231 leader–employee dyadic in a two-wave survey, the hypotheses were demonstrated with hierarchical regression analyses.

Findings

The results presented that: (1) Employees' perceptions of implicit leadership prototype fit and leaders' perceptions of implicit followership prototype fit were positively related to employees' workplace behaviors; (2) Employees' perceptions of implicit leadership prototype fit and leaders' perceptions of implicit followership prototype fit increased person-supervisor fit; (3) The influence of the interaction between employees' perceptions of implicit leadership prototype fit and leaders' perceptions of implicit followership prototype fit on employees' workplace behaviors will be mediated, first by person-supervisor fit and then by work engagement.

Originality/value

This study introduces the perspective of matching process that reflects the relative importance of fit in personnel selection. The results also enriched role theory from the perspective of implicit prototype fit, which provides an important basis for managers to effectively use managerial cognition and inspire employees' positive workplace behaviors.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 50 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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