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Book part
Publication date: 4 December 2020

Janine Pierce

Peace on Earth has often been elusive, with more times on Earth spent at war rather than peace. This paper examines the nature of peace with its antithesis of war

Abstract

Peace on Earth has often been elusive, with more times on Earth spent at war rather than peace. This paper examines the nature of peace with its antithesis of war, focussing on the impact of war on the planet, which is not a primary consideration when war is waged. War leaves negative planetary legacies, which are of major concerns in times of population growth whilst living on a finite planet. Who should be responsible for planetary impact of war is considered, with some focus on government and other organisations. Collaborative strategies for caring for the planet through guidelines and level of departments of defence and national law-making organisations at national levels are discussed, as well as overviewing the focus and role of the United Nations and the associated Sustainability Goals. The paper concludes by suggesting that a more powerful way to influence us in our responsibilities to live peacefully, rather than a virtuous ‘should not’ approach, is the need to shift back to a moral positioning in our perspectives as humans being part of the ecosystem, so that we view ourselves as being at one with all life. In this perspective, if we incur harm to this planet, we are harming ourselves. Suggestions for living in a more peaceful way are drawn from indigenous wisdom and spiritual teachers, particularly the current Pope Francis.

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Educating for Ethical Survival
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-253-6

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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2020

Abdulazeez Y.H. Saif-Alyousfi

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the Yemen War on banking services (deposits and loans) at the aggregate and at the level of conventional and Islamic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the Yemen War on banking services (deposits and loans) at the aggregate and at the level of conventional and Islamic banks in GCC countries. The author also tests hypotheses of direct and indirect impacts of the Yemen War on bank services.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample comprises a total of 70 banks (45 conventional and 25 Islamic banks) over the period 2000–2018. The static and dynamic panel generalized methods of moments (GMM) estimation techniques are applied.

Findings

Empirical results indicate that the Yemen War has a significant negative direct impact on deposits and loans of GCC banks. The results lend support for the direct channel hypothesis, but not for the indirect channel hypothesis. The negative direct impact is most prominent on banks in GCC countries that are directly involved in the Yemen War, although the war has an asymmetric effect on conventional and Islamic banks, the former being more vulnerable. The overall conclusion is that the Yemen War exerts an asymmetric impact on the GCC region, across both banks and countries.

Practical implications

These results are a warning to policymakers to be cautious when formulating a strategy for macroeconomic stability.

Originality/value

It is widely recognized that the Yemen War has a significant impact on the economies of the GCC countries. However, the possible impact of the war on GCC bank services has not so far been subjected to robust empirical analysis. This paper therefore seeks to fill this gap by providing an in-depth quantitative analysis of this impact. It distinguishes between direct and indirect channels through which the Yemen War may affect bank services. It is also the first to examine the asymmetric impact of the Yemen War on the GCC region, across both banks (Islamic and conventional banks) and countries (whether or not involved in the war). The study uses both static panel and dynamic panel GMM estimation techniques to analyze the data.

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Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

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Book part
Publication date: 2 June 2005

Steve Carlton-Ford

The study of war has generally been neglected in sociology, with much of the discussion focusing around military spending or the organization of the military rather than…

Abstract

The study of war has generally been neglected in sociology, with much of the discussion focusing around military spending or the organization of the military rather than war per se. Sociologists have critiqued and investigated the military-industrial complex (Mills, 1959), investigated morale in military units (Durkheim, 1951; Stouffer & DeVinney, 1955), and studied the socialization of soldiers (Cockerham & Cohen, 1980). However, the direct examination of war has been relatively rare. When war has been examined, sociological research has focused on the causes of war, often discussing the preconditions of revolutions (Goldstone, Gurr & Moshiri, 1991; Skopol, 1979), or the reasons for military interventions by core countries in the peripheral countries of the world system (Kowalewski, 1991). Examinations of the sociological impact of war on civilian populations have been even rarer.

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Sociological Studies of Children and Youth
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-183-5

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Book part
Publication date: 20 July 2011

Patrick Domingues

The consequences of civil war have been widely analyzed. However, one of its important effects, the human cost of the conflict, remains marginally investigated. Indeed…

Abstract

The consequences of civil war have been widely analyzed. However, one of its important effects, the human cost of the conflict, remains marginally investigated. Indeed, most of recent literature has focused on the numbers of dead and wounded, while little scope has been given to survivors’ health. Given that the survivors are those who bear the burden of reconstruction, it is crucial to evaluate the health costs of civil conflict to develop and implement proper economic policies. This chapter is an attempt in this direction.

The aim is to assess the impact of the Mozambican Civil War on the long-term health of adult women, measured in terms of their height-for-age z-score (HAZ). Toward this end, two sets of data are used: the household survey data derived from Demographic and Health Survey (DHS+ 2003) which provides a set of anthropometric measures combined with an original geo-referenced event dataset of battles and military actions that took place during this war.

I find that women who were exposed to the conflict during the early stages of their lives display weaker health on average than other women, as reflected by their lower HAZ. This negative effect is correlated with age at the time of exposure to the civil war.

Furthermore, this chapter indicates that the use of the medical concept of infancy–childhood–puberty curves is a suitable tool for estimating the impact of age of entry into the conflict and provides some evidence of the channels through which health is affected by civil conflicts.

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Ethnic Conflict, Civil War and Cost of Conflict
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-131-2

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Book part
Publication date: 9 March 2021

Nilendu Chatterjee and Tonmoy Chatterjee

The fight between two nations on each other’s exportable on the basis of tariff is known as tariff war. Although an economic policy, very ­often ­motivated by nationalism…

Abstract

The fight between two nations on each other’s exportable on the basis of tariff is known as tariff war. Although an economic policy, very ­often ­motivated by nationalism and politics, a nation imposes tariff on the ­exports of another nation which, in retaliation, again imposes tariff on the exports of its trading partner. The prime cause of such war is certainly to enhance employment opportunities in the home nation. But politics and nationalism provoke the opposite nation to follow the same policy. Effects of such tariff war, whether beneficial or harmful, are yet to be seen. In this context, we have adopted a general equilibrium model to illustrate the probable effect of the above-stated trade war in a structure consisting both H–O nugget and export sector dualism. The effect of imposition of tariff on multinational corporation (MNC) that has its own origin nation and production activities in other nation as well where it faces the war of tariff is considered. But it gets relief in the form of tax reduction in its origin nation. Under such a scenario, the study has shown the effect of tariff in the presence of full employment in the economy as well as in the presence of unemployment. It is seen that the MNC will continue its production procedure in both nations and enjoy profit, under some conditions. Further, in the presence of unemployment it is seen that if rate of tax on the MNC rises, unemployment may fall and welfare can increase under certain conditions.

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Global Tariff War: Economic, Political and Social Implications
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-314-7

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Article
Publication date: 10 November 2020

Connor M. Chapman and DeMond Shondell Miller

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the framing of the emergency response to the novel coronavirus (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]; severe acute respiratory…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the framing of the emergency response to the novel coronavirus (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]; severe acute respiratory syndrome-like coronavirus [SARS-CoV-2]) in 2020 with wartime combat language. Metaphors have been used throughout American politics and society to frame perceived social problems, to both mobilize support and demobilize opposition. By simplifying and dichotomizing social problems, latent negative consequences frequently emerge, which tend to have a disproportionate impact on minority communities.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper used a case study and applied text from presidential press conferences and policy speeches from multiple sources on the War on Poverty, the War on Drugs and the War on COVID-19. The work identified common themes, actions and policies that can lead to other stakeholders adapting the “war” rhetoric.

Findings

An apparent cycle emerged – from disdain to metaphorical “war,” to policy, to law, to consequences and back to disdain – that fueled the American political system and, by extension, systematic oppression. The COVID-19 pandemic appears to be another crucible for this cycle to repeat itself. The series of examples illustrate how public leaders use the “war metaphor” as an all-out victory approach to galvanize policy responses to social issues, crises and natural disasters. By local, national and international stakeholders.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of this study are the limited use of the metaphor and the time of completing this manuscript. The paper only views the presidential use and interpretation of the war metaphor. The COVID-19 pandemic disaster is persisting and the race for a vaccine is underway. While the authors present the immediate policy impacts, it is too early to understand the long-term policy impacts typically measured over decades.

Practical implications

This paper contributes to the literature by employing three case studies: the War on Poverty, the War on Drugs and the War on COVID-19 pandemic to draw comparisons between wartime rhetoric, social policies and the sociopolitical implications of those policies, as well as how these policies have the potential to disproportionately affect socially vulnerable populations.

Originality/value

This paper builds on research regarding the use of metaphor, this analysis bridges a knowledge gap by employing the COVID-19 case to the historical use of the war metaphor.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 40 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Book part
Publication date: 9 March 2021

Faize Ali Shah, Shubhendra Singh Yadav and Akshay Kumar Satsangi

In macroeconomics, the term recession is defined as a significant decadence in ordinary economic activity in a designated region. There are so many economic theories…

Abstract

In macroeconomics, the term recession is defined as a significant decadence in ordinary economic activity in a designated region. There are so many economic theories attempted to explain why and how the economy might fall off of its long-term growth trend and in to a period of short-term recession. Economists say there have been 33 recession in the United States since 1854 through 2018 in total. Since 1980, there have been four such periods of negative economic growth that were considered recession in the wake of the 2008 financial crisis and the Great Depression of the 1930s. Production and flows of goods are directly influenced by the tariff; uses input–output analysis to estimate indirect effects on gross domestic product, exports and employment; and allows redirection of trade toward other producers. The ongoing trade war with similar trade conflicts in history, we reveal three major causes, with varying degrees of importance from both economic and political perspectives.

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Global Tariff War: Economic, Political and Social Implications
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-314-7

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Book part
Publication date: 9 March 2021

Hakan Kalkavan, Hasan Dinçer and Serhat Yüksel

The aim of this study is to examine the effect of trade wars between countries on social factors. For this purpose, six different criteria are selected based on the…

Abstract

The aim of this study is to examine the effect of trade wars between countries on social factors. For this purpose, six different criteria are selected based on the comprehensive literature review. Additionally, fuzzy DEMATEL approach is considered to weight these criteria. The findings indicate that working life is the most significant criterion. However, free time and leisure and family are at the bottom of the list. Additionally, it is also defined that working life is the most influencing criterion. These results demonstrate that trade wars have the highest impact on the working life of the people. In other sayings, people’s fear of losing their jobs goes up in case of the trade wars. To solve this problem, companies should make official statements to their employees about the situation caused by the trade wars. By making clear explanations, uncertainties in this process can be minimized.

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Global Tariff War: Economic, Political and Social Implications
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-314-7

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2021

Fakir Al Gharaibeh and Justine O'Sullivan

This research aimed to describe and examine the effects of war followed by forced displacement on Syrian mothers and their children in terms of Reuben Hill's Family Stress…

Abstract

Purpose

This research aimed to describe and examine the effects of war followed by forced displacement on Syrian mothers and their children in terms of Reuben Hill's Family Stress Theory and identify essential elements to consider in social work practice with this population.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 Syrian mothers living in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A thematic analysis at both a semantic and latent level was completed. A case study – “Noor” – was developed to offer insight into one Syrian woman's experiences and response to war-related stressors and displacement.

Findings

The findings from the analysis of the interviews and case study indicated that for Syrian families displaced by conflict the traumas of war were compounded by ongoing and multiple emotional and practical stressors, with ongoing experiences of “loss” being the significant stressor. Giving context to these findings highlights the demand and impost on the host countries, in this study, the UAE, to continue their significant humanitarian efforts to Syrian families.

Research limitations/implications

These findings will assist social workers, humanitarian organisations and their staff and others working with Syrian families, to respond more effectively.

Originality/value

There is no research in evidence in the professional literature that addresses the effects of war on displaced Syrian families in terms of Reuben Hill's Family Stress Theory.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Book part
Publication date: 9 March 2021

Hasan Dinçer, Serhat Yüksel and Gülsüm Sena Uluer

The aim of the study is to evaluate role of trade war between the United States and China on oil price. For this purpose, global oil price and US trade balance with China…

Abstract

The aim of the study is to evaluate role of trade war between the United States and China on oil price. For this purpose, global oil price and US trade balance with China are selected as variables. In addition to this issue, monthly data of these variables for the periods between 1990 and 2019 are taken into consideration. In the evaluation process, both Engle–Granger cointegration and Toda–Yamamoto causality analysis are considered. The results of Engle–Granger cointegration analysis indicates that there is a ­relationship between trade war and oil prices. Nevertheless, according to the results of Toda–Yamamoto causality analysis, it is identified that trade war does not cause oil prices. While looking at these results, it is determined that trade war between the United States and China has an influence on the oil price changes. However, it is also understood that it is not the main factor of this volatility. Thus, it is recommended that in order to identify the main indicator of the oil price volatility, some different factors should also be taken into consideration.

Details

Global Tariff War: Economic, Political and Social Implications
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-314-7

Keywords

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