Search results

1 – 10 of over 73000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 February 2021

Hongmei Zhang, Shanshan Liu and Billy Bai

The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the image transfer and its effects on exhibitors’ behavioral intention. Specifically, the study attempted to examine…

Abstract

Purpose

The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the image transfer and its effects on exhibitors’ behavioral intention. Specifically, the study attempted to examine the effect of mega business event image on destination and country image from exhibitors’ perspective and the effect of mega business event image on exhibitors’ behavioral intention toward the event.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for this study were collected through an on-site survey. Based on a sample of 393 respondents, structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

The results showed that business event image has a stronger effect on country image than on destination image; event image has a significant effect on exhibitor’s behavioral intention toward the event directly and indirectly through the mediating role of country image; and country image has a significant influence on destination image.

Practical implications

The event organizer should improve the exhibitor’s perceptions of the event experience from providing a clear and attractive theme for the target audiences; exhibiting the products with the most cutting-edge technologies and offering various opportunities for forums and promotions; and planning and organizing the event in every detail carefully including the facilities, layout of booths, ambience and other related services.

Originality/value

The study expands the event type to business events, explores the image transfer process between event, destination and country and examines the effects of such image transfer on the exhibitors’ behavioral intention. The results confirm the explanatory power of image transfer theory. Attribution theory and halo effect are viewed as the mechanisms of image transfer.

研究目的

本研究的主要目的是考察形象迁移及其对参展商行为意向的影响。具体而言, 本研究(1)从参展商视角, 探讨大型商务活动形象对目的地和国家形象的影响; (2)探讨重大商务活动形象对参展商行为意向的影响。

研究设计/方法/途径

本研究的数据通过现场调查收集, 基于393份问卷, 使用结构方程模型检验研究假设。

研究发现

研究结果表明:(1)商务活动形象对国家形象的影响比对目的地形象的影响更大; (2)通过国家形象的中介作用, 大型商务活动形象直接或间接地影响了参展商的行为意图; (3)国家形象显著影响目的地形象。

实践意义

活动组织者应从以下方面改善参展商对活动体验的认识:(1)提供清晰且有吸引力的主题; (2)展示具有最前沿技术的产品, 并提供各种论坛和促销机会; (3)认真, 细致地筹划和组织活动, 包括设施, 摊位布置, 氛围和其他相关服务。

原创性/价值

本研究将活动类型延伸至商务活动, 探索活动、目的地和国家之间的形象迁移, 检验形象迁移对参展商行为意向的影响。结果证实了形象迁移理论的解释力。归因理论和晕轮效应是形象迁移的内在机制。

Transferencia de imágenes entre un megaevento empresarial, el destino y el país del alojamiento y sus efectos sobre la predisposición de los expositores hacía el evento

Propósito

el objetivo principal de este estudio es investigar la transferencia de imágenes y sus efectos sobre la predisposición de los expositores. Específicamente, el estudio intentó examinar (1) el efecto de la imagen de megaevento de negocios en la imagen del destino y del país desde la perspectiva de los expositores y (2) el efecto de la imagen de megaevento de negocios en la predisposición de los expositores hacia el evento.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

los datos de este estudio se obtuvieron mediante una encuesta in situ. Sobre la base de una muestra de 393 encuestados, se utilizó el modelo de ecuaciones estructurales para probar las hipótesis propuestas.

Resultados

los resultados mostraron que: (1) la imagen del megaevento tiene un efecto más fuerte en la imagen del país que en la del destino; (2) la imagen del evento tiene un efecto significativo directo e indirecto sobre la predisposición del expositor hacia el evento a través del papel mediador de la imagen del país; (3) la imagen del país tiene una influencia significativa en la imagen de destino.

Implicaciones prácticas

el organizador del evento debe mejorar las percepciones del expositor sobre la experiencia del evento (1) proporcionando un tema claro y atractivo para el público objetivo; (2) exhibir los productos con las tecnologías más avanzadas y ofrecer diversas oportunidades para foros y promociones; y (3) planificar y organizar el evento cuidando los detalles, incluyendo las instalaciones, el diseño de las cabinas, el ambiente y otros servicios relacionados.

Originalidad/valor

el estudio amplía el tipo de evento a eventos de negocios, explora el proceso de transferencia de imágenes entre evento, destino y país, y examina los efectos de dicha transferencia de imágenes en la predisposición de los expositors hacía el evento. Los resultados confirman el poder explicativo de la teoría de transferencia de imágenes. La teoría de la atribución y el efecto halo son vistos como los mecanismos de transferencia de imágenes.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 30 September 2020

Carmen Lopez and George Balabanis

Extant research has largely treated country image (CI) as an exogenous variable, focusing mostly on its consequences for consumers’ evaluations and purchases of products…

Abstract

Purpose

Extant research has largely treated country image (CI) as an exogenous variable, focusing mostly on its consequences for consumers’ evaluations and purchases of products or brands originating from a country. Scant research has examined the instrumental role of a country’s brands and products in the evaluations of CI. This study aims to investigate how the brands of a country contribute to CI ratings and the conditions underlying their effect on CI.

Design/methodology/approach

Three experimental studies test the hypotheses, one pertaining to the effect of brands on CI (N = 227), the second to the effect of products on CI (N = 116) and the third to the effect of brands and products on industry image (N = 215). The experimental approach overcomes the limitations of cross-sectional surveys commonly used in CI studies to detect the direction of the observed effects. Furthermore, respondents (British consumers) were allowed to determine the brands and products associated with a country.

Findings

Drawing on memory schema theory, across three studies, the authors identify two types of reverse inferences: from brand to CI and from product category to CI. The reverse inference from a brand to a superordinate image is stronger for industry image than for CI.

Research limitations/implications

This research focuses on consumers’ evaluations from only one country (the UK). Further research could replicate the studies across different countries and with different countries of origin (COOs). Researchers could also examine the influence of brands misidentified with the wrong COO and mistakenly stored as such in consumers’ memories.

Practical implications

The results are relevant for managers and consultants working with country- (place-) branding campaigns. Brands and industries can help strengthen the evaluations of the economic dimension of different countries; however, these assets are underdeveloped in country-branding campaigns. Linking countries with brands and industries in campaigns could result in positive associations, which, in turn, could enhance the reputational rating of the countries.

Originality/value

This research extends previous studies on the effects of a country’s products and brands on CI by incorporating the mediating role of industry image between brands/products and CI, separating the effects of brand and product category on CI, allowing consumers to determine, which brands and products are associated with a country and adopting an experimental methodology to ascertain the causal direction of the effects.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 55 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 19 September 2019

Nazuk Sharma and Lisa Monahan

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of framing white space around a product image (e.g. silver polish) and its intended effect image (e.g. tarnish-free…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of framing white space around a product image (e.g. silver polish) and its intended effect image (e.g. tarnish-free, shiny silverware) in an ad on the performance perceptions of the advertised product.

Design/methodology/approach

Four experimentally designed studies demonstrate a positive impact of framing the white space around the product and effect images. A total of 270 MTurk participants provided data for these studies through online surveys.

Findings

Findings across four different product categories reveal that when the white space surrounding the product and effect images in an ad is enclosed by a frame, consumers perceive product performance to be significantly higher than when there is no white space framing. This effect is mediated by enhanced perceived fit between the two images based on the white space framing.

Research limitations/implications

The current findings contribute to multiple marketing research streams including the use of white space and frames in visual promotions, as well as the literature on product performance, perceived fit, stylistic manipulations (such as the framing of white space in this case) and advertising communication.

Practical implications

The use of product and effect visuals in advertising to convey product performance is one of the most widely used tactics in the consumer packaged goods industry. Managers and creative directors can leverage the current findings to improve consumer product performance perceptions by using a simple, stylistic manipulation (which does not alter the core ad elements but only the production aspects) of framing the white space around the product and effect images in their product ads.

Originality/value

To date, there is only a small body of research examining the role of white space and visual frames on marketing-related outcomes. However, none of that looks at white space framing. The current work is the first to examine how localization of white space around the product and effect images improves consumer perceptions about the advertised product’s performance.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 36 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 November 2011

Ting‐Hsiang Tseng and George Balabanis

The purpose of this paper is to test the applicability of product typicality in explaining the product‐specificity of country of origin (COO) effects.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the applicability of product typicality in explaining the product‐specificity of country of origin (COO) effects.

Design/methodology/approach

To help select stimuli used in the study, two dimensions of product typicality regarding COO images were created. A total of 416 participants from a business school in Taiwan participated in this experiment and rated their perceived COO images and attitudes towards specific products from select countries.

Findings

The results indicate that product typicality can help explain the discrepancies between COO images across products from a country, and across COOs of a product. Typical products received more favourable consumer attitudes and stronger COO images than atypical ones. This study also manipulated two other factors, product type and product category level. While product type had no significant impact on the effects of typicality, tests on product category level revealed enhanced effects for subordinate product categories.

Originality/value

The study provides a stepping stone towards the development of a general theory of COO. By testing the effects of a category‐based concept, typicality, in the context of the COO image, this study formally testifies the applicability of categorisation theories on COO effects, which may provide informative sources for the future development of COO studies. Based on the rationale of typicality, this study also tests the possible moderation effects of product types and category levels.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Tony C. Garrett, Sungkyu Lee and Kyounghee Chu

The purpose of this paper is to assess the relative importance of country-of-origin (COO) and its dimensions – country of design (COD), country of technology (COT), and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the relative importance of country-of-origin (COO) and its dimensions – country of design (COD), country of technology (COT), and country of manufacture (COM) – in comparison to store image in terms of consumer product evaluation and purchase intention of store brands. The authors also explore consumer regulatory focus effects.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical data were collected from 270 young Korean adults. Two scenarios were given using two high-involvement store brands, an electronic product and clothing product that have hedonic and utilitarian elements. Data analysis was conducted using AMOS structural equation modeling software.

Findings

COO affects product evaluation and purchase intention and store image affects purchase intention. By product, store image influences product evaluation and purchase intention (electronics). COO directly influences purchase intention (clothing). By COO dimensions, overall COD weakly affects product evaluation. COT affects electronic product evaluation but directly affects clothing purchase intention. Promotion-focused consumers use COO for product evaluation, with store image directly affecting purchase intention. Promotion-focused consumers consider COD, an affective dimension, and COM in product evaluations. Prevention-focused consumers did not consider COO, but consider store image for product evaluation. Prevention-focused consumers consider utilitarian COT and COM dimensions during product evaluation.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to consider the simultaneous effect of COO (and its dimensions) and store image on product evaluation and purchase intention. It is also the first to consider the regulatory focus theory with regards to COO and store image evaluative and purchase intention criteria.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 5 June 2018

Byoungho Jin, Moudi O. Almousa, Heesoon Yang and Naeun Kim

While country image consists of two hierarchical images – macro country image at the country level and micro country image at the specific product level – previous studies…

Abstract

Purpose

While country image consists of two hierarchical images – macro country image at the country level and micro country image at the specific product level – previous studies have largely failed to detail its varying effects by product category and by the level of a country’s economic development. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the macro and micro country images of four countries (USA, Italy, Korea, and Malaysia) on Saudi consumers’ purchase intentions in two product categories (symbolic and functional product).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from shoppers older than 20 years of age at several shopping malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia via mall intercept method.

Findings

Analyses of 496 data revealed that the effects of macro and micro country images differ by product category. In particular, both macro and micro country images were equally relevant to the purchase intention of symbolic goods (i.e. handbags), while micro country image played a greater role in the purchase intention of functional goods (i.e. cell phones). A partial country moderating effect was found. The effects of micro country image on the purchase intention of handbags were valid only in Italy, where product-country match is high.

Originality/value

This study advances country image research by highlighting how the effects of macro and micro country images on purchase intention differ by product category and by country. The findings suggest which aspect of country image (i.e. macro vs micro) should be actively communicated in the marketing of symbolic and functional goods.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 56 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 19 July 2011

Nina M. Iversen and Leif E. Hem

Consumers' evaluations of brand extensions have gained considerable attention in the marketing literature. The purpose of this study is to investigate how a brand's…

Abstract

Purpose

Consumers' evaluations of brand extensions have gained considerable attention in the marketing literature. The purpose of this study is to investigate how a brand's perceived global or local origin impacts evaluations of brand extensions and creates transfer effects of brand meaning. The paper conceptually characterizes the transference process and empirically tests the nature and extent of spillover effects of origin associations across multiple parent brands and extensions.

Design/methodology/approach

For the empirical testing of the conceptual model of transfer effects of origin associations we undertook a cross‐sectional consumer survey amongst a sample of 267 Norwegian respondents. Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the causal relationships between the latent exogenous and endogenous variables in the conceptual model.

Findings

The present study indicates that the global and local origin framework, first introduced by Steenkamp et al. in 2003, can explain the occurrence of reciprocal transfer of brand meaning across parent brands and extensions. The paper shows that global and local origin associations operate in a manner very similar to brand associations in the transference of perceptions. It finds that distinct origin associations influence the pre‐brand image and drive the forward effect on the attitude towards the extension as well as the subsequent backward effect upon the post‐brand image of the parent brand.

Originality/value

This paper reveals for the first time that distinct origin associations can initiate spillover effects across parent brands and extensions. This study is therefore an important step towards the generalizability of main brand extension studies to other contexts such as extensions of global brands.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 22 July 2019

Qingji Fan

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of China’s image as a country on consumers’ evaluations of brands. Drawing on the literature pertaining to country…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of China’s image as a country on consumers’ evaluations of brands. Drawing on the literature pertaining to country images and country-of-origin effect, a research model was developed to evaluate country image, corporate image and brand image.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the model and investigate the effects of country, corporate and brand image on brand attitude and purchase intention, a survey was conducted that examined Korean consumers’ attitudes toward well-known Chinese brands.

Findings

China’s country image was found to comprise four dimensions: political image, economic image, citizen image and country relationship image. Country image had a direct positive effect on brand attitude, and through brand attitude, country image had an indirect positive effect on purchase intention. Corporate image and brand image had a positive effect on brand attitude and a direct positive effect on purchase intention. In addition, country image had a positive effect on corporate image, while through corporate image, country image had an indirect positive effect on brand image.

Originality/value

These findings not only offer theoretical evidence for research on China’s country image, but also provide empirical evidence to support the “going global” strategies of Chinese enterprises.

Details

Journal of Contemporary Marketing Science, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-7480

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 5 March 2010

Dongjin Li, Shenghui An and Jongseok Ahn

The purpose of this paper is to explore how differently Chinese consumers, located in different regions, perceive country image.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how differently Chinese consumers, located in different regions, perceive country image.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 1,257 consumers from Beijing, Shanghai, Qingdao, Shenyang, and Wuhan are surveyed.

Findings

The results demonstrate that Chinese consumers in different regions focus on the different country image factors when they perceive the general quality of foreign products. Emotional and cognitive factors have a more significant effect on the consumers' perception of the product's quality than normative factor in Beijing and Wuhan. In the case of Shanghai, emotional factor has the strongest effect, cognitive factor has the modest and normative factor has the weakest. Cognitive and normative factors have a significant effect on the consumers' perception of the product's quality in Qingdao and only cognitive factor has a significant effect in Shenyang.

Research limitations/implications

The proportion of young consumers who are in their early 20s accounts for 63 percent of the sample, which may propose the representative problem of the sample, affecting the contents of the regional differences in the Chinese market.

Practical implications

The results suggest that not only the businesses' marketing activities to improve the company image are important, but the government's national promotional strategies to improve the country image are also important. It is suggested that regional heterogeneity of Chinese market should be carefully considered when implementing effective marketing strategies.

Originality/value

The paper provides an in‐depth investigation into how the country image influences Chinese consumers differently from those who are located in different Chinese regions when they perceive product quality from various foreign countries.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 27 July 2010

Eva Martínez and José M. Pina

This paper aims to understand the reciprocal spill‐over effects of brand extensions by testing a comprehensive model that gathers both the brand extension evaluation…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to understand the reciprocal spill‐over effects of brand extensions by testing a comprehensive model that gathers both the brand extension evaluation process and the later influence on brand image.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were obtained from 699 face‐to‐face interviews conducted in Spain. Structural equation modelling was used to test the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

The results indicate that brand extensions have feedback effects on brand image depending on the attitude toward the new product and perceived image fit. Consumer attitude depends, in turn, on initial brand associations, perceived category fit, perceived image fit and consumer innovativeness. Brand familiarity also shows indirect effects.

Research limitations/implications

The model should be tested with extensions of the same (line extensions) or different categories. It is also necessary to analyse non‐fictitious products, and to take different moderating effects into account.

Practical implications

The results suggest how to protect the brand image from unsuitable extension strategies. The paper shows what kind of perceived fit is more important for consumers as well as the direct and indirect role of several variables.

Originality/value

The paper extends previous research by proposing a complete framework that considers the factors that influence either the attitude to the extension or the attitude to the extended brand.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 44 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 73000