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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Clifton P. Campbell

Instructional materials enhance the teaching/learning process by exhibiting information necessary to acquire knowledge and skills. Focuses on printed forms of…

Abstract

Instructional materials enhance the teaching/learning process by exhibiting information necessary to acquire knowledge and skills. Focuses on printed forms of instructional materials and provides detailed information, including examples, on five types of job performance aids, three types of instruction sheets, and two types of modules. Checklists of considerations that affect the quality of finished products are also provided. Job performance aids (JPAs)provide procedural or factual guidance in the performance of tasks. They store essential details in a variety of functional forms for use just before or during task performance. Research shows that JPAs are a cost‐effective supplement or alternative to training. They reduce the time needed to master task performance and facilitate the transfer of learning from the training setting to the job. Instruction sheets assure that all trainees have the same complete and accurate information for performing practical work and for completing assignments. These sheets also help manage large groups of trainees with diverse abilities who are working simultaneously at several different tasks. Modules are carefully structured documents which facilitate self‐directed and self‐paced learning. While their components may vary, modules typically include learning objectives, an introduction, instructional content, directions, learning activities, and test questions with feedback answers. With modules, trainees assume personal responsibility for their progress. Regardless of the care used in their preparation, all types of instructional materials must be evaluated prior to general use. Presents a comprehensive quality control procedure for confirming effectiveness and value. This was prepared to enhance both formal classroom instruction and individual study. Figures, tables, checklists, appendices, and a glossary of keywords and terms, supplement the text in explaining the content.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2016

Mondher Fakhfakh

The purpose of this paper is to measure the understandability of the illustrations provided by the International Federation of Accountants in terms of the structural…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to measure the understandability of the illustrations provided by the International Federation of Accountants in terms of the structural features of international auditors’ reports with modified opinions.

Design/methodology/approach

Measurement of the legibility of reports illustrated by the revised ISA 705 and ISA 706. This paper discusses the compliance level of modified auditors’ reports with the linguistic rules.

Findings

It was found that the standardized illustrations of modified reports are not fully understandable by users of financial statements. The illustrations of modified auditors’ reports are not compliant with several linguistic rules.

Originality/value

This paper provides new original investigation about the linguistic features of illustrations provided by the ISA 705 and ISA 706. This paper discusses the level of unintelligibility of standardized auditors’ reports and the implications for stakeholders.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1983

Charles A. Bunge

At one time, reference librarians considered a good illustrated reference book to be one in which the plates were bound near the text they illustrated, rather than all…

Abstract

At one time, reference librarians considered a good illustrated reference book to be one in which the plates were bound near the text they illustrated, rather than all together at the back of the volume. Now there is an increasing number of reference books with high quality illustrations on almost every page, including works that have been designed around their graphic content. This article explores technological, intellectual, and economic developments that have contributed to this situation. Using recently published reference works as examples, the article argues that these developments have produced dramatic changes in the relationship between the text and illustrations in reference books, as well as important changes in the relationships between the informational content of reference works and the functions of book authorship and publishing. Criteria currently used for the evaluation of reference books, based as they are on characteristics of verbal or text material and on the assumption of traditional relationships among authors, publishers, and the content of reference volumes, are not sufficient for the selection and use of today's heavily illustrated works. Some suggestions toward the development of more appropriate criteria are made.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2015

Mari Juntunen

– The purpose of this paper is to develop the lifecycle and teleology process theory illustrations by uniting processes and their outcomes based on their being bounded in time.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop the lifecycle and teleology process theory illustrations by uniting processes and their outcomes based on their being bounded in time.

Design/methodology/approach

The study combines objective and subjective ontological approaches to organisational development and change processes. The narrative data of corporate rebranding among small B2B companies were gathered through a multiple case study and analysed in relation to flow of time. The illustrations of teleology and lifecycle process theory are modified based on empirical data.

Findings

The underlying logic of the lifecycle and teleology illustrations is found to be the same. The historical processes follow the logic of the lifecycle processes and emphasise the outcomes; the lifecycle process theory illustration is modified by adding outcomes. The current processes are in line with the literal description of the teleology. Teleology processes are illustrated using double-headed arrows between all processes.

Research limitations/implications

Employing the objective and subjective ontological view in the same study might be questioned. The modifications to the process theory illustrations are only one view on the issue and the study does not take a stand on how the imagined future processes might be described.

Practical implications

The study helps researchers and managers better understand the lifecycle and teleology process theory and the role of outcomes in process research. The study should encourage researchers and managers to incorporate the role of process outcomes into their future (business) planning more efficiently, and combine different ontological views.

Originality/value

The study is a rare attempt to develop process theory illustrations.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1989

Stephen A. Osiobe, Ann E. Osiobe and J.D. Okoh

A random sample of 216 primary schoolchildren in Port Harcourt,Nigeria, was interviewed with a view to finding out the influence oftheme and illustrations on their…

Abstract

A random sample of 216 primary schoolchildren in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, was interviewed with a view to finding out the influence of theme and illustrations on their literature preferences. Results of the study indicated that children preferred books written by Nigerian authors with local themes to western books with alien themes. The influence of illustrations, however, seems to be dominant among primary 1 and 2 pupils (aged 5‐7 years) with a decreasing effect on primary 3 and 4 pupils (aged 7‐9 years) and a minimal effect on primary 5 and 6 pupils (aged 9‐11 years).

Details

Library Review, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2018

Lauren Schrock

This paper aims to examine how and why finance is represented in cultural products. Focussing on an illustration by Norman Rockwell for the cover of The Saturday Evening

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine how and why finance is represented in cultural products. Focussing on an illustration by Norman Rockwell for the cover of The Saturday Evening Post, this analysis suggests that financialization is represented through the technique of visually incongruent humour. Humour relays the cultural value of the separation of work and play, and financialization is a tool to make sense of play as work. Addressing why certain financial representations are produced highlights the influence of finance in determining how and what messages about financialization are made public. This analysis of a single illustration suggests a need for further research into comparative and contextual studies of culture and finance.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is a qualitative analysis of The Expense Account (1957), a cover illustration for The Saturday Evening Post.

Findings

In analysing the visually incongruent humour of the illustration, the cultural value of the separation of work and play is muddied by the lack of supervision and undefined organizational space. Freedom of travel and lack of managerial presence suggest that travelling salesmen face anxiety and uncertainty in having to account for their fun activities as work. Accounting is one tool of financialization used to interpret play as work by employees. This illustration was produced in a for-profit context and was therefore influenced by the financial decisions of magazine editors and customers.

Practical implications

Interdisciplinary qualitative analysis of finance and humorous popular cultural images suggests that accounting is a financial tool for making sense of play as work outside fixed organizational spaces. Additional support is given for studying popular culture and finance together, as popular culture is produced within a financial system in which financial decisions determine humorous representations of financialization.

Originality/value

This paper adopts a financial perspective in examining a Norman Rockwell illustration and makes the case for examining how representations of financialization are made by humour and financial influence.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Abstract

Details

Mastering Market Analytics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-835-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1997

Alexandra Franklin

The creation of a digital database of broadside ballads at the Bodleian Library presents the challenge of cataloguing and indexing a large collection of documents…

Abstract

The creation of a digital database of broadside ballads at the Bodleian Library presents the challenge of cataloguing and indexing a large collection of documents containing both textual and visual material. The woodcut illustrations of the ballads will be indexed by subject using ICONCLASS, but it is not clear how this indexing should be integrated with that of the textual material. How does the cataloguing of images differ from the cataloguing of texts? And how successful is ICONCLASS in establishing communication between the indexer and the user?

Details

VINE, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-5728

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Erika Pavlin, Žiga Elsner, Tadej Jagodnik, Borut Batagelj and Franc Solina

– The purpose of this paper is to set an example of how people with severe learning difficulties could be more integrated into our society.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to set an example of how people with severe learning difficulties could be more integrated into our society.

Design/methodology/approach

The installation consists of puzzles in the form of a specially designed table with an integrated touch screen. As the visual templates for the puzzles serve pictures painted by a person with severe learning difficulties. The pieces of the puzzles are manipulated directly by the player on the touch screen presenting an intuitive and easily learned user interface.

Findings

The framework for the work was a creation of an interactive art installation in the form of a game where users assemble puzzles on a touch monitor, housed in a specially designed table. Paintings by a person with severe learning difficulty served as visual templates for the puzzles. The pieces of the puzzles can be manipulated directly by the user on a touch screen presenting an intuitive and easily learned user interface, which stimulates the learning of fine motor skills and encourages practice, thus making it suitable for persons with severe learning difficulties in an art therapy setting.

Practical implications

As the work has the format of an interactive art installation, this enables it to gain publicity through exhibitions in art galleries.

Social implications

The installation demonstrates how people with severe learning difficulties can be integrated into the broader society. At the same time, these people are encouraged to use modern computer information technology, which is becoming a necessity also for this group of users. Ethical issues regarding how this group of people can get involved in such work are also discussed.

Originality/value

Combining the habituation of people with severe learning difficulties with computer technology in the form of a game, and framing the whole process as a fine art undertaking, to win the public recognition, is a novelty in addressing the needs of these people.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1996

Clifton P. Campbell

Research and experience have shown that job performance aids (JPAs) are a cost‐effective alternative or supplement to training. Based on job and task analysis information…

Abstract

Research and experience have shown that job performance aids (JPAs) are a cost‐effective alternative or supplement to training. Based on job and task analysis information, they store essential details on performance in a variety of functional and durable forms for use just before or during task performance. Although most JPAs are in printed (hard copy) form, a series of illustrations or directions on an audio or video tape as well as information on a computer screen are also JPAs when they reduce the amount of information to be remembered, specify what actions to take, and indicate when to take each action. The five basic types of JPAs are procedural guide, worksheet, checklist, decision table and flowchart. Describes each type and provides preparation guidelines, along with examples. Also presents important information on layout and format, including the use of illustrations and how to provide emphasis, as well as on effective writing. A comprehensive four‐step quality control procedure describes how the effectiveness and value of JPAs can be confirmed.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

Keywords

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