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Article

Ihab Hanna Sawalha

This study aims to examine the traditional disaster management cycle; discussing the significance of incorporating contemporary management concepts into the disaster…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the traditional disaster management cycle; discussing the significance of incorporating contemporary management concepts into the disaster management cycle; and proposing a conceptual model that reflects contemporary management insight for the disaster management cycle.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review was made to discuss the significance of moving towards a more contemporary view to the disaster management cycle that brings more value to the final outcomes of the disaster management process. A conceptual model was then proposed to reflect a more contemporary view to the disaster management cycle. The current COVID-19 pandemic has also been addressed explicitly throughout the paper as a case that reflects the necessity of embracing contemporary insight and practise in the traditional disaster management cycle.

Findings

The literature indicates that people worldwide, as well as academics still rely heavily on the traditional disaster management lifecycle to manage disasters and major incidents which consists of four main stages; preparedness, mitigation, response and recovery unrecognizing that each and every disaster is a unique incident itself and that it should be treated differently. Contemporary management thought and insight is still lacking in the study of disaster and emergency management.

Practical implications

This research offers a contemporary view to the traditional disaster management cycle in which recent concepts of management are used to better cope with the uniqueness of the different major incidents. This view fosters wider involvement of individuals and the general public in the disaster management process and highlights elements of creativity and modernity. The current COVID-19 pandemic, despite the many adverse consequences associated with it, has contributed constructively to the ways the traditional disaster management cycle is being implemented and practised worldwide.

Originality/value

This research is expected to be of a substantial value for those interested in improving performance during the various stages of the disaster management process, as well as those interested in improving organizational, social and national resilience. The traditional disaster management cycle tends to be procedural and therefore needs to embrace contemporary management thought and more value-based approaches.

Details

foresight, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

Keywords

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Article

Ihab Hanna Sawalha

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effectiveness of image-repair strategies adopted by organizations to restore their public image and reputation following crisis…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effectiveness of image-repair strategies adopted by organizations to restore their public image and reputation following crisis situations, the lessons learned from these cases and the significance of contextual factors that are likely to affect image-repair efforts and strategies adopted.

Design/methodology/approach

Three cases have been reviewed in this paper: Weather, Jordan; Nestlé Waters, Jordan; and Victoria College School, Jordan. Information was obtained from published materials, such as YouTube commentaries, local newspapers and online news agents, primarily the Jordan Times, which is considered the number one daily in the country. The discussion of these cases is original and based on academic theory and literature.

Findings

Organizations differ in terms of the ways they respond to corporate crises and the strategies they are likely to adopt to restore/recover their reputation and public image.

Practical implications

Corporate reputation or public image is an asset that is built over time. Organizations within all industries seek to secure positive images in the minds of people. The image of an organization however can be threatened by crises. Trust and public image decline when stakeholders feel they have not been adequately informed in times of crises regarding the different attributes of the situation or how the organization is dealing with the crisis. Organizations have the choice to adopt one image-repair strategy at a time or a combination of strategies according to the requirements of the situation.

Originality/value

Image-repair strategies have been examined in American and European contexts but have, to the author’s knowledge, never been examined in the context of Arab organizations and more specifically in the context of Jordanian organizations. This paper therefore provides a new insight into how to apply these strategies in a unique and new context and will also motivate future research in this regard.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

Keywords

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Article

Ihab Hanna Sawalha

This paper aims to investigate the different patterns of organizational behavioural responses to major incidents and develop an original classification of these patterns.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the different patterns of organizational behavioural responses to major incidents and develop an original classification of these patterns.

Design/methodology/approach

An extensive literature review was made to investigate the different patterns of behavioural responses to major incidents and then to develop an original classification of these patterns. Several sources of information, such as case studies, technical reports, academic journal articles and organizational internal reports were used.

Findings

Organizations respond differently to major incidents. This was clear from the different behavioural patterns investigated and identified. Behavioural patterns determine levels of resilience and ability of organizations to overcome and ultimately survive major incidents.

Practical implications

To promote effective and organized behavioural response patterns to major incidents and improve consistency of responses across the organization, relevant authorities should demonstrate to all private and public enterprises the significance of effective behavioural responses, thus enabling them to better respond to various potential emergencies.

Originality/value

A number of models of human behaviour have been introduced in the literature to understand how people respond to emergency situations. They each take a different perspective on human behaviour but no single theory has emerged as the leading paradigm. This highlights the complexity of understanding human behaviour in such situations and the need for a better classification of behavioural patterns. To the author’s knowledge, this is one of very few studies to investigate, identify and categorize behavioural response patterns to major incidents. This research is expected to be of a substantial value for those interested in improving organizational behaviour during major incidents, as well as those interested in improving organizational resilience.

Details

foresight, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

Keywords

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Article

Ihab Hanna Sawalha

The purpose of this paper is threefold: identifying the root causes and other causal factors of terrorism, exploring the recent shifts in terrorist activity, and proposing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is threefold: identifying the root causes and other causal factors of terrorism, exploring the recent shifts in terrorist activity, and proposing a context-centred framework for deterring terrorism risk.

Design/methodology/approach

The first part of this research is based on extensive up-to-date observations made by the author and extracted from real-life settings and social interactions. The second part is based on a survey questionnaire reflecting public views on terrorism and related issues.

Findings

The risk of terrorism risk is increasingly becoming a major concern of all societies including Jordanian. The results have shown that terrorism is context related and that there are several and different root causes for this phenomenon. Many other causal factors have the potential to increase the impact or probability of terrorism risk in Jordan. The existing framework(s) for deterring terrorism risk in Jordan is not adequate and need to be reformed extensively.

Practical implications

This study provides insight to the root causes of the potential terrorist activity in Jordan, as well as other causal factors. It is expected to establish a foundation for policy-makers and decision-makers to start considering the causes of social unrest and subsequently develop appropriate frameworks for mitigating terrorism risk.

Originality/value

This study is made in a time of unprecedented political instability and terrorist activity in the Middle East and the Arab World. It reflects genuine observations and public opinions, thus providing authentic findings and better understanding of the concerns of the society. Most importantly, the study proposes context-related framework for counteracting terrorism activity and future evolution of this phenomenon in the Middle East, in general, and Jordan, in particular.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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Article

Jamal M. Shamieh, Ihab Hanna Sawalha and Hanan M. Madanat

The purpose of this study is to aim at: (1) investigating the vulnerabilities/obstacles that hinder refugees in hosting countries from obtaining quality and adequate…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to aim at: (1) investigating the vulnerabilities/obstacles that hinder refugees in hosting countries from obtaining quality and adequate education and (2) proposing a Framework for Action to transform these vulnerabilities into capacities.

Design/methodology/approach

Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment (VCA) was used for the purpose of this research. A survey strategy was adopted and data were collected using semi-structured interviews with refugee families. One hundred and twenty families were interviewed.

Findings

The study identified a number of vulnerabilities; including mainly unavailability of educational facilities; quality of the available education; social challenges and psychological needs. The findings revealed that there was a lack of comprehensive and strategic frameworks for mitigating refugee educational crises.

Practical implications

The lack of adequate and quality education for refugees in host countries is likely to increase illiteracy levels and subsequently trigger humanitarian and natural disasters on the long run. This research emphasizes the importance of developing comprehensive frameworks for quality and adequate refugee education.

Originality/value

To the author's knowledge, and after an extensive review of the existing literature, this is the first study to employ VCA to investigate the extent of the current refugee educational crisis in Jordan. VCA is more commonly used in the context of natural and environmental disasters threatening societies. Relevant authorities need to be aware of the significance of refugee education at individual, communal and national levels, as well as the significance of education to refugee well-being.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article

Ihab Hanna Sawalha

This is an exploratory study that aims to explore the use (practice) of business continuity management (BCM) and the effectiveness of the BCM approach adopted by…

Abstract

Purpose

This is an exploratory study that aims to explore the use (practice) of business continuity management (BCM) and the effectiveness of the BCM approach adopted by organizations from a variety of sectors.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample of this study consisted of 250 organizations from a variety of sectors: 80 industrial; 15 banking; 25 insurance; 130 services organizations. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data.

Findings

The findings indicated that there is an increased awareness about the use of BCM across different sectors including the industrial, service, banking and insurance and that the current use of BCM is irrespective of a number of organizational characteristics.

Practical implications

This research investigates the current use/practice of BCM across a variety of sectors. It is therefore considered a significant preliminary study that paves the way for further future research studies related to the use of BCM in the Middle East. It also clarifies the current levels of application of BCM which subsequently facilitates and supports the wider adoption of BCM and commitment to adopt the best practices related to it across different sectors.

Originality/value

To the best of author's knowledge, this is one of very few studies which focus on the use/practice of BCM and approach’s effectiveness that have been conducted in the Middle East and in Jordan in particular. It reveals the extent to which BCM is being adopted across the various sectors which in turn reflects the levels of understanding and awareness of the significance of this process for today's organizations and for the continuity of their critical business functions during the occurrence of different sorts of disruptive incidents.

Details

Continuity & Resilience Review, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-7502

Keywords

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Article

Jamal Mousa Shamieh, Ihab Hanna Sawalha, Amer Z. Salman, Emad K. Al-Karablieh, Mohammad A. Tabieh, Hussain F. Al-Qudah and Osama O. Jaara

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to estimate the water demand elasticities using a parametric linear programming (LP) model to provide an insight into the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to estimate the water demand elasticities using a parametric linear programming (LP) model to provide an insight into the accurate and flexible pricing policy of irrigation water in the Jordan Valley; and second, to highlight key risk aspects, related to water demand, which are likely to impact the community.

Design/methodology/approach

A parametric LP model was used in this research. Primary and secondary data were collected.

Findings

Results revealed that the demand elasticity is high in Spring and Summer than in Fall and Winter, meaning that during Spring and Summer farmers are willing to forgo larger amounts of water than in other months. This is because of areas planted during Spring seasons are much less than those of Autumn and Winter.

Practical implications

The Jordan Valley suffers from water scarcity risk, and consequently the area to be planted is not fully utilized, leading to lower cropping intensities. Responsible authorities in Jordan need to address these issues and propose proper solutions in order to reduce further escalation of this risk and subsequent impact on local communities. Insight into the value of water demand elasticities is essential to support and mitigate policy decision making under risk conditions, concerning investments in water supply systems; investments in the water distribution and irrigation systems; efficient allocation of water with competing sectors; setting water pricing and tariffs; setting cost recovery mechanisms, and the risks encountered under lack of mitigated policy decision making.

Originality/value

This is one of few studies that addresses in detail using a parametric LP model the issue of water scarcity, related risks and subsequent impact on society in Jordan. It is expected to help policy and decision makers better formulate future estimates and demand which subsequently reduce related risks.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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Article

Ihab Hanna Sawalha

The term “causes” of disasters is used interchangeably very often with other terms, such as “types” of disasters. Also, causes of disasters are usually explained in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The term “causes” of disasters is used interchangeably very often with other terms, such as “types” of disasters. Also, causes of disasters are usually explained in the literature in an individualistic fashion relating every single disaster with its own causes only. This limits the ability to identify the real causes of disasters. Second, it reduces the ability to create any kind of grouping for the causes of disasters. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss causes of disasters in a more categorical manner.

Design/methodology/approach

An extensive review of the existing literature has been made in order to identify, introduce and discuss theories related to the causes of disasters. Overall, the approach taken is based on theoretical reasoning informed by the literature.

Findings

Disasters, even those which seem to be composite and complex, are not mysterious incidents that cannot be explained or analyzed. Literally, almost all disasters can be diagnosed and the causes of disasters can be identified in a systematic and reasonable manner.

Practical implications

This study provides a better conceptualization and understanding of the causes of disasters. It is believed that this study will improve the decision-making process accompanied with the disaster risk reduction processes by understanding the exact causes of disasters. The study also clarifies the differences between the causes, sources and types of disasters which is extremely significant in disaster lifecycle modeling.

Originality/value

To the author’s knowledge, very few attempts have been made in the literature to capture causes of disasters in a categorical and systematic manner. Almost all disaster occurrences have been discussed in the literature in an individualistic fashion relating every single disaster with its own causes only.

Details

International Journal of Emergency Services, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2047-0894

Keywords

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Article

Ihab Hanna Salman Sawalha

This study aims to explore how insurance organisations interpret organisational resilience; to identify potential objectives, elements and practices of organisational…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore how insurance organisations interpret organisational resilience; to identify potential objectives, elements and practices of organisational resilience within insurance organisations; and to investigate the impact of culture on resilience.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical study in the insurance industry in Jordan was undertaken. The population consists of all 28 insurance companies registered at the Amman Stock Exchange. Data were collected via a survey questionnaire followed by three semi-structured interviews.

Findings

Results revealed that respondents understand the meaning of organisational resilience differently. Various factors constitute organisational resilience in Jordanian insurance organisations. Nevertheless, some key factors that have the potential to improve organisational resilience were missing. Culture influenced the level of organisational resilience considerably.

Practical implications

This study provides insights into the factors that enable organisations to withstand future risks, which, in turn, ensures long-term survival. It also reveals how culture affects the level of organisational resilience. This paper provides a basis for policymakers in Jordan to start actively considering existing resources and cultural trends to introduce new frameworks for improving resilience in the insurance sector.

Originality/value

This study is made in the context of an emerging economy; Jordan. It uses quantitative and qualitative research approaches. It is also one of the few studies to discuss resilience in relation to culture and within the insurance sector.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article

Ihab Hanna Salman Sawalha, Luai Eid Jraisat and Kamal A.M. Al‐Qudah

This research aims to: identify major risks that have the potential to place Jordanian hotels in crisis or disaster situations; investigate the tools/frameworks adopted by…

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to: identify major risks that have the potential to place Jordanian hotels in crisis or disaster situations; investigate the tools/frameworks adopted by Jordanian hotels to manage crises and disasters; and investigate the cultural factors influencing the wider adoption of crisis and disaster management best practices in Jordanian hotels.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of “five‐star” hotels in Jordan was undertaken. Interviewer‐administered questionnaire was conducted followed by semi‐structured interviews with three General Managers from three hotels of different cultural backgrounds: local; regional; and international.

Findings

Results revealed that Jordanian hotels are exposed to a wide range of risks. Jordanian hotels lack effective and comprehensive tools/frameworks for managing crises and disasters. Organizational culture affects the wider adoption of crisis and disaster management best practices within Jordanian hotels.

Practical implications

To be successful in promoting crisis and disaster management in hotels and in the tourism industry more generally, the relevant authorities in Jordan, such as the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities and the Jordanian Hotels Association, should demonstrate to hotels in Jordan how significant crisis and disaster management is, so that they can be able to cope with crises and disasters more efficiently.

Originality/value

This is the first study investigating crisis and disaster management in Jordanian hotels using quantitative and qualitative approaches. This research will be of value to those interested in crisis and disaster management in the tourism industry.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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