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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2017

Nur Alia Sheh Omar and Yap Wing Fen

This paper aims to review the potential application of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in diagnosis of dengue virus (DENV-2) E-protein and the development of SPR to become…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the potential application of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in diagnosis of dengue virus (DENV-2) E-protein and the development of SPR to become an alternative DENV sensor.

Design/methodology/approach

In this review, the existing standard laboratory techniques to diagnosis of DENV are discussed, together with their drawbacks. To overcome these drawbacks, SPR has been aimed to be a valuable optical biosensor for identification of antibodies to the DENV antigen. The review also includes the future studies on three-dimensional poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer-surface-assembled monolayer (SAM)-Au multilayer thin films, which are envisaged to have high potential sensitive and selective detection ability toward target E-proteins.

Findings

Application of SPR in diagnosis of DENV emerged over recent years. A wide range of immobilized biorecognition molecules have been developed to combine with SPR as an effective sensor. The detection limit, sensitivity and selectivity of SPR sensing in DENV have been enhanced from time to time, until the present.

Originality/value

The main purpose of this review is to provide authors with up-to-date and useful information on sensing DENV using SPR and to introduce a novel three-dimensional PAMAM-SAM-Au multilayer thin films for future research on SPR sensing applications.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 30 January 2012

Daniela Lydia Krause, Elif Weidinger, Judith Matz, Agnes Wildenauer, Jenny Katharina Wagner, Michael Obermeier, Michael Riedel, Hans-Jürgen Möller and Norbert Müller

There are several infectious agents in the environment that can cause persistent infections in the host. They usually cause their symptoms shortly after first infection…

Abstract

There are several infectious agents in the environment that can cause persistent infections in the host. They usually cause their symptoms shortly after first infection and later persist as silent viruses and bacteria within the body. However, these chronic infections may play an important role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and Tourette's syndrome (TS). We investigated the distribution of different neurotrophic infectious agents in TS, schizophrenia and controls. A total of 93 individuals were included (schizophrenic patients, Tourette patients and controls). We evaluated antibodies against cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes-simplex virus (HSV), Epstein-Barr virus, Toxoplasma, Mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis/pneumoniae. By comparing schizophrenia and TS, we found a higher prevalence of HSV (P=0.017) and CMV (P=0.017) antibodies in schizophrenic patients. Considering the relationship between schizophrenia, TS and healthy controls, we showed that there are associations for Chlamydia trachomatis (P=0.007), HSV (P=0.027) and CMV (P=0.029). When all measured viruses, bacteria and protozoa were combined, schizophrenic patients had a higher rate of antibodies to infectious agents than TS patients (P=0.049). Tourette and schizophrenic patients show a different vulnerability to infectious agents. Schizophrenic patients were found to have a higher susceptibility to viral infections than individuals with TS. This finding might point to a modification in special immune parameters in these diseases.

Details

Mental Illness, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Brendan Clark, Susan Martin, Sarah Dalton, June Cole, Neil Marsden and Charles G. Newstead

The paper is targeted to health service management teams as an aid to understanding the relationship between investment in process redesign in a clinical laboratory…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper is targeted to health service management teams as an aid to understanding the relationship between investment in process redesign in a clinical laboratory environment and improved quality of service/increased clinical activity.

Design/methodology/approach

An audit of the unit's serum screening capability was performed against the standards of the current UK allocation scheme for cadaveric kidneys. Based on findings of this audit the laboratory's serum screening protocol was redesigned involving development of a new testing strategy and introduction of novel methods. A concurrent review of the effects of this initiative in terms of cadaveric kidney offers received/transplant numbers was undertaken and a cost‐benefit analysis made.

Findings

An improved eligibility of the patient cohort for cadaveric kidney offers was obtained together with a reduced unexpected positive crossmatch rate. These factors have together contributed to an increase in transplant numbers at the centre. Significant cost benefits have been achieved

Research limitations/implications

The relevance of the findings relating to patient eligibility for available cadaveric grafts is limited to organ‐sharing schemes in which recipient sensitisation is considered as part of the allocation process.

Originality/value

The experience reported demonstrates the necessity of assessing the clinical impact of changes in practice when judgements are being made regarding the costs of laboratory services. In this respect the paper is the first from within this discipline to make this association.

Details

Clinical Governance: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7274

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1987

D. Baxter

Infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a public health threat whose significance in the UK has only been generally appreciated over the last 12–18…

Abstract

Infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a public health threat whose significance in the UK has only been generally appreciated over the last 12–18 months. The size of the problem (both current and potential) is difficult to assess, but epidemiological data would suggest that for an urban health district (outside London) one or two residents would have developed Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in 1986, four will do so in 1987 and six in 1988. The incidence of HIV infections during the same period might be as high as 200, 400 and 600 respectively. This may seem a small number in comparison with overall morbidity and mortality; but between September 1990 and June 1991 the same health district might expect 48 AIDS cases to present if the epidemiological patterns remain constant (ie a doubling time for cases of 10 months).

Details

Journal of Management in Medicine, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-9235

Content available
Article
Publication date: 18 February 2021

Steven Davies, Gareth Reginald Terrence White, Anthony Samuel and Helen Martin

Covid-19 has caused many businesses to rethink their short- and potentially long-term workforce operations. The use of lateral flow serology can provide a clinically…

Abstract

Purpose

Covid-19 has caused many businesses to rethink their short- and potentially long-term workforce operations. The use of lateral flow serology can provide a clinically convenient approach for the assessment of prior infection with Covid-19. However, its widespread adoption in organisations seeking to use it to test for workforce immunity is controversial and confusing. This paper aims to explore the paradoxical dilemmas and dialectics immunity workforce testing creates.

Design/methodology/approach

This study involved capturing the ethnographical participation of a chief executive officer (CEO) dealing with the experience of managing the outcomes of Covid-19 workforce immunity testing. The aim was to take a snapshot in time of the CEO's empirical world, capturing their lived experiences to explore how management actions resulting from Covid-19 immunity testing can played out.

Findings

Providing staff with immunity tests at first glance appears sensible, decent and a caring action to take. Nevertheless, once such knowledge is personalised by employees, they can, through dialectic dialogue, feel disadvantaged and harbour feelings of unfairness. Subsequently, this paper suggests that immunity testing may only serve to raise awareness and deepen the original management dilemma of whether testing is a worthwhile activity.

Originality/value

This paper aims to be amongst the first works to empirically explore the workforce management challenges that arise within small businesses within the service sector following the completion of Covid-19 immunity testing of their staff. It seeks to achieve this via utilising the robust theoretical framework of the paradox theory to examine Covid-19's impact upon small business workforce management thinking and practice.

Details

Journal of Work-Applied Management, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2205-2062

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2021

Rumi Iqbal Doewes, Rajit Nair and Tripti Sharma

This purpose of this study is to perfrom the analysis of COVID-19 with the help of blood samples. The blood samples used in the study consist of more than 100 features. So…

Abstract

Purpose

This purpose of this study is to perfrom the analysis of COVID-19 with the help of blood samples. The blood samples used in the study consist of more than 100 features. So to process high dimensional data, feature reduction has been performed by using the genetic algorithm.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors will implement the genetic algorithm for the prediction of COVID-19 from the blood test sample. The sample contains records of around 5,644 patients with 111 attributes. The genetic algorithm such as relief with ant colony optimization algorithm will be used for dimensionality reduction approach.

Findings

The implementation of this study is done through python programming language and the performance evaluation of the model is done through various parameters such as accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and area under curve (AUC).

Originality/value

The implemented model has achieved an accuracy of 98.7%, sensitivity of 96.76%, specificity of 98.80% and AUC of 92%. The results have shown that the implemented algorithm has performed better than other states of the art algorithms.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 21 October 2013

S. Sarkar

Increased evidence for the health benefits of probiotics for health restoration coupled with the consumer's inclination towards a safe, natural and cost-effective…

Abstract

Purpose

Increased evidence for the health benefits of probiotics for health restoration coupled with the consumer's inclination towards a safe, natural and cost-effective substitute for drugs have led application of probiotics as a pharmaceutical agent and are rapidly moving in clinical usage. In this context, this article attempts to highlight the potential of probiotics as a pharmaceutical agent.

Design/methodology/approach

Endeavor has been made to explore the significance of probiotics for the modulation of gut ecology and their action. Potentiality of probiotics for their exploitation as a pharmaceutical agent has also been justified. Limitations of probiotic therapy and the various considerations for probiotic therapy have also been delineated.

Findings

Probiotic organisms influence the physiological and pathological process of the host by modifying the intestinal microbiota, thereby affecting human health. Beneficial effects of probiotics as a pharmaceutical agent seem to be strain and dose dependent and more efficacious with their early introduction. Combination of various probiotics proved to be more efficacious than single strain for exhibiting prophylactic activities.

Research limitations/implications

Reviewed literature indicated that it is difficult to generalize for the beneficial effect of all probiotics for all types of diseases as efficacy of probiotics is strain-dependent and dose-dependent and its clinical application needs long-term investigations.

Practical implications

Clinical trials have displayed that probiotics may alleviate certain disorders or diseases in humans especially those related to gastro-intestinal tract.

Originality/value

Ingestion of fermented dairy products containing probiotic cultures may provide health benefits in certain clinical conditions such as antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, rotavirus-associated diarrhoea, inflammatory bowel disease, inflammatory bowel syndrome, allergenic diseases, cancer, Helicobacter pylori infection and lactose-intolerance. Application of probiotics as a pharmaceutical agent is recommended.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 115 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 4 May 2018

Mauliza and Julia Fitriany

Purpose – This study aimed to describe the typhoid fever profiles based on the examination of IgM anti Salmonella in Cut Meutia Hospital, North Aceh, Indonesia, in…

Abstract

Purpose – This study aimed to describe the typhoid fever profiles based on the examination of IgM anti Salmonella in Cut Meutia Hospital, North Aceh, Indonesia, in 2016–2017.

Design/Methodology/ApproachIgM anti-Salmonella is a serological test which more quickly and accurately diagnoses typhoid fever. This is a cross-sectional study that used secondary data from medical records of a pediatric unit of patients diagnosed with typhoid fever from September 2016 to September 2017. This research identified 469 children based on age, sex, length of stay (LOS), and IgM anti-Salmonella test by univariate analysis.

Findings – The results showed that 56 children (12%) aged 1–5 years old, 164 children (34.9%) aged 6–11 years old, and 246 children (53.1%) > 12 years old, and among them, 46.8% were male. There were 53.7% who had +≥ 6 of IgM anti-Salmonella test and 46.3% had +4 to +5. We found that LOS less than 7 days was 81.4% and LOS more than 7 days was 18.6%. Typhoid fever profiles in Cut Meutia Hospital were common in children aged >12 years old, females, had +≥ 6 of IgM anti-Salmonella test, and LOS less than 7 days.

Research Limitations/Implications – Typhoid fever is an acute systemic infection caused by Salmonella enteric, a serotype typhi. Typhoid fever commonly attacks children and the symptoms experienced were lighter than adults.

Practical Implications – LOS in children with typhoid fever in this research concluded that there were more children with LOS < 7 days compared with those with a duration of ≥ 7 days, that is 382 children (81.4%) and 87 children (18.6%), respectively.

Originality value – From this research, it is concluded that there were 217 children (46.3%) diagnosed with typhoid fever with IgM anti-Salmonella test ranging from +4 up to +5 and 252 children (53.7%) with IgM anti-Salmonella test ≥ 6.

Details

Proceedings of MICoMS 2017
Type: Book
ISBN:

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2001

O. Fraser, S. Sumar, M. Jones and N. Sumar

Human diet consists of an enormous variety of both plants and animal proteins, many of which are potentially immunogenic. Industrial processing of foods and digestion in…

Abstract

Human diet consists of an enormous variety of both plants and animal proteins, many of which are potentially immunogenic. Industrial processing of foods and digestion in the gastrointestinal tract causes changes and breakdown of proteins into peptides, which are also potential immunogens. Foods commonly known to cause allergic reactions are fish, milk, eggs, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes and meat. Once sensitised to a particular antigen, subsequent exposure may result in a marked and immediate reaction characterised by vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, itching and swelling of the mouth and skin, dizziness and occasionally systemic anaphylaxis. Allergic reactions involve complex processes and interactions between the allergen and immunological components in the digestive tract such as antigen absorption, processing and presentation, T cell and B cell activation, development of oral tolerance or allergic sensitivity, antigen‐specific IgE antibody synthesis. Allergen binding to allergen‐specific mast cell membrane‐bound IgE antibodies triggers mast cell degranulation. This results in the release of histamine and other chemotactic mediators responsible for clinical symptoms.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1986

D. Baxter

This paper highlights defects in the UK measles control programme, and identifies possible reasons for this. The consequences of continuing low uptake rates are predicted…

Abstract

This paper highlights defects in the UK measles control programme, and identifies possible reasons for this. The consequences of continuing low uptake rates are predicted on the basis of modelling theory. Proposals that could be implemented by district and regional health authorities are made.

Details

Journal of Management in Medicine, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-9235

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