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Book part
Publication date: 9 July 2004

Peter J Burke

Identity verification is the ongoing process of controlling perceptions of self-relevant meanings in a situation so that they correspond to the meanings held in the…

Abstract

Identity verification is the ongoing process of controlling perceptions of self-relevant meanings in a situation so that they correspond to the meanings held in the identity standard that defines who one is in the situation. Identity control theory posits that when a disturbance to this process occurs leading to a lack of such correspondence, a person’s identities are not verified. As a result, they engage in behavior that serves to counteract the disturbance and change meanings and resources in the situation so that one’s reflected appraisals or perceived self-relevant meanings once again match the meanings held in one’s identity standard (Burke, 1991, 1996; Stets & Burke, 1996, 2003). Accompanying this cognitive-behavioral process, there is an affective response to the discrepancy between perceptions and standard (Burke, 1991, 1996). Prior work has shown that when the discrepancy is large or is increasing, negative emotions result; and, when the discrepancy is small or decreasing, positive affect results (Burke & Stets, 1999; Cast & Burke, 2002; Ellestad & Stets, 1998; Stets, 2003; Stets & Tsushima, 2001).

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Theory and Research on Human Emotions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-108-8

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Article
Publication date: 8 December 2020

Daniel B. Le Roux and Douglas A. Parry

Online vigilance is a novel construct which describes individual differences in users' cognitive orientation to online connectedness, their attention to and integration of…

Abstract

Purpose

Online vigilance is a novel construct which describes individual differences in users' cognitive orientation to online connectedness, their attention to and integration of online-related cues and stimuli and their prioritisation of online communication. Its proponents argue that it is acquired through the processes of instrumental and attentional training that underlie media use behaviours. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the role of three personal characteristics (emotional intelligence, rumination and identity distress) as predictors of online vigilance in addition to media use behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors adopted an exploratory frame and followed a survey-methodology to collect data among a sample of university students (n = 812). The resulting data were analysed through a hierarchical multiple regression process in which four models were considered.

Findings

The findings indicate that while media use behaviours (daily smartphone use, social media use, messaging, video watching and media multitasking) predict online vigilance, their combined effect is weak. However, when considering these behaviours in combination with trait rumination and identity distress, a moderate effect is observable.

Research limitations/implications

While the findings do not permit causal inference, it suggests that two personal characteristics, trait rumination and identity distress, play an important role in determining an individual's tendency or ability to psychologically disconnect from their online spheres. This provides an initial step towards the theorisation of online vigilance and the identification of individuals who may be at risk of acquiring it.

Originality/value

Online vigilance is a novel construct which has only been investigated in a small number of studies. However, its emphasis on psychological connectedness presents a unique and important development in the context of permanently online, permanently connected living. The present study is the first to explore its association with personal characteristics.

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Information Technology & People, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 24 January 2022

Anna Vredeveld and Selcan Kara

The purpose of this study is to examine the behavioral and emotional outcomes of nostalgic brand meanings derived from brand use that occurs in the early stages of a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the behavioral and emotional outcomes of nostalgic brand meanings derived from brand use that occurs in the early stages of a romantic relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses survey data (n = 656) and relies on structural equation modeling to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Relationship brand nostalgia has implications for how the relationship partners use the brand together as part of celebrating special occasions, how connected the brand is to their relational identity and how upset they would be if the brand was discontinued. Additionally, interpersonal relationship characteristics (relationship satisfaction and relationship power) influence these outcomes of relationship brand nostalgia.

Research limitations/implications

The findings from this research show that it is important to account for real (experienced) brand nostalgia when considering behavioral and emotional implications of nostalgia in consumer–brand relationships. Specifically, brand use as part of early romantic relationship milestones influences the creation of nostalgic brand meanings, which in turn influence shared brand use, relational brand connections and brand separation distress.

Practical implications

Brand managers can increase relational brand connections and brand separation distress by encouraging shared brand use as part of romantic relationships milestones.

Originality/value

This research addresses gaps in extant research by examining the outcomes of relationship brand nostalgia, which is defined as brand nostalgia anchored in shared brand use that occurred as part of early relationship milestones.

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Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2014

Sue Holttum

The purpose of this paper is to summarise two 2014 research papers that highlight the role of social interactions and the social world in recovery in the context of mental…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to summarise two 2014 research papers that highlight the role of social interactions and the social world in recovery in the context of mental distress.

Design/methodology/approach

The author summarise two papers: one is about two theories from social psychology that help us understand social identity – our sense of who we are. The other brings together and looks at the similarities and differences between ten different therapies that can be called resource-oriented – that is, they focus on people's strengths and resources rather than what is wrong with them.

Findings

The paper on social identity gives a convincing case for incorporating teaching about social identity – and the social groups to which people belong – into the training of mental health professionals. The paper on resource-oriented therapies suggests that social relationships are a main component of all ten therapies examined. This second paper suggested a need for more research and theory relating to resource-oriented therapies. Social identity theory could help address this issue. Mental health services may be able to help people more by focusing on their established and desired social identities and group-belonging, and their strengths, than is usual.

Originality/value

These two papers seem timely given the growing recognition of the role of social factors in the development and maintenance of mental distress. More attention to social factors in recovery could help make it more self-sustaining.

Details

Mental Health and Social Inclusion, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-8308

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Book part
Publication date: 7 November 2018

Lindsey M. Ibañez and Steven H. Lopez

Job loss and long-term unemployment can have pervasive negative impacts on well-being. At its most extreme, unemployment is accompanied by feelings of shame, humiliation…

Abstract

Job loss and long-term unemployment can have pervasive negative impacts on well-being. At its most extreme, unemployment is accompanied by feelings of shame, humiliation, insecurity, and worthlessness, as well as damage to cherished identities and narratives of self. Scholars have investigated how the unemployed attempt to repair these damaged identities, but little is known about how network members participate in the identity reconstruction process. Social support has been shown to ameliorate the negative psychological effects of unemployment, but studies have also found that the unemployed are reluctant to ask for assistance and often perceive network members as a source of stress rather than as a source of support. To understand why social support can be experienced both positively and negatively by the unemployed, we draw upon 84 in-depth qualitative interviews with men and women who experienced unemployment during the extended economic downturn associated with the Great Recession. We find that social support ameliorates unemployment when it bolsters identities important to recipients, and exacerbates unemployment when it undermines such identities. We also show how the unemployed respond to identity-threatening support: by avoiding it, rejecting it, or reframing it as reciprocity. Our analysis contributes new insights into the relationship between social support and identities, as well as a deeper understanding of the noneconomic costs of the slow economic recovery following the Great Recession.

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Race, Identity and Work
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-501-6

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Jan E. Stets and Peter J. Burke

The purpose of this chapter is to review the historical development of identity theory from 1988 to the present, and then outline some thoughts about future directions for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to review the historical development of identity theory from 1988 to the present, and then outline some thoughts about future directions for the theory.

Methodology/Approach

The chapter discusses major advances in identity theory over the past 25 years such as the incorporation of the perceptual control system into the theory, the introduction of “resources” in which symbolic and sign meanings are important, new views of the social structure, the relevance of the situation in influencing the identity process, the idea of different bases of identities, broadening our understanding of multiple identities, studying identity change, and bringing in emotions into the theory.

Findings

Throughout the review, empirical work is identified and briefly discussed that supports the major advances of the theory.

Research limitations

The chapter suggests a number of ways that identity theory may be developed in the future such as examining negative or stigmatized identities. Additionally, there is a discussion as to ways in which the theory may be tied to other theoretical traditions such as affect control theory, exchange theory, and social identity theory.

Social Implications

Identity theory has had a number of applications to various areas in society, including understanding crime, education, race/ethnicity, gender, the family, and the environment.

Originality/Value of Chapter

This is the most recent overview of identity theory over the past 25 years. It becomes clear to the reader that the theory offers a way of understanding the person as a cognitive, emotional, and behavioral agent who influences the structure of society but who is also influenced by the social structure.

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Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-078-0

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2013

Reimara Valk, Mandy van der Velde, Marloes van Engen and Betina Szkudlarek

The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence of cultural identity change, organizational and social support and cultural distance on repatriation experiences of…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence of cultural identity change, organizational and social support and cultural distance on repatriation experiences of Indian international assignees.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi‐structured interviews were held with 19 Indians on international assignment in The Netherlands and 11 Indians repatriated from The Netherlands. Respondents were asked to reflect on their cultural identity changes and the effects of social support, organizational support and cultural distance between the host and the home country on their international assignment and repatriation experiences. Iterative thematic analyses revealed five central themes: cultural identity independence; knowledge utilization and organizational learning; social network support; global career prospects in the Indian economy; work‐life balance.

Findings

Cultural identity changes ranged from low adaptation to Dutch culture and happiness on return to India through to high cultural flexibility and readiness to move to another sojourn. The majority of respondents reported great appreciation by their supervisors and co‐workers and utilization of their knowledge gained in The Netherlands. These factors, in addition to good career prospects and social support from their informal networks, contributed positively to their repatriation experiences.

Originality/value

This study challenges the frequently reported negative repatriation experiences of sojourners from the West.

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Book part
Publication date: 18 September 2006

Bradley J. Alge, Jerald Greenberg and Chad T. Brinsfield

We present a model of organizational monitoring that integrates organizational justice and information privacy. Specifically, we adopt the position that the formation of…

Abstract

We present a model of organizational monitoring that integrates organizational justice and information privacy. Specifically, we adopt the position that the formation of invasiveness and unfairness attitudes is a goal-driven process. We employ cybernetic control theory and identity theory to describe how monitoring systems affect one's ability to maintain a positive self-concept. Monitoring provides a particularly powerful cue that directs attention to self-awareness. People draw on fairness and privacy relevant cues inherent in monitoring systems and embedded in monitoring environments (e.g., justice climate) to evaluate their identities. Discrepancies between actual and desired personal and social identities create distress, motivating employees to engage in behavioral self-regulation to counteract potentially threatening monitoring systems. Organizational threats to personal identity goals lead to increased invasiveness attitudes and a commitment to protect and enhance the self. Threats to social identity lead to increased unfairness attitudes and lowered commitment to one's organization. Implications for theory and research on monitoring, justice, and privacy are discussed along with practical implications.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-426-3

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Article
Publication date: 31 October 2018

Felicity Chapman

Much has been written about helping those with dementia. But what about those for whom distress is not primarily related to a neurological cause and there is no…

Abstract

Purpose

Much has been written about helping those with dementia. But what about those for whom distress is not primarily related to a neurological cause and there is no psychiatric history? The purpose of this paper is to offer a guide for allied health professionals and family carers to manage distress in older people who are able to engage in language based communication and who are experiencing significant change or loss.

Design/methodology/approach

This practice informed paper draws on the authors’ extensive experience working as a mental health social worker who specializes in work with older people in the community and in care, with family carers and in educating allied health professionals on how to manage presentations of distress in older people.

Findings

Three foundational management strategies are discussed: understand the reason for distress, implement the C.A.R.E. Plan and maximize comfort in exploration and referral.

Research limitations/implications

This viewpoint piece has not been substantiated through research and does not reflect training in the field of clinical geropsychology.

Originality/value

The ideas in this paper are original and are practical solutions to common problems that can be faced by workers or family in close contact with older people. The information can be applied immediately to whatever setting is relevant for the reader and is written in easy to understand language. Furthermore, its aim is not only to increase skill and confidence for the reader but also to promote the emotional and psychological wellbeing of older people.

Details

Working with Older People, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-3666

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2011

Jason Stoner, Pamela L. Perrewé and Timothy P. Munyon

The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model that discerns when and how extra role behaviors result in positive versus negative outcomes for individuals and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model that discerns when and how extra role behaviors result in positive versus negative outcomes for individuals and organizations. The focus is on how employees' citizenship identities shape extra‐role behaviors which include both organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) and contextual performance behaviors (CPBs).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses role identity theory as the theoretical lens to develop the model of extra‐role behaviors, distinguishing between OCBs and CPBs.

Findings

While extra‐role behaviors are generally associated with positive organizational functioning, these behaviors also have been linked to negative individual outcomes, such as work‐family conflict, role overload, and reduced task performance. Based on previous research and theory, a conceptual model is developed that explains when extra‐role behaviors will occur, when and why these behaviors will be internalized as an identity, and how identities affect whether employees engage in OCBs or CPBs. Further, the paper examines the influence of these extra‐role behaviors on long term positive and negative outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

The main research implication of this paper is the use of role identity theory to further understanding of the nature of extra‐role behaviors.

Originality/value

The paper aims to offer a comprehensive theoretically based model to explain OCBs and incorporates research conducted to date to develop the model.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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