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To examine the role of predicted mean vote (PMV) in air‐conditioned environments by conducting a thermal comfort study.
A formal statistical approach was adopted for the credibility of the study. Thermal measurements and questionnaire filling were carried out in commercial offices to collect the required data. Statistical analysis on the collected data and logical reasoning were then employed to derive the conclusions.
Provide an evidence to support PMV to be an appropriate thermal comfort index in air‐conditioned environments. Guarantee high productivity of occupants by using PMV in air‐conditioning control.
Future research work should be carried out to investigate any significant relationship between improvement in PMV and the profits gained by occupants inside an air‐conditioned space. With such relationship, it is possible to develop an intelligent air‐conditioning control to yield the most cost‐effective thermal environments for commercial offices.
Air‐conditioning engineers are highly recommended to employ PMV to assess the thermal comfort environment in air‐conditioned offices.
This paper highlights the importance aspect on choosing a thermal comfort index for comfort assessment in air‐conditioned offices. The index itself should not consider adaptive actions. Otherwise, the productivity of occupants would be severely deteriorated. It is well known that PMV is the thermal comfort index that can fulfill this requirement.
Gives an in depth view of the strategies pursued by the world’s leading chief executive officers in an attempt to provide guidance to new chief executives of today…
Gives an in depth view of the strategies pursued by the world’s leading chief executive officers in an attempt to provide guidance to new chief executives of today. Considers the marketing strategies employed, together with the organizational structures used and looks at the universal concepts that can be applied to any product. Uses anecdotal evidence to formulate a number of theories which can be used to compare your company with the best in the world. Presents initial survival strategies and then looks at ways companies can broaden their boundaries through manipulation and choice. Covers a huge variety of case studies and examples together with a substantial question and answer section.
Presents a special issue, enlisting the help of the author’s students and colleagues, focusing on age, sex, colour and disability discrimination in America. Breaks the…
Presents a special issue, enlisting the help of the author’s students and colleagues, focusing on age, sex, colour and disability discrimination in America. Breaks the evidence down into manageable chunks, covering: age discrimination in the workplace; discrimination against African‐Americans; sex discrimination in the workplace; same sex sexual harassment; how to investigate and prove disability discrimination; sexual harassment in the military; when the main US job‐discrimination law applies to small companies; how to investigate and prove racial discrimination; developments concerning race discrimination in the workplace; developments concerning the Equal Pay Act; developments concerning discrimination against workers with HIV or AIDS; developments concerning discrimination based on refusal of family care leave; developments concerning discrimination against gay or lesbian employees; developments concerning discrimination based on colour; how to investigate and prove discrimination concerning based on colour; developments concerning the Equal Pay Act; using statistics in employment discrimination cases; race discrimination in the workplace; developments concerning gender discrimination in the workplace; discrimination in Japanese organizations in America; discrimination in the entertainment industry; discrimination in the utility industry; understanding and effectively managing national origin discrimination; how to investigate and prove hiring discrimination based on colour; and, finally, how to investigate sexual harassment in the workplace.
Devotes the entire journal issue to managing human behaviour in US industries, with examples drawn from the airline industry, trading industry, publishing industry, metal products industry, motor vehicle and parts industry, information technology industry, food industry, the airline industry in a turbulent environment, the automotive sales industry, and specialist retailing industry. Outlines the main features of each industry and the environment in which it is operating. Provides examples, insights and quotes from Chief Executive Officers, managers and employees on their organization’s recipe for success. Mentions the effect technology has had in some industries. Talks about skilled and semi‐skilled workers, worker empowerment and the formation of teams. Addresses also the issue of change and the training that is required to deal with it in different industry sectors. Discusses remuneration packages and incentives offered to motivate employees. Notes the importance of customers in the face of increased competition. Extracts from each industry sector the various human resource practices that companies employ to manage their employees effectively ‐ revealing that there is a wide diversity in approach and what is right for one industry sector would not work in another. Offers some advice for managers, but, overall, fails to summarize what constitutes effective means of managing human behaviour.
A CORRESPONDENT complains that he has undertaken a course for his final examination, after spending six years from Dunkirk to the Elbe far removed from library opportunities—only to find that librarians and libraries are building up their staffs now. The Times Literary Supplement, he says, carries column after column of advertisements of desirable posts for which he, as he thinks, is a desirable and legitimate aspirant, but he is barred by his academic obligations. This appears to be a genuine grievance and we place it first in these notes in the hope that authorities, and especially librarians, may be induced to consider it. It may be answered that there is a present urgent need to tune up libraries of every kind to meet the great public need and that many of them have already waited some years. It is perhaps a pity that they did not wait a little longer so that the men who deserve most of the country could have been brought into the competition.
Investigates perceived ethical behaviour by surveying 150 Indian managers, recognizing that perceived ethicality of behaviour differs depending on an individual’s life…
Investigates perceived ethical behaviour by surveying 150 Indian managers, recognizing that perceived ethicality of behaviour differs depending on an individual’s life experience and developed values. Hypothesizes that people over 40, women, and more highly educated people will interpret ethical business practice more stringently. Records the methodology used, including the demographic breakdown of the sample group. Uses Likert scales and t‐tests to assess the data. Finds significant gender, age and educational differences in perceived ethical behaviour. Recommends further research into the influence of other variables and wonders if national differences – this study was one of a very few that did not use Norther American samples – accounts for or affects ethical perceptions.
Uses experiences in Bulgaria to exemplify market entry and control strategies employed by franchisors in a business environment that is geographically and culturally…
Uses experiences in Bulgaria to exemplify market entry and control strategies employed by franchisors in a business environment that is geographically and culturally remote from the West. Carries out interviews in 1996 with Bulgarian franchisors and franchisees to test a number of hypotheses relating to issues including the type of franchisor, system densities, market entry strategies and monitoring tactics. Identifies 17 environmental factors ‐ cultural, organisational, political and legal ‐ which represent possible areas of conflict between the franchisor and franchisee. Establishes that franchisors adapt to a remote business environment in a variety of ways in respect of both market entry and monitoring strategies ; establishes some significant correlations between different types of franchisors and their strategies. Finds that western franchisors and Bulgarian owned firms often place different emphasis on the relative importance of environmental factors. Observes a broad variation in market entry tactics. Recommends that franchisors need to establish criteria to establish risks in remote business environments and devise appropriate strategies prior to entry.
Explains the auditing problems encountered by multinational companies under the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the Regulation of Technology Transfers and the…
Explains the auditing problems encountered by multinational companies under the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the Regulation of Technology Transfers and the complications of resource allocation in countries with different cultures to the USA. Highlights currency fluctuations, human resources and environmental audit. Lists some of the differences between US and foreign auditor independence and auditing standards. Lays down the requirements for an auditor on foreign assignment.
Studies the characteristics, control and performance of joint ventures producing a model based on four cases. Explains the theory of complementary strategic objectives…
Studies the characteristics, control and performance of joint ventures producing a model based on four cases. Explains the theory of complementary strategic objectives, and the need for delineating specific transaction costs and management controls under differing cultures. Interviews managers of four Sino‐American Joint Ventures in manufacturing for several years. Finds that the US partner controlled the technology, the Chinese partner wanted to reduce imports and import management and product skills. Focuses on raw material sourcing as a cause of conflict, as well as slow learning and high transaction costs from a poorly controlled system. Points out the keenness for incentive payments among Chinese workers and the reluctance by Chinese managers to have their performance evaluated.