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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 16 August 2022

Ibrahim El-Sayed Ebaid

This study aims to examine whether there are differences between financial statements prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and financial…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine whether there are differences between financial statements prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and financial statements prepared in accordance with local accounting standards in terms of its ability to present the financial conditions of companies listed on the Saudi Stock Exchange as one of the emerging markets.

Design/methodology/approach

Data on study variables were obtained from the published financial statements of 67 of listed companies in the Saudi Stock Exchange during the period 2014–2019. The study addressed the research hypotheses by using Altman Z-score model. Both the T-test and Wilcoxon rank test were used to investigate the significance of differences between the values of Z-score and the individual variables included in the model in the pre- and post-IFRS mandatory adoption periods.

Findings

The results revealed a decrease in the values of Z-score as well as the values of the individual variables included in the model in the period following the adoption of IFRS than it was before the adoption of IFRS, which indicates the ability of IFRS to show the financial conditions of companies more transparently than local accounting standards. However, the results of the T-test and Wilcoxon test showed that these decreases were not statistically significant.

Research limitations/implications

This study has some limitations, including the small sample size as a result of the small size of the Saudi Stock Exchange, As well as the reliance of this study only on the Altman model with its five variables in assessing financial conditions without examining the impact of other factors that may affect the financial conditions of companies.

Practical implications

Financial conditions of the companies have important implications for multiple parties such as management, government, investors and others as an early warning sign that enables them to take the necessary measures early before the actual bankruptcy occurs and what results in costs.

Originality/value

Although assessing financial conditions of the companies is one of the basic uses of accounting information, this topic has not received sufficient attention as a means to test the benefits of adopting IFRS, especially in emerging markets such as Saudi Stock Exchange. This is the first study to examine the impact of adopting IFRS on the transparency of financial reporting in assessing financial conditions in Saudi Arabia.

Details

PSU Research Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2399-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 May 2022

Ibrahim El-Sayed Ebaid

Whistleblowing has received increasing attention and support in recent years as a means of detecting and correcting illegal, unethical or illegitimate practices in organizations…

Abstract

Purpose

Whistleblowing has received increasing attention and support in recent years as a means of detecting and correcting illegal, unethical or illegitimate practices in organizations. This study aims to examine the extent to which accounting students in Saudi Arabia, as prospective accountants, have the courage to blow the whistle.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire survey was administered to a sample of final year accounting students in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire contained four groups of questions aimed at exploring the students' reaction to whistleblowing, the whistleblowing channel that students prefer, the encouraging factors for whistleblowing and the factors that discourage whistleblowing from the students' point of view. The instrument questions were developed with reference to previous studies conducted in other countries.

Findings

The findings of the study revealed that accounting students have the courage to whistle the wrongdoing. What encourages students to blow the whistle is their perception that fraud and corruption is an unethical behavior which goes against religious values and that the wrongdoer must take appropriate punishment. However, there are some factors that negatively affect the students' courage to blow the whistle, the most important of which is the fear of retaliation, in addition to their feeling that the wrongdoer will not be held accountable.

Research limitations/implications

A sample of accounting students from one university limits generalizing the results to the population of accounting students in Saudi Arabia. Future research could examine this issue using larger samples of students, employees or professional accountants.

Practical implications

This study serves the Saudi vision 2030, which aims to combat fraud and corruption which negatively affect economic development. This study sheds light on the encouraging factors for Whistleblowing, which must be strengthened, as well as the discouraging factors, which must be addressed to mitigate their impact.

Originality/value

This study explores whistleblowing in Saudi Arabia where there is no research on this topic. This study comes at the appropriate time, as Saudi Arabia is currently witnessing an increasing interest in combating corruption, whether in the public or private sectors, and has recently introduced several legislations, as well as initiatives to encourage citizens to whistle the wrongdoing.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 January 2023

Ibrahim El-Sayed Ebaid

This study aims to explore the relationship between sustainability reporting and the financial performance of companies listed on the Saudi Stock Exchange as one of the emerging…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the relationship between sustainability reporting and the financial performance of companies listed on the Saudi Stock Exchange as one of the emerging markets.

Design/methodology/approach

The study collects data from the corporate annual reports of a sample of 67 companies listed on the Saudi stock exchanges during the period 2016–2019. Financial performance has been measured using four accounting-based measures: return on assets, return on equity, return on capital employed and earnings per share. The relationship between financial performance and sustainability reporting has been estimated using a sustainability index that includes three dimensions (environment, health and safety, and social responsibility).

Findings

The results reveal that the sustainability reporting of Saudi companies, in general, is low. The results also indicate that there is a positive relationship between corporate financial performance and sustainability reporting, whether for the composite index or the three sub-indexes. However, this positive relationship is not statistically significant.

Research limitations/implications

Results of this study are limited to the context in which the study was conducted, which is the Saudi stock exchange from 2016 to 2019, and then the generalization of the results may be limited to listed companies operating in a similar social and economic context. The study also depends on accounting-based measures for financial performance without using market-based measures.

Originality/value

This study comes at the appropriate time with Saudi Arabia's adoption of a comprehensive economic plan called “Saudi Vision 2030”, of which sustainability is at the heart. Despite the efforts of the Saudi government to support sustainability, studies on this issue are still very few.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 65 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 April 2022

Ibrahim El-Sayed Ebaid

Because of the increasing number of corruption and financial fraud cases, especially in developing countries, the education of forensic accounting has become important and…

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Abstract

Purpose

Because of the increasing number of corruption and financial fraud cases, especially in developing countries, the education of forensic accounting has become important and universities should offer it as part of its curriculum. This study aims to explore the current status of forensic accounting education in Saudi Arabia as a developing country and its adequacy from the perspectives of accounting students in Saudi universities.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire survey was administered to a sample of accounting students from four Saudi universities. The questionnaire contained five groups of questions aimed at exploring the students’ perception of the benefits of forensic accounting education, their perception of the current status of integrating forensic accounting in the accounting curriculum and their satisfaction with this status, their desire for greater coverage of forensic accounting in the accounting curriculum, their opinion regarding the appropriate approach for covering forensic accounting in the accounting curriculum and the topics of forensic accounting that should be covered.

Findings

The findings of this study revealed a clear weakness in integrating forensic accounting into accounting education in Saudi universities. This weak level of integration does not satisfy most students who believe in the increased demand for the forensic accounting profession in the future and therefore the need to make greater coverage of forensic accounting in the accounting curriculum to acquire the skills that qualify them to work in this profession after graduation. The students expressed that the appropriate approach for covering forensic accounting in the accounting curriculum is to add a stand- alone course that includes all forensic accounting topics.

Practical implications

The results of this study provide indications to the administrators of Saudi universities to start developing accounting curriculum to integrate forensic accounting topics into accounting education. This will result in an increase in the effectiveness of the role of these universities in achieving the goals of the Saudi Vision 2030 which aims to achieve transparency and combat corruption and fraud in Saudi Arabia.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the existing literature concerning the forensic accounting by focusing on the integration of forensic accounting in accounting education in Saudi Arabia as context that has not previously examined.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 64 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 October 2021

Ibrahim El-Sayed Ebaid

Undergraduate accounting program at Umm Al-Qura University in Saudi Arabia is a unique case. The program includes 147 credit hours of which 28 credit hours are religious courses…

Abstract

Purpose

Undergraduate accounting program at Umm Al-Qura University in Saudi Arabia is a unique case. The program includes 147 credit hours of which 28 credit hours are religious courses. This study aims to examine the effect of teaching these religious courses on students’ ethical perceptions and decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted for a sample of accounting students at Umm Al-Qura University. The sample was divided into two groups; the first group includes students who did not study religious courses, while the second group includes students who study religious courses. The questionnaire contained three groups of questions that aimed to explore students’ perceptions of ethics in general, students’ perceptions of business ethics and explored their ethical attitudes regarding some accounting decisions that involve ethical dilemmas. Independent two-sample t-test and multiple regression analysis were used to determine whether the responses of the two groups were significantly different.

Findings

The findings of the study revealed that teaching religious courses led to an improvement in students’ perception of business ethics and an improvement in students’ ethical decision-making. However, the results of the independent sample t-test showed that this improvement was not significant. The results of the study also revealed that male students tend to make less ethical decisions than female students.

Research limitations/implications

The findings offer an indication for those responsible for managing the accounting program at Umm Al-Qura University to start developing the program so that some of the general religious courses are replaced with specialized courses in accounting ethics that focus directly on ethical dilemmas faced by the accountant when practicing the accounting profession.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the current literature related to examining the effect of teaching ethics courses on the ethical perception of accounting students by focusing on accounting students in Saudi Arabia as a context that has not been examined before.

Details

Society and Business Review, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5680

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 10 February 2022

Ibrahim El-Sayed Ebaid

The purpose of this study is to examine the nexus between corporate characteristics and timeliness of financial reporting in Saudi Arabia. Specifically, this study investigates…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the nexus between corporate characteristics and timeliness of financial reporting in Saudi Arabia. Specifically, this study investigates the relationship between financial reporting timeliness and both corporate size, profitability, leverage and institutional ownership.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 67 of nonfinancial companies listed in the Saudi market during the period 2015–2018 was used. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to analyze the relationship between the four corporate characteristics and timeliness of financial reporting.

Findings

The findings revealed that financial reporting timeliness is significantly correlated with three of the corporate's characteristics, which are company size, profitability and leverage, while there is no significant effect of institutional ownership on the timeliness of financial reporting.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this study may not be generalizable to all companies listed in the Saudi market as a result of limiting the study to nonfinancial companies and excluding financial companies from the sample. Future research may explore the determinants of the timeliness of these companies' financial reporting.

Practical implications

Given the significant interest expressed by investors, regulators and researchers in the field of financial reporting timeliness, especially in emerging markets where financial reports are almost the main and only source of information, this study highlights the role that corporate characteristics play in influencing the financial reporting timeliness in Saudi Arabia as one of emerging markets.

Originality/value

Despite the importance of financial reporting timeliness, there are very few studies that have examined this issue in Saudi Arabia. This study contributes to bridging this gap by examining the relationship between the corporate characteristics and the timeliness of financial reports.

Details

Journal of Money and Business, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2634-2596

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 June 2022

Ibrahim El-Sayed Ebaid

This study aims to examine the relationship between corporate governance mechanisms, namely, board independence, board size and gender diversity, and the extent of corporate…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the relationship between corporate governance mechanisms, namely, board independence, board size and gender diversity, and the extent of corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure for companies listed on the Saudi stock exchange.

Design/methodology/approach

Data has been extracted from the annual reports of a sample of 67 companies listed on the Saudi Stock Exchange during the period 2014–2019. Three panel data techniques have been used to investigate the association between governance variables and the extent of CSR disclosures after statistically controlling the effects of the size, leverage and profitability of the companies.

Findings

The results of this study indicate that board independence and board size have positive and significant associations with the extent of CSR disclosures. However, the study finds that the percentage of female representation on the board has a positive effect on the extent of CSR disclosure, but that this effect is not statistically significant.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this study are limited to the context in which the study was conducted, which is the Saudi stock exchange during the period 2014–2019, and then the generalization of the results may be limited to listed companies operating in a similar social and economic context. Also, the data sources in this study were limited to the annual reports of companies only.

Practical implications

The results of this study provide some indications for policymakers in Saudi Arabia to take what is necessary to promote corporate governance mechanisms and, therefore, enhance CSR practices.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature on CSR by providing empirical evidence on the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on the extent of CSR disclosure from one of the developing countries, which is Saudi Arabia.

Details

Journal of Global Responsibility, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2041-2568

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 August 2021

Ibrahim El-Sayed Ebaid

The purpose of this study is to explore undergraduate accounting students' perceptions and understanding of the concept of sustainable development. Moreover, this study aims to…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore undergraduate accounting students' perceptions and understanding of the concept of sustainable development. Moreover, this study aims to explore students' perceptions of the integration of sustainable development issues in accounting education in Saudi Arabia as an emerging country.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire survey was administered to a sample of accounting students from four Saudi universities. The questionnaire contained five groups of questions aimed at exploring the extent of students' awareness and understanding of the concept of sustainable development, their perceptions of the importance of sustainable development for society, their perceptions of the important role of accounting in sustainable development, their satisfaction with the level of integrating sustainable development issues in accounting education at the present time and their opinions about the appropriate approach to integrate sustainable development issues in accounting education.

Findings

The findings of the study revealed that although most of the students have heard about the concept of sustainable development from the media and perceive the importance of sustainable development for society, they have a low level of understanding of this concept due to the apparent weakness in integrating sustainable development issues in accounting education in Saudi universities. Students were unsatisfied with the sustainable development learning offered by Saudi universities. They also showed a positive attitude toward integrating sustainable development issues in their accounting education. They suggested that the appropriate approach to integrate sustainable development issues in accounting education is to treat these issues in the relevant courses included in their current accounting curricula.

Practical implications

The results of this study provide indications to the administrators of Saudi universities to start developing accounting curriculum to integrate sustainable development issues into accounting education. This will result in an increase in the effectiveness of the role of these universities in achieving the goals of the Saudi Vision 2030.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the existing literature concerning how students perceive sustainable development education by focusing on the accounting students in Saudi Arabia as context that has not previously examined.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 11 March 2022

Ibrahim El-Sayed Ebaid

This study aims to examine the economic consequences of the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Saudi Arabia. More specifically, the study examines…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the economic consequences of the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Saudi Arabia. More specifically, the study examines the impact of the mandatory adoption of IFRS on the accounting-based performance measures.

Design/methodology/approach

Data on study variables were obtained manually from the published financial statements of 67 of listed companies in the Saudi stock market during the period 2014–2019. The study addressed the research hypotheses by comparing the accounting-based performance measures computed under the Saudi accounting standards for three years (2014–2016) before the mandatory adoption of IFRS and the corresponding three years (2017–2019) after the mandatory adoption of IFRS. The Mann–Whitney U Test was used to investigate the significance of differences between the values of performance measures in the pre- and post-mandatory adoption periods.

Findings

The findings of the study revealed that there were no significant differences between the values of accounting-based performance measures related to the three performance categories (i.e. profitability, liquidity and leverage) in the post-mandatory adoption period (IFRS) compared to the values of these measures in the pre-mandatory adoption period (Saudi accounting standards).

Research limitations/implications

The results of the study indicated that there is a good convergence between the Saudi accounting standards that were implemented before 2017 and the IFRS that began to be applied starting from 2017. This convergence resulted in a low significant impact of IFRS on the financial statements of companies and then on the accounting-based performance measures calculated from them. However, this study suffers from some limitations, the most important of which is the small sample size as a result of the small number of listed companies in the Saudi market during the study period.

Originality/value

Although the impact of the adoption of IFRS have always been a subject of intense research in developed countries, the study of the impact of the adoption of IFRS in developing countries still limited. This study contributes to the literature by examining the economic consequences of adopting IFRS in Saudi Arabia as one of developing countries.

Details

Journal of Money and Business, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2634-2596

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 June 2013

Ibrahim El‐Sayed Ebaid

The purpose of this paper is to test whether corporate governance mechanisms promoted by the Egypt Code of Corporate Governance are effective in enhancing investors' perceptions

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test whether corporate governance mechanisms promoted by the Egypt Code of Corporate Governance are effective in enhancing investors' perceptions of earnings quality.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a 2×2 experimental design with a strong level of corporate governance versus a weak level of corporate governance to explore the relation between corporate governance practices and the perceived quality of reported earnings.

Findings

The findings of the study reveal that strong corporate governance is associated with higher perceptions of earnings quality than weak corporate governance. These results suggest that the voluntary adoption of the Egypt Code of Corporate Governance by Egyptian firms enhances the investors' perceptions of the quality of the financial reporting process.

Research limitations/implications

The results of the study should be considered by regulators in Egypt with regard to the Egypt Code of Corporate Governance, which was issued in October 2005. However, owing to the relatively small sample size, these findings should be interpreted with caution.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the limited body of research on the impact of corporate governance on investors' perceptions of earnings quality by examining this impact in Egypt, where corporate governance is still not mandatory.

Details

Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

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