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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2009

Ali A. Hebeish, Essam S. Abdel-Halim, Ibrahim A. Hamdy, Sanaa M. El-Sawy, Mervat S. Ibrahim and Fikry A. Abdel-Mohdy

Linear electron beam radiation has been used to induce irradiation grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), glycidyl methacrylate/β-cyclodextrin (GMA/β-CD), and glycidyl…

Abstract

Linear electron beam radiation has been used to induce irradiation grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), glycidyl methacrylate/β-cyclodextrin (GMA/β-CD), and glycidyl methacrylate/monochlorotriazinyl-β-cyclodextrin (GMA/MCT-β-CD) onto cotton fabrics. The effect of radiation dose, GMA concentration and CDs concentration on graft yield, epoxide content and the bonded amount of CDs was investigated. Results obtained reveal that the amount of CDs bonded within the fabric; the add-on and the epoxide content are directly related to the CDs concentration, GMA concentration and the irradiation dose. Graft yield and epoxide content increase with the increase of radiation dose to a certain extent, and they decrease due to degradation of GMA at higher irradiation doses. Results also reveal that although the bonded amount of CDs is nearly proportional to the concentration of CDs in the treatment solution, the accessibility ratio of CDs decreases with increasing CDs concentration. Treatment of fabrics grafted with GMA (Cell-g-GMA) and GMA/CDs mixtures (Cell-g-GMA/CDs) in a sequel step with the corresponding CDs increases the amounts of CDs fixed onto the fabrics, while epoxide content decreases. The treatment of the cotton fabrics with GMA and CDs was established on the basis of spectral data studies.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2011

Essam S. Abdel-Halim, Moustafa M.G. Fouda, Sanaa M. El-Sawy, Ibrahim A. Hamdy and Fikry A. Abdel-Mohdy

Glycidyl methacrylate/monochlorotriazinyl-β-cyclodextrin mixture (GMA/MCT-β-CD) is grafted onto cotton fabric by an irradiation technique that uses linear electron beam…

Abstract

Glycidyl methacrylate/monochlorotriazinyl-β-cyclodextrin mixture (GMA/MCT-β-CD) is grafted onto cotton fabric by an irradiation technique that uses linear electron beam radiation for initiating the grafting reaction. The obtained grafted fabric (cell-g-GMA/MCT-β-CD) is loaded with chlorohexidin diacetate (an antimicrobial agent) and subjected to several washing cycles. Grafted cotton fabrics (before and after loading with the antimicrobial agent) and control cotton fabrics are characterized for antimicrobial activity against different kinds of bacteria and fungi by using the diffusion disk method.

Grafted fabrics that are loaded with an antimicrobial agent show very good antimicrobial activity in comparison with control and grafted fabrics which are not loaded with an antimicrobial agent. The results in this study also demonstrate that GMA/MCT-β-CD grafted fabrics that are loaded with an antimicrobial agent retain a good deal of their antimicrobial activity after five washings. Good retention of antimicrobial activity is due to the cavities that are present in the cyclodextrin moieties which are used to host and keep the antimicrobial agent.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Mohsen Ali Murshid and Zurina Mohaidin

The purpose of this paper is to examine reported literature on the influence of medical representatives (MRs) and other promotional tools on drug prescribing behaviour…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine reported literature on the influence of medical representatives (MRs) and other promotional tools on drug prescribing behaviour, and to assess whether this effect is different in developed and developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of the literature was conducted across online databases from 2000 to 2016. Eligible studies addressed MRs and other promotion tools used to influence drug prescribing in developed and developing countries.

Findings

A total of 40 reviewed studies met the inclusion requirements. In total, 22 of the studies were conducted in developed countries and 18 in developing countries. Out of ten studies that examined the influence of MRs on drug prescribing in developed countries, eight found a positive influence, one found only moderate and one finds no influence. Analogous results were found in developing countries. Six out of ten studies on the influence of MRs conducted in developing countries found a positive effect, three found only moderate effects, while one finds no influence. The influence of promotion tools on prescribing varied in developed countries, five found positive influence, four reported a small effect and one found negative influence. In developing countries, the size of effect also varied, five studies found positive influence of promotion tools on drug prescribing behaviour, five found a negligible or small effect, and one found no association. However, marked differences were observed between two sectors. In the developed countries, MRs are valued as a source of information and can have an effect on prescribing, while it is unreliable in developing countries. Sample drugs are more generally seen as an important promotional tool for prescribing in developed countries than developing countries.

Research limitations/implications

The results derived from this review are based on studies with varying methodological consistency. The review provides the crucial information that will be valuable to researchers working on comparative analysis of marketing efforts in developing and developed countries.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the few systematic reviews on the influence of MRs and other promotional tools on prescribing. It compares the influence of MRs and promotional efforts in both developed and developing countries.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Babak Sohrabi, Iman Raeesi Vanani, Nastaran Nikaein and Saeideh Kakavand

In the pharmaceutical industry, marketing and sales managers often deal with massive amounts of marketing and sales data. One of their biggest concerns is to recognize the…

Abstract

Purpose

In the pharmaceutical industry, marketing and sales managers often deal with massive amounts of marketing and sales data. One of their biggest concerns is to recognize the impact of actions taken on sold-out products. Data mining discovers and extracts useful patterns from such large data sets to find hidden and worthy patterns for the decision-making. This paper, too, aims to demonstrate the ability of data-mining process in improving the decision-making quality in the pharmaceutical industry.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is descriptive in terms of the method applied, as well as the investigation of the existing situation and the use of real data and their description. In fact, the study is quantitative and descriptive, from the point of view of its data type and method. This research is also applicable in terms of purpose. The target population of this research is the data of a pharmaceutical company in Iran. Here, the cross-industry standard process for data mining methodology was used for data mining and data modeling.

Findings

With the help of different data-mining techniques, the authors could examine the effect of the visit of doctors overlooking the pharmacies and the target was set for medical representatives on the pharmaceutical sales. For that matter, the authors used two types of classification rules: decision tree and neural network. After the modeling of algorithms, it was determined that the two aforementioned rules can perform the classification with high precision. The results of the tree ID3 were analyzed to identify the variables and path of this relationship.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is one of the first studies to provide the real-world direct empirical evidence of “Analytics of Physicians Prescription and Pharmacies Sales Correlation Using Data Mining.” The results showed that the most influential variables of “the relationship between doctors and their visits to pharmacies,” “the length of customer relationship” and “the relationship between the sale of pharmacies and the target set for medical representatives” were “deviation from the implementation plan.” Therefore, marketing and sales managers must pay special attention to these factors while planning and targeting for representatives. The authors could focus only on a small part of this study.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2019

Xiangyun Du, Salah Eldin Kassab, Ayad M. Al-Moslih, Marwan Farouk Abu-Hijleh, Hossam Hamdy and Farhan Sachal Cyprian

The purpose of this paper is to identify essential profession-related competencies, clinical knowledge and skills that medical students should develop in the early stages…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify essential profession-related competencies, clinical knowledge and skills that medical students should develop in the early stages of their education for future professional practice.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review and workshop resulted in a list of 46 crucial profession-related competencies. The first round of the modified Delphi survey (feedback questionnaire) involved experts who identified 26 items (via a Likert scale). The second round of the modified Delphi survey by faculty members highlighted ten items. Statistical analysis yielded four domains with items clustered as follows: interpersonal competencies (communication and collaboration), cognitive skills (problem solving, critical thinking and reflectivity), work-related skills (planning and time management) and professionalism (integrity, sense of responsibility, respect and empathy).

Findings

In conclusion, the results of this study provide insights and implications surrounding the competencies that are essential for assessment and facilitation in the early stages of a medical curriculum. The study also predicts the challenges of facilitating and assessing these competencies, as pointed out in recent literature. In general, outcomes of the study suggest that instead of categorizing the competencies, it is more meaningful to take a holistic and integrated approach in order to conceptualize, facilitate and assess these competencies in context of the complexities of real-life situations.

Originality/value

Ten items were identified as essential profession-related competencies that should be incorporated during the early stages of medical education. Six out of the ten items were agreed upon by all participants of the study: collaboration, communication, problem solving, integrity, responsibility and respect. This list aligns with the existing literature and graduate attributes internationally. Items related to planning and time management, critical thinking and reflectivity were regarded as specifically lacking and important areas of improvement for Arabic students. Divergence on items of empathy and medical ethics were observed among international and local panels, with the main concern, raised by medical faculty, being how to facilitate and assess these items. The competencies identified mandate reforms in the medical school curricula in an attempt to implement essential skills early in medical student’s career.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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Book part
Publication date: 9 October 2019

Yusuf Sidani

Abstract

Details

A Spring Aborted
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-666-8

Content available
Article
Publication date: 15 December 2020

Yonca Hurol and Ashraf M. Salama

Abstract

Details

Open House International, vol. 45 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 23 March 2012

Muhammad M. Ali Khan Khattak, Ibrahim Abu Bakar and Layana Yeim

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of fasting on anthropometry and body composition in fasting obese and non‐obese subjects.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of fasting on anthropometry and body composition in fasting obese and non‐obese subjects.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 25 volunteers (male and female) were recruited during Ramadan. Age, sex, weight, height, waist and hip circumference and menstrual cycle status (in case of females) were recorded on day 1, and on day 21 weight and waist and hip circumference were also recorded. Similarly, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed on days 1 and 21 for the assessment of changes in body composition. From weight and height, basal metabolic Index (BMI) was determined. Waist‐hip ratio was determined from the waist and hip circumferences.

Findings

Weight was significantly (p<0.001) reduced in obese individuals on day 21 and accompanied by significant (p<0.01) reduction in waist hip ratios. BIA showed no significant change in the intra or extra cellular water. However, there has been shift of water between the two compartments and there was a strong positive correlation (r=0.9) between the fat free mass and total body water and negative association (r=−0.9) with total body water.

Originality/value

This study indicates that fasting could be a useful tool for the management of body weight without having a major shift in the body composition.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Hamdi Taplak, İbrahim Uzmay and Şahin Yıldırım

To improve the application neural networks predictors on bearing systems and to investigate the exact neural model of the ball‐bearing system.

Abstract

Purpose

To improve the application neural networks predictors on bearing systems and to investigate the exact neural model of the ball‐bearing system.

Design/methodology/approach

A feed forward neural network is designed to model‐bearing system. Two results are compared for finding the exact model of the system.

Findings

The results of the proposed neural network predictor gives superior performance for analysing the behaviour of ball bearing undergoing loading deformation.

Research limitations/implications

The results of the proposed neural network exactly follows desired results of the system. Neural network predictor can be employed in practical applications.

Practical implications

As theoretical and practical study is evaluated together, it is hoped that ball‐bearing designers and researchers will obtain significant results in this area.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils an identified research results need and offers practical investigation for an academic career and research. Also, It should be very helpful for industrial application of ball‐bearing systems.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 58 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2021

Mohammed R.M. Elshobake

The purpose of this paper is to explore the most prominent human rights violations during the COVID-19 pandemic in accordance with international human rights law.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the most prominent human rights violations during the COVID-19 pandemic in accordance with international human rights law.

Design/methodology/approach

Through doctrinal and legal study and content analysis, this paper analyses the important relevant legal provisions under International human rights law and applies these provisions to the reality of managing the COVID-19 crisis to identify the most prominent human rights violations during the COVID-19 outbreak. This research paper considered as a review paper in that it provides a review of the most prominent measures taken during the COVID-19 crisis, which constitutes violations of international human rights law.

Findings

It is concluded that some measures that have been taken by countries to confront the COVID-19 pandemic have constituted violations of human rights and did not comply with the legal conditions to restrict human rights. Indeed, the COVID-19 pandemic has shown the ugly fractures in health-care systems, health inequities, racism and discrimination, Undermining the right to freedom of expression and the right to access information, gross negligence in protecting detainees from COVID-19 infection, all of these constitute clear violations of the principles of international human rights law.

Research limitations/implications

The spread of COVID-19 has not stopped, and its effects still continue, including human rights violations. Therefore, this paper cannot enumerate all human rights violations that occur during the spread of COVID-19.

Practical implications

Based on the results in this paper, governments need to be more prepared to face any health crisis at all levels including health care, which would reduce human rights violations.

Social implications

This research paper reflects positively on the social reality, as the adoption of its recommendations leads to the provision of adequate health care to all members of society in accordance with the principles of human rights, granting them the right to access information, protecting their right to freedom of expression, reducing the phenomenon of racism and discrimination and providing adequate health care to all detainees.

Originality/value

This paper studies an up-to-date topic that we are still living and seeing its effects. The benefit of this paper is to provide recommendations that protect human rights during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

1 – 10 of 49