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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2012

Noraini Abu Talib, Saudah Sofian, Noor Azmi Mohamad, Aslan Amat Senin, Hamdan Abd Kadir, Halimah Mohd Yusof and Ibn‐eHassan

A large number of East Asian economies have benefited from the diaspora employed in the large North American and European clusters. The diaspora acquired valuable skills…

Abstract

Purpose

A large number of East Asian economies have benefited from the diaspora employed in the large North American and European clusters. The diaspora acquired valuable skills, developed contacts and financial wealth. Much has been written about the professional and personal obstacles of brain circulation but scant work has been done to highlight the structural factors influencing brain circulation as well as diaspora strategies in the Malaysian context. This article aims to review the brain circulation theory and pertinent literature on Malaysian clusters and to highlight the structural factors inhibiting diaspora and flow of talent to Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a discussion paper on the issues surrounding diaspora strategies.

Findings

On the basis of the review of successful diaspora of China, India, Korea and Taiwan, cluster organizations should take independent initiatives to contact the diaspora networks abroad in order to leverage their skills, contacts and finances through alumni and virtual networks.

Practical implication

Successful diaspora programs in China, Taiwan and India do not guarantee that imitation of those programs will result in success elsewhere.

Originality/value

The article reviews the pertinent literature and highlights the structural factors inhibiting diaspora and flow of talent to Malaysia.

Details

Business Strategy Series, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-5637

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Ibn-e- Hassan and Noraini Abu Talib

The Malaysian Government through the interventionist stance created an enabling environment for SMEs. Deliberate efforts for economic development started in the form of…

Abstract

Purpose

The Malaysian Government through the interventionist stance created an enabling environment for SMEs. Deliberate efforts for economic development started in the form of Industrial Estates and Export Processing Zones since early 1990s. This paper is a brief account of government efforts and its result for cluster development, in the light of recent literature. It is found that despite consistent efforts, the Malaysian answer to Silicon Valley – Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) – could not become an industrial cluster in a strict manner of the term used in the industrial cluster literature. This review highlights an array of bottlenecks that impede the competitiveness of MSC. The critical observation is that the SME firms in this “constructed cluster” are not enjoying the benefits of co-location externalities rather consider government’s financial support as an important factor affecting their co-location decision. In the absence of the significant qualitative research in the Malaysian cluster milieu, the purpose of this paper is the unique attempt to compile the previous results of significant work on the MSC and proposes future directions of research on policy-led clusters.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper synthesized and arranged most recent literature on economic development efforts made by Malaysian Government. Furthermore, it highlights the issues faced by policy-led cluster of MSC.

Findings

There is scant research on policy-led clusters like MSC where government plays an instrumental role from conception of this ICT cluster to development of programs and initiatives for the sustainability of it. However, the review of recent studies indicates that MSC faces some limitations to perform as cluster. There is a strong evidence that firms are not enjoying the benefits of clustering rather are attracted toward the financial incentives offered by the government in return of the firms co-location decision.

Research limitations/implications

The theoretical contribution of the review is that it signals the scarcity of both breadth and depth of literature on policy-driven cluster. Although, few notable attempts indicated how cluster initiatives influence the clusters, yet various dimensions need to be explored in order to reach the conclusive findings. The current review provides a strong foundation for further empirical research. For example, the other possible avenues could be, cluster evaluation practices in policy-led clusters; enablers and barriers to innovation in policy-led clusters; development of comprehensive indicators for principled engagement, shared motivation and joint actions in collaborative initiative development and the relational dimension of networks like technological distance between the focal firms and local SMEs.

Practical implications

The review highlights that government agencies and the firms in the policy-led clusters perceive the cluster initiatives differently. For government an initiative may be a success but for firms it may be just eyewash. This perceptual difference can disrupt the government efforts for this cluster. Firms are dependent on Multimedia Development Corporation. They consider themselves as a guest in the cluster and expect that government will provide everything. Mere presence/attendance of firms in the programs may not indicate the effectiveness of the initiative.

Originality/value

The prime objective of the review was to highlight an array of bottlenecks that impede the competitiveness of MSC to become an ICT cluster. Since there is a dearth of significant qualitative research in the Malaysian cluster milieu particularly with respect to cluster initiatives taken in MSC, this review therefore is a unique attempt that compiles the previous results of significant work on a policy-driven MSC (ICT cluster) and proposes future direction of research on policy-led clusters.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2020

Malgorzata Rozkwitalska and Anna Lis

The purpose of this paper is to portray social learning in cluster initiatives (CIs), namely, to explore, with the lens of the communities of practice (CoPs) theory, in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to portray social learning in cluster initiatives (CIs), namely, to explore, with the lens of the communities of practice (CoPs) theory, in what ways social learning occurs in CIs and discover how various CoPs emerge and evolve in CIs to facilitate a collective journey in their learning process. Subsequently, the authors address the following research questions: In what ways does social learning occur in CIs? How is social learning facilitated through the emergence and evolution of various CoPs in CIs?

Design/methodology/approach

The study applies the abduction approach for the interpretation of the collected data and attempts to create the best explanations for the observations on the basis of the CoP theory. The qualitative study of four CIs helped to identify various ways that social learning occurs in CIs and the role of the identified CoPs in the process. Social learning is portrayed as a collective journey within and between CoPs, where the interactions of their members deepen their level of involvement and help them to enhance learning in their CoP.

Findings

The paper shows ways that social learning occurs in CIs and describes the role of CoPs. It identifies three types of CoPs in CIs: participants, cooperators and locomotives. Additionally, it documents different ways of social learning in CIs, namely, one-way or two-way information transfer and raising awareness; demonstrating and inspiring; or motivating and educating. It also shows that while potentially every member of a CI has access to these practices, only a limited number of members are actually involved. Social learning in CIs is selective and some CI members accept their role as more peripheral in their CI.

Research limitations/implications

The research shows the application of the CoP theory to the analysis of social learning in CIs, a peculiar type of clusters. It describes how CoPs in the studied CIs varied in terms of the occurrence of learning. Furthermore, it reveals how social learning related to the level of involvement of CI members, namely, with an increase of involvement, the members formed more selective CoPs and strengthened their social learning. Nevertheless, the qualitative approach in the study and the specific sample of the CIs chosen for the analysis do not allow a generalization of the findings.

Practical implications

Although in different CoPs social learning occurs in different ways, at each stage of the development of CIs, the learning process is carried out on the basis of interactions created among members. Therefore, it is important to support the “soft” forms of cooperation within CIs – involving members in activities and developing interactions. In addition, to ensure the growth of their entire CI, coordinators should create conditions for the development of existing CoPs into higher forms, which better support learning. They should also adopt boundary-spanning roles between various CoPs to strengthen social learning in CIs.

Originality/value

The literature on CIs, which are peculiar forms of clusters, is still underdeveloped. The research fills in the gap concerning the ways social learning occurs in CIs. It shows that selectiveness can be observed in this process, and emphasizes the role of interactions developed through CoPs and the benefits offered by them. The study applies the CoP approach. Consequently, it expands the theoretical base in view of the generally lacking studies on social learning in CIs in the literature on clustering. Because the CoP theory has rarely been applied in the management literature, it also augments this specific field.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2019

Muhammad Ahmed, Syed Ahmad Ali, Muhammad Tahir Jan and Arif Hassan

Organizations today strive to differentiate themselves from others with the help of various tools. Aaker’s brand personality model is one of them. It comprises five…

Abstract

Purpose

Organizations today strive to differentiate themselves from others with the help of various tools. Aaker’s brand personality model is one of them. It comprises five components namely, sincerity, excitement, sophistication, competence and ruggedness. This model has been tested and supported by various scholars in the past. Similarly, it also attracted a lot of criticism especially in terms of generalizability across countries and cultures. The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to study Aaker’s model from an Islamic perspective; second, considering the dearth of brand personality knowledge in the services sector, to develop Islamic Banks’ Brand Personality (IBBP) model.

Design/methodology/approach

To propose IBBP model, traits in Aaker’s model have been investigated in the light of selected Quranic verses and sayings of Prophet Muhammad (ahadith). Later on, content validation was conducted as a pilot study with experts from the relevant fields.

Findings

Findings exhibit that Quran and hadith clearly elaborate and support majority dimensions of the existing model. Importantly, three new dimensions, namely, trustworthiness, justice and Shariah compliance, were added to develop a comprehensive IBBP model. Once the dimensions of IBBP model were finalized, the underlying items were content validated from 12 experts. Most of the items were approved; some were recommended for amendments and a few items were eliminated.

Practical implications

This research contributes to the branding as well as bank marketing literature as it is the first Islamic banks’ brand personality framework. With the help of IBBP model, Islamic banks can create a better brand image, use advertising strategies effectively and ultimately retain existing and attract more potential customers.

Social implications

This research elaborates the personality traits of Muslim consumer market. Following IBBP model, financial needs of Muslim consumer market can be catered effectively.

Originality/value

The IBBP model being first of its kind is significant for Islamic banking industry as it reflects dimensions that are supported by the Quran and hadith, and therefore suits Muslim customer market.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Permata Wulandari, Niken Iwani Surya Putri, Salina Kassim and Liyu Adikasari Sulung

The purpose of this paper is to measure the pattern of contract agreement process to map various banks’ position in perceiving Sharia conduct. This is done by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to measure the pattern of contract agreement process to map various banks’ position in perceiving Sharia conduct. This is done by incorporating the dynamics of culture, market demand and Sharia literacy in different banks. Finding of this research will serve as the formula to map the latent degree of Islamic bank’s commitment to their strategic vision and identity as an Islamic-based financial institution.

Design/methodology/approach

This research develops its theoretical background in classical and contemporary literature review on murabahah contract in Islamic perspective. Focus group discussion (FGD) and in-depth interview are conducted on 32 bankers (in 14 Islamic banks), two National Sharia Council, five academicians and three central bank representatives as an input for qualitative analysis. Content analysis is utilized in this paper to emphasize the process of discovering the relationship between dynamic factors affecting contract agreement process in murabahah scheme in Indonesian banking.

Findings

There are four dimensions affecting the contract agreement: fairness to customer, country regulation, perceived business practicality and product characteristic. The four dimensions are assumed to be influenced with categories proposed, as the category item is mostly repeated and is perceived to be significant in the participant’s perspective.

Originality/value

This research will be beneficial in mapping the determinant of degree of Sharia compliance in Sharia banking in Indonesia, focusing on the contract agreement process.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 February 2019

Bahadur Ali Soomro, Naimatullah Shah and Shahnawaz Mangi

The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors that affect the entrepreneurial leadership in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) of Pakistan.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors that affect the entrepreneurial leadership in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) of Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual framework is developed after reviewing a vigorous literature. This is a quantitative methodology in which cross-sectional data are collected from top managers and founders in SMEs of Pakistan through a survey questionnaire. The random technique is applied for the collection of data. The total samples are 352. Initially, 500 survey questionnaires are distributed through personal visits in different cities of Pakistan. The returned rate is noticed as 70 percent.

Findings

The data are analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 24.0. The overall Cronbach’s α reliability is 0.866. On the other hand, the α for all variables (dependent and independent) is observed within the adequate ranges. The overall findings reveal that there is a positive and significant relationship among strategic factor, motivational factor, personality factor, communicative factor and entrepreneurial leadership.

Practical implications

This study may contribute to existing efforts to assimilate the arenas of strategy, motivation, communication, leadership and entrepreneurship. In addition, by reviewing the outcomes of present study, the policy makers and planners may further concentrate for promoting SMEs sector that is famous as a backbone for economic development.

Originality/value

This study is original and valuable with respect to data and context. The findings of such study may play a substantial role in the stability of the economy in Pakistan through enriching the SMEs sector.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

Keywords

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