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Case study
Publication date: 1 January 2011

Melodena Stephens Balakrishnan, Payyazhi Jayashree and Ian Michael

Strategy, Emiratisation (national policy); human resources (recruitment, training and development, organizational culture and values) and marketing (branding…

Abstract

Subject area

Strategy, Emiratisation (national policy); human resources (recruitment, training and development, organizational culture and values) and marketing (branding, communication), tourism (destination image).

Study level/applicability

Undergraduate and Postgraduate Business and Management.

Case overview

This case highlights the strategy and initiatives taken by Etihad to attract Emirati employees (local nationals) to join the organization. Etihad Airways is the national airline of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), based in Abu Dhabi, the national capital. Since its inception in 2003, the airline has grown faster than any other in commercial aviation history; it currently flies to more than 60 destinations in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, the Middle East and North America. In the UAE, nationals or Emiratis comprise only 20 per cent of the overall population. According to the UAE 2021 Vision, the government's focus is on building the human capabilities on knowledge and innovation for Emiratis. This vision is reinforced in the Abu Dhabi Economic Vision 2030, which aims to boost national participation, encourage women (national women are on average more highly educated than the men) and decrease the education – market demand gap through training.

Expected learning outcomes

This case can be used to teach strategy from the point of view of government, human resources and marketing. From the government point of view parallels can be drawn to other nations whose government have focused on policies to create opportunities for and to encourage local employability. An example of a similar programme that was very successful is the “Bumiputra” programme created for indigenous Malaysians in 1971. In the area of human resource strategy, recruitment, training, inculcation of corporate values are some areas that can be reinforced. Form the point of view of marketing; the case can be used to discuss branding from the point of view of people, loyalty building (internal) and communication (internal and external). Destination branding and the role airlines play can also be a discussion point from the strategic point of view with some opportunity for macro-environmental analysis using the PESTLE model.

Supplementary materials

A teaching note available upon request.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Noela Michael, Reynold James and Ian Michael

The purpose of this study is to understand the destination image perceptions about Australia – a Western culture country – as held by the rapidly increasing, high…

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1304

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to understand the destination image perceptions about Australia – a Western culture country – as held by the rapidly increasing, high spending, culturally dissimilar new segment of travellers, the Emiratis[1] from the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative methodology was used to understand the cognitive, affective and conative images of Australia. A structured categorisation matrix was used to analyse the data so that only aspects fitting the matrix were selected.

Findings

Within the cognitive variable, Australia was found to be pleasant, family oriented, a fun place, laid back and the local people friendly. From an affective factor perspective, Australia was seen as being exciting, because of the variety of activities available for these tourists. Exciting was expressed by words like fantastic, amazing and extreme experience. In terms of the conative variable most of the Emirati tourists expressed strong feelings to go back to Australia and to even re-visit with friends. They also mentioned that they would recommend Australia to family and friends.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of this study was that our sample comprised informants mainly from the Emirates of Abu Dhabi and Dubai, the two largest Emirates of the nation. The study offers destination marketing organisations’ (DMOs) insights into Emirati travellers’ perceptions about Australia, which would benefit destination marketing.

Originality/value

This study examines the under researched area of how Australia – with its liberal Western culture – could be better marketed to the growing numbers of culturally conservative, high spending Emirati outbound tourists from the officially Islamic UAE, and also more generally to the socio-culturally homogeneous Gulf Cooperation Council region that the UAE is part of. Whilst destination image is an intensively analysed topic within the realm of tourism research, and reportedly a powerful influence on destination choice, the extant literature on how Australia is perceived as a travel destination by Emiratis is scant. For DMO’s attempting to attract wealthy Emirati tourists into Australia, this research is valuable and timely, as several Emiratis are seeking newer travel destinations away from the Western hemisphere, where the general anti-Arab/Islamic sentiments are currently quite strong.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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Case study
Publication date: 22 June 2015

Ian Michael, Melodena Stephens Balakrishnan and Zeenath Khan

Management, Strategy, International business.

Abstract

Subject area

Management, Strategy, International business.

Study level/applicability

Undergraduate or Graduates.

Case overview

This case is suitable for students of international business and strategy at the advanced undergraduate-level or introductory masters-level courses. It can be used for organizational design, brand management and business-to-business management classes. It may be of interest to practitioners in the Middle East and North African (MENA) markets looking at managing cross-functional teams.

Expected learning outcomes

On completion of utilizing the case study as an exercise, students should be able to develop the following. Case-specific skills: Critically examine the importance of the international business and strategy in the Middle East and demonstrate this by analyzing real-regional/-examples using complex theoretical frameworks; identify examples of best practice and explain the dynamics toward international business and strategy with reference to a range of theoretical models and apply these in a meaningful way to the MENA region. Discipline-specific skills: Synthesize and critically evaluate a corpus of academic literature and government reports on international business and strategy; link international business and strategy concepts and theories to real-regional/world examples. Personal and key skills: Reflect on the process of learning and undertake independent/self-directed learning (including time management) to achieve consistent, proficient and sustained attainment; work as a participant or leader of a group and contribute effectively to the achievement of objectives in the field of international business and strategy.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

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Case study
Publication date: 1 October 2011

Ian Michael, Meerah Ketait, Sarah Al Qassimi and Azza Al Nuaimi

Marketing, brand management, promotion management and corporate social responsibility.

Abstract

Subject area

Marketing, brand management, promotion management and corporate social responsibility.

Study level/applicability

Undergraduate and postgraduate.

Case overview

How does the “country-of-origin” issue affect brands, and what do brands need to do? The case of unique and small corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs and their impact on creating brand awareness.

Aamer Khan, Managing Director Hafet Electrical LLC, the sole distributor for of Haier in United Arab Emirates (UAE) was reviewing their half yearly results. Among the more unconventional strategies they had adopted was one where they used community engagement to get an insight into the local market and develop brand awareness as a caring top quality brand. The CEO of Haier, Zhang Ruimin stressed that “quality is and will remain the essence of business sustainable, whether in the past, present or future”. Aamer was evaluating the effectiveness of the strategy and considering its impact. Should he use a similar strategy next year?

This case deals with the “country-of-origin” issue, an important aspect in branding a key strategy of marketing. The Haier brand and its country-of-origin were investigated among the Emirati (UAE nationals) consumers. This was done as part of a capstone research project by Meerah, Sara and Azza at Zayed University, Dubai. Further, the group created a unique CSR program for the Haier, whereby they invited people to join them in a Walkathon to raise money for a charitable cause. Haier donated various products like refrigerators, air coolers and air conditioners towards this charity. By creating this event, the group raised awareness of the Haier brand among the local population.

Expected learning outcomes

What is:

  • “Country of origin” (coo) in marketing and its effect on brands?

  • The role of CSR in corporate marketing communication?

  • The role of small events in building brands?

“Country of origin” (coo) in marketing and its effect on brands?

The role of CSR in corporate marketing communication?

The role of small events in building brands?

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2019

Ian Michael, Thomas Ramsoy, Melodena Stephens and Filareti Kotsi

This applied neuroscience study aims to understand how direct and unconscious emotional and cognitive responses underlie travel destination preferences. State-of-the-art…

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2046

Abstract

Purpose

This applied neuroscience study aims to understand how direct and unconscious emotional and cognitive responses underlie travel destination preferences. State-of-the-art neuroscience tools and methods were used, including stationary eye tracking and brain scanning electroencephalography (EEG) to assess emotional and cognitive responses to destination images and assets. To the researchers’ knowledge, this study is the first applied neuroscience study in tourism research and thus opens a new path of research and enquiry to this area. This paper is an attempt to understand specific mental processes in human tourism behaviours, and it is suggest that unconscious emotional and cognitive responses are natural processes that need to be studied and understood, not as special cases, but embedded as natural parts of tourism research.

Design/methodology/approach

To better understand consumers’ unconscious responses to possible travel destinations, a 3 × 5 factorial design was run with the factors being stimulus type (images, printed names and videos) and travel destination (Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Hong Kong, New York and London). Eye-tracking calibration was done with a nine-point fixation test and the EEG calibration was done using functional localizer tests based on the ABM B-ALERT calibration process. This calibration procedure allows reliable tracking of emotional and cognitive responses over time. Thirty Emirati (nationals of the UAE) participants, consisting of equal numbers of males and females (15) were recruited from the UAE and signed informed consent. Each participant was positioned in front of an eye tracker and computer screen, and brain-scanning equipment was mounted; then, each participant underwent eye-tracking and neuroimaging calibration procedures. A Tobii T60XL eye tracker and an ABM X-10 EEG brain scanner, both running iMotions v5.1 in a Windows 7 environment, were used.

Findings

General emotional and cognitive differences were identified between the channels through which travel destinations are presented. Words about and names of travel destinations cause higher cognitive loads, which may not be surprising, given the greater associative load that words have than images. Of particular interest is the hypothesis that images evoke stronger affective responses than verbal representations. However, as previously noted (Holmes and Mathews, 2005), empirical evidence for this assumption seems surprisingly sparse. The present study and the context provided here suggest that decisions on travel destination have an unconscious component and a direct component that may drive or affect overt preference and actual choice.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of this paper is that first, neuromarketing is not dependent on sample sizes; however, future studies could build on this paper to understand why there is a preference for cities. It is suggested that unconscious emotional and cognitive responses are natural processes that need to be studied and understood, not as special cases, but embedded as natural parts of tourism research.

Originality/value

Thus, tourism research may indeed be a suitable field for understanding the brain bases of complex preference formation and choice. Various researchers have found that a destination image is typically measured using cognitive, affective and behavioural components, and further stated that the cognitive image component of a destination was found to have a significant positive effect on the affective image component and overall destination image (Stylidis et al., 2017). Therefore, this research which has introduced brain scanning can be used to better understand the underlying unconscious emotional and cognitive processes that affect consumer thought and action. An understanding of what goes on in the human unconscious mind is very important for destination marketers, this can help in the integrated marketing communication process to create a destination image and brand.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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Case study
Publication date: 1 October 2011

Melodena Stephens Balakrishnan and Ian Michael

Strategic stakeholder engagement, entrepreneurialism, ecosystem, corporate social responsibility, event management, branding, marketing strategy.

Abstract

Subject area

Strategic stakeholder engagement, entrepreneurialism, ecosystem, corporate social responsibility, event management, branding, marketing strategy.

Study level/applicability

Post-graduate level, practitioners interested in MENSA Region, entrepreneurship policy makers and NGOs.

Case overview

Abraaj Capital Ltd (Abraaj), a highly reputed private equity investment and management company, strongly believed in corporate social responsibility, strategic stakeholder engagement and entrepreneurship ecosystem development. In November, 2010, Abraaj held the “Celebration of Entrepreneurship” (CoE) a two-day free entrepreneur event, in Dubai. CoE was attended by more than 2,400 participants. The purpose of CoE was to contribute to building an entrepreneurship ecosystem in the Middle East North Africa South Asia region (MENASA). Based on participant feedback, CoE Outcomes and stakeholder feedback, the event was very successful.

This case is a good example of community engagement and showcases entrepreneurship ecosystem development. This case also highlights the challenges of putting together a signature event in a very short time frame. The future management dilemmas are also raised on various issues like whether to make this successful event a regular part of their organizational activities, and issues concerning the funding of such events. This case can be used to teach event management, branding, marketing strategy, CSR and entrepreneurship (from the ecosystem point of view). It will appeal to both educationalists and practitioners interested in the MENASA region, policy makers who facilitate entrepreneurship, CSR managers, event management companies and marketing specialist. It can be used to teach both undergraduate and postgraduate courses.

Expected learning outcomes

Strategy students can focus on marketing and branding strategies; like stakeholder engagement, internal marketing, social media, positioning and brand architecture. Student of event management can learn about prioritizing, adaptability, funding and the complexity of layering a program.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes, videos.

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

Michael Mainelli and Ian Harris

The use of a deterministic numeric paradigm in auditing and accounting may well be the root cause of many current problems. This paper argues that risk‐based accounting…

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6547

Abstract

The use of a deterministic numeric paradigm in auditing and accounting may well be the root cause of many current problems. This paper argues that risk‐based accounting methods should start using probabilistic inputs which would show resultant distributions as output. “Stochastic accounting” would better inform users of financial information. Although this recommendation would change the way accounts were produced and presented, it would lead to more usable financial information.

Details

Balance Sheet, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-7967

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1988

Ian A. Glover and Michael P. Kelly

Research into different British and Western European engineering traditions, and how these have influenced the formation of engineers in North America, Japan and elsewhere…

Abstract

Research into different British and Western European engineering traditions, and how these have influenced the formation of engineers in North America, Japan and elsewhere since the nineteenth century.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 11 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Michael Mainelli and Ian Harris

Downloads
94

Abstract

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Michael Mainelli and Ian Harris

Downloads
95

Abstract

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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