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It is a popular belief that exercise participation has bothphysical and psychological benefits and, more specifically, thatperformance at work, cognitive function and…
It is a popular belief that exercise participation has both physical and psychological benefits and, more specifically, that performance at work, cognitive function and overall self‐esteem may be enhanced through exercise. While research in this area is variable, it has been shown that a meta‐analytic approach is likely to provide reliable and valid evidence that exercise benefits extend beyond physical health and fitness. If exercise promotes self‐esteem, it is also appropriate that individual differences in perceived locus of control as an agent of self‐efficacy are recognized by employers in order that exercise programmes are adhered to; otherwise benefits that might accrue could result in the opposite outcome. Briefly discusses the importance of goal setting and the potential role of counselling and draws parallels between aspects of psychology in sport and at work.
Based on the argument that employees cannot be empowered until they are competent performers, illustrates how on‐the‐job training (OJT) is essential to operationalizing…
Based on the argument that employees cannot be empowered until they are competent performers, illustrates how on‐the‐job training (OJT) is essential to operationalizing learning organization concepts. While not a lost art, OJT needs to be revisited as a cornerstone of training theory and practice. Outlines the steps in OJT, therefore, within the learning organization context.
IT is known that the Library Association Council has devoted watchful care to the position of libraries in the event of war. As we write, the international situation is as dark as it has been at any time since 1919, and many have that calm, cold feeling that there is nothing to do but to tighten our belts and stand againt the onslaught. Even if that is still avoided, as all who listened to Lord Halifax trust it may be, there should be active protection of the library service which is one of those things which might so easily go under in a time of stress. The Library Association has done well in submitting to Government that experience in the last war proved the value of libraries for information and as a factor in the morale of the people; that their services should, so far as possible, be maintained even during hostilities; that there would be need of library provision for people, and especially for children, “evacuated” to areas where the existing library provision might often be inadequate; and that library buildings should not be used for purposes for which they are unsuitable, seeing that there will be many halls, schools and other buildings that would be better for food‐control, recruiting and so on.
Earliest localism was sited on a tree or hill or ford, crossroads or whenceways, where people assembled to talk, (Sax. witan), or trade, (Sax. staple), in eggs, fowl, fish or faggots. From such primitive beginnings many a great city has grown. Settlements and society brought changes; appointed headmen and officials, a cloak of legality, uplifted hands holding “men to witness”. Institutions tend to decay and many of these early forms passed away, but not the principle vital to the system. The parish an ecclesiastical institution, had no place until Saxons, originally heathens, became Christians and time came when Church, cottage and inn filled the lives of men, a state of localism in affairs which endured for centuries. The feudal system decayed and the vestry became the seat of local government. The novels of Thomas Hardy—and English literature boasts of no finer descriptions of life as it once was—depict this authority and the awe in which his smocked countrymen stood of “the vicar in his vestry”. The plague freed serfs and bondsmen, but events, such as the Poor Law of 1601, if anything, revived the parish as the organ of local government, but gradually secular and ecclesiastical aspects were divided and the great population explosion of the eighteenth century created necessity for subdivision of areas, which continued to serve the principle of localism however. The ballot box completed the eclipse of Church; it changed concepts of localism but not its importance in government.
The use of accounting to help apply the principles of scientific management to business affairs is associated with the adoption of standard costing and budgetary control…
The use of accounting to help apply the principles of scientific management to business affairs is associated with the adoption of standard costing and budgetary control. This first British industry‐based study of the implementation of these calculative techniques makes use of the case study research tool to interrogate archival data relating to leading iron and steel companies. We demonstrate the adoption of standard costing and budgetary control early on (during the inter‐war period) by a single economic unit, United Steel Companies Ltd, where innovation is attributed to the engineering and scientific background and US experiences of key personnel. Elsewhere, significant management accounting change occurred only with the collapse in iron and steel corporate profitability that began to become apparent in the late 1950s. The process of accounting change is addressed and the significance for our study of the notions of evolution and historical discontinuity is examined. The paper is contextualised through an assessment of initiatives from industry‐based regulatory bodies and consideration of the economic circumstances and business conditions within which management accounting practices were the subject of radical revision.