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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2000

Ganesh D. Bhatt

Business process redesign (BPR) is a management technique to radically transform organizations for dramatic improvement. Information technology (IT) plays a critical role…

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Abstract

Business process redesign (BPR) is a management technique to radically transform organizations for dramatic improvement. Information technology (IT) plays a critical role in BPR. The present study examines the links between IT infrastructure and BPR. The moderating effects of industry type, and information intensity of the firm are also analyzed. Data for the study were gathered through a survey of Fortune 500 US firms at divisional levels. Out of 1,200 questionnaires mailed to Fortune500 firm‐divisions, 124 responses were received. Out of 124 firm‐divisions 73 firm‐divisions were found to be adopting BPR techniques; 39 firm‐divisions were found to be adopting incremental improvement approaches. The rest of the responses were incomplete and could not be used. For data analysis, therefore, only 73 firm‐divisions were considered. The results of the study support the hypotheses that network infrastructure affects the dimensions of BPR (process improvement thrust, and customer focus), but data integration was not found to be significantly affecting the BPR dimensions. The moderating effect of industry type was found to be significantly affecting the relationship between network infrastructure and BPR dimensions. Other relationships were not found to be significant.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 January 2018

Deepak Dahiya and Saji K. Mathew

Although governments are hugely investing in information technology (IT) infrastructure, eGovernment performance has reported variations in performance. The relationship…

Abstract

Purpose

Although governments are hugely investing in information technology (IT) infrastructure, eGovernment performance has reported variations in performance. The relationship between IT infrastructure investments and eGovernment performance remains unexplored in academic research. This study aims to explain how investments in IT assets lead to infrastructure capability and eGovernment system performance. The work conceptualizes technical performance of IT infrastructure as a consequent of thoughtful investments in IT assets, which help generate IT infrastructure capability. The findings have important implications for eGovernment theory and practice in developing understanding about eGovernment IT infrastructure and supporting decision-making on the choice of infrastructure components.

Design/methodology/approach

This study showcases quantitative analysis based on survey method-based research using a questionnaire for testing the hypotheses formulated.

Findings

The analysis of the work showed that IT infrastructure performance is a significant mediator between investments in IT assets and IT infrastructure capability.

Research limitations/implications

Owing to constraints of data collection, probability sampling was not followed, which is a prerequisite for statistical generalization.

Practical implications

The study provides insights for governments on investing in technologies that meet requisite performance standards. IT infrastructure performance is an antecedent of IT infrastructure capability, which directly determines how an eGovernment system performs.

Social implications

The study shows that delay in implementing new service models such as cloud potentially result in relatively lower performance of the IT infrastructure for the investments made in the given assets.

Originality/value

This paper builds on the existing literature on IT assets, IT infrastructure performance and IT infrastructure capability and applies it to the eGovernment domain.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 August 2016

Deepak Dahiya and Saji K. Mathew

Although government investments in IT is growing, it is unclear how and what kind of IT investments lead to desirable E-Government performance. Several studies pertaining…

1230

Abstract

Purpose

Although government investments in IT is growing, it is unclear how and what kind of IT investments lead to desirable E-Government performance. Several studies pertaining to the business value of IT have developed and tested frameworks for IT infrastructure, IT capability and business performance. However, E-Government-related IT investment outcomes cannot be measured by profits and hence requires a separate investigation. E-Government research using theoretical approach has been reported as very scarce in previous studies. This research aims to bridge the gap by developing a model to study IT infrastructure capability and E-Government performance in the emerging context of new IT service delivery models.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper follows a case study method in this research with a priori conceptual framework. The data were collected following an interview method used for deductive theory building.

Findings

The results identified a positive relationship between IT assets and IT infrastructure performance in the presence of service delivery channels and an anticipation of a positive influence of infrastructure performance variables on IT capability which in turn shows positive effect on E-Government performance.

Research limitations/implications

Because the study followed a qualitative approach, the findings from this study are not useful for statistical generalization. However, the analytical framework provides sufficient ground to test E-Government performance.

Practical implications

The study provides insights in the choice of IT infrastructure elements fitting an E-Government strategy.

Social implications

This study provides an integrated framework for measuring E-Government performance, thereby making deployment of IT infrastructure accountable both in terms of IT performance and IT capability. This in turn will lead to improvement in citizen services.

Originality/value

This paper builds on the existing literature on IT assets, IT infrastructure performance, IT infrastructure capability and applies to the E-Government domain.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Anote Chanopas, Donyaprueth Krairit and Do Ba Khang

The purposes of this study are to present an operational definition of information technology (IT) infrastructure flexibility and to provide a framework for assessing its…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purposes of this study are to present an operational definition of information technology (IT) infrastructure flexibility and to provide a framework for assessing its components.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive review of the relevant literature was conducted along with expert interviews to determine what experts considered to be the characteristics of IT infrastructure flexibility. A questionnaire was then developed, and 388 IT personnel with a wide range of experience verified the proposed framework. Factor analysis was conducted to reveal the common aspects of IT infrastructure flexibility.

Findings

The results expand on the four recognized components (connectivity, compatibility, modularity and IT personnel competency) from the literature by revealing five further components (scalability, continuity, rapidity, facility and modernity).

Research limitations/implications

The issue of external validity should be a concern because the samples were collected only from IT personnel in the financial service industry in Thailand. The improvement of the instrument to fit additional contexts is recommended.

Practical implications

Practitioners may now consider their IT infrastructure profiles and determine which components need more attention. Researchers may expand on this paper's results by conducting further investigations with other organizational measurements.

Originality/value

This study is the first to provide empirical evidence from the context of a developing country, which fills a significant gap in the literature. Although this study reports different findings from the literature, the results still complement rather than contradict the existing research framework.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 29 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 July 2019

Peiran Gao, Yeming Gong, Jinlong Zhang, Hongyi Mao and Shan Liu

The purpose of this paper is to explore the joint effects of different types of IT resources and top management support. Especially, the authors attempt to mainly examine…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the joint effects of different types of IT resources and top management support. Especially, the authors attempt to mainly examine a negative synergy or substitution relationship between IT infrastructure resources and CEO support, and a positive synergy or complementary relationship between IT human resources and CEO support among the large-sized enterprises.

Design/methodology/approach

A research model that integrates IT infrastructure resources, IT human resources, CEO support and the degree of usage of IT for business objectives (i.e. IT business spanning capability) is developed. Based on a sample of 112 large-sized enterprises, partial least squares is used to analyze the research model.

Findings

Whereas the positive moderating role of CEO support in the effectiveness of IT human resources is insignificant, CEO support and IT infrastructure resources have a substitution relationship in predicting IT business spanning capability. Furthermore, the results can explain under which conditions IT infrastructure resources insignificantly or significantly affect IT business spanning capability in large-sized enterprises. Specially, IT infrastructure resources significantly affect IT business spanning capability only when CEO support is low. Thus, in the presence of high CEO support, IT executives in large-sized enterprises should prioritize developing highly effective IT resources, such as IT human resources.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the joint effects of two critical IT resource types (i.e. IT infrastructure and IT human resources) and CEO support in the IT assimilation process among the large-sized enterprises, ultimately contributing to information systems theories and practices.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 119 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 February 2010

Ganesh D. Bhatt and Ali F. Emdad

The purpose of this paper is to present a model that tests the relationship between information technology (IT) infrastructure, customer focus, and business advantages.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a model that tests the relationship between information technology (IT) infrastructure, customer focus, and business advantages.

Design/methodology/approach

Customer focus is categorized into: customer responsiveness and product/service innovation. The data for the study are obtained from 116 executives from a number of business organizations.

Findings

IT infrastructure is found to have a significant effect on customer responsiveness, but does not show any significant relationship with product/service innovation. IT infrastructure, customer responsiveness, and product/service innovation are found to be significantly related business advantages.

Research limitations/implications

The research is useful for academic scholars and managers as the results of the study show the value of firm‐specific resources such as IT infrastructure in business advantages. The research is also useful as it finds support for the resource‐based view (RBV) of the firm.

Originality/value

The paper exemplifies how IT infrastructure can influence customer focus and thus affects directly and indirectly business advantages.

Details

Journal of Systems and Information Technology, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1328-7265

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 July 2009

Serdar S. Durmuşoğlu

The purpose of this paper it to investigate how sophistication of top management view on information technology (IT) infrastructure influences the firm's IT infrastructure

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper it to investigate how sophistication of top management view on information technology (IT) infrastructure influences the firm's IT infrastructure capability and the effect of IT infrastructure capability on new product development (NPD) process outcomes such as cost, cycle time, and quality.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing from research‐based and knowledge‐based theories, a conceptual model on how IT infrastructure influences NPD process efficiency is developed.

Findings

The paper demonstrates that sophistication of top management view on IT Infrastructure enhances NPD process through its effect on IT infrastructure capability. IT infrastructure capability enhances the NPD process efficiency by reducing the cycle time and cost of NPD projects and improving the NPD process quality.

Practical implications

It is useful for practitioners to know that by adopting an enabling IT infrastructure view, managers can create IT infrastructure capabilities that could improve their NPD processes significantly.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should conduct empirical analysis of this paper's propositions and could examine what moderates the relationship between the sophistication of the top management's view on the firm's IT infrastructure and IT infrastructure capability. Scholars could also include firm performance as the final outcome of the influence of IT infrastructure view when testing the proposed model empirically.

Originality/value

Recent research pointed out that IT enabled the development of efficient new processes. This paper extends this argument by conceptually investigating how IT infrastructure enhances NPD process of a firm.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 May 2019

Yan Vaslavskiy and Irina Vaslavskaya

The chapter is devoted to the factors aimed at optimizing the partnership of public and private sectors in the sphere of public infrastructure development. In modern…

Abstract

The chapter is devoted to the factors aimed at optimizing the partnership of public and private sectors in the sphere of public infrastructure development. In modern conditions of economic slowdown and budget consolidation in Russia, the infrastructure has become the most important driver of economic growth and public–private partnership (PPP) – the most perspective form of cooperation of public and private investors of infrastructure projects. PPP interpretation as a structural relationship of economic system allows the authors to model optimal combination of formal and informal institutions in order to stimulate long-term economic growth. It becomes promising to model replacement of budget funds by private investment to ensure positive impact on the Russian development despite the budget consolidation. It could only be achieved in the case of formal institutionalization of appropriate conditions for private investors as to low transactional costs and attractive financial parameters. There have been determined some PPP standards connected with public infrastructure projects in order to reduce capital expenditures of the budget funds and increase the inflow of private investment. The authors have managed to obtain model estimates and graphic interpretation of government expenditures’ efficiency increase that could help to structure the fiscal conditions to induce positive multiplier effect as a result of PPP forms improvement in the public infrastructure development.

Book part
Publication date: 7 August 2019

Andreas Folkers

The chapter analyses the role of smart grid technology in the German energy transition. Information technologies promise to help integrate volatile renewable energies…

Abstract

The chapter analyses the role of smart grid technology in the German energy transition. Information technologies promise to help integrate volatile renewable energies (wind and solar power) into the grid. Yet, the promise of intelligent infrastructures does not only extend to technological infrastructures, but also to market infrastructures. Smart grid technologies underpin and foster the design of a “smart” electricity market, where dispersed energy prosumers can adapt, in real time, to fluctuating price signals that register changes in electricity generation. This could neutralize fluctuations resulting from the increased share of renewables. To critically “think” the promise of smart infrastructure, it is not enough to just focus on digital devices. Rather, it becomes necessary to scrutinize economic assumptions about the “intelligence” of markets and the technopolitics of electricity market design. This chapter will first show the historical trajectory of the technopolitical promise of renewable energy as not only a more sustainable, but also a more democratic alternative to fossil and nuclear power, by looking at the affinities between market liberal and ecological critiques of centralized fossil and nuclear based energy systems. It will then elucidate the co-construction of smart grids and smart markets in the governmental plans for an “electricity market 2.0.” Finally, the chapter will show how smart grid and smart metering technology fosters new forms of economic agency like the domo oeconomicus. Such an economic formatting of smart grid technology, however, forecloses other ecologically prudent and politically progressive ways of constructing and engaging with intelligent infrastructures.

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