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Book part
Publication date: 18 September 2006

Lori Anderson Snyder, Deborah E. Rupp and George C. Thornton

The impetus for this paper was the recognition, based on recent surveys and our own experiences, that organizations face special challenges when designing and validating…

Abstract

The impetus for this paper was the recognition, based on recent surveys and our own experiences, that organizations face special challenges when designing and validating selection procedures for information technology (IT) workers. The history of the IT industry, the nature of IT work, and characteristics of IT workers converge to make the selection of IT workers uniquely challenging. In this paper, we identify these challenges and suggest means of addressing them. We show the advantages offered by the modern view of validation that endorses a wide spectrum of probative information relevant to establishing the job relatedness and business necessity of IT selection procedures. Finally, we identify the implications of these issues for industrial/organizational psychologists, human resource managers, and managers of IT workers.

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Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-426-3

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Book part
Publication date: 7 October 2015

Md Nuruzzaman

The objective of this study is to investigate how country risk, different political actions from the government and bureaucratic behavior influence the activities in…

Abstract

The objective of this study is to investigate how country risk, different political actions from the government and bureaucratic behavior influence the activities in industry supply chains (SCs) in emerging markets. The main objective of this study is to investigate the influence of these external stakeholders’ elements to the demand-side and supply-side drivers and barriers for improving competitiveness of Ready-Made Garment (RMG) industry in the way of analyzing supply chain. Considering the phenomenon of recent change in the RMG business environment and the competitiveness issues this study uses the principles of stakeholder and resource dependence theory and aims to find out some factors which influence to make an efficient supply chain for improving competitiveness. The RMG industry of Bangladesh is the case application of this study. Following a positivist paradigm, this study adopts a two phase sequential mixed-method research design consisting of qualitative and quantitative approaches. A tentative research model is developed first based on extensive literature review. Qualitative field study is then carried out to fine tune the initial research model. Findings from the qualitative method are also used to develop measures and instruments for the next phase of quantitative method. A survey is carried out with sample of top and middle level executives of different garment companies of Dhaka city in Bangladesh and the collected quantitative data are analyzed by partial least square-based structural equation modeling. The findings support eight hypotheses. From the analysis the external stakeholders’ elements like bureaucratic behavior and country risk have significant influence to the barriers. From the internal stakeholders’ point of view the manufacturers’ and buyers’ drivers have significant influence on the competitiveness. Therefore, stakeholders need to take proper action to reduce the barriers and increase the drivers, as the drivers have positive influence to improve competitiveness.

This study has both theoretical and practical contributions. This study represents an important contribution to the theory by integrating two theoretical perceptions to identify factors of the RMG industry’s SC that affect the competitiveness of the RMG industry. This research study contributes to the understanding of both external and internal stakeholders of national and international perspectives in the RMG (textile and clothing) business. It combines the insights of stakeholder and resource dependence theories along with the concept of the SC in improving effectiveness. In a practical sense, this study certainly contributes to the Bangladeshi RMG industry. In accordance with the desire of the RMG manufacturers, the research has shown that some influential constructs of the RMG industry’s SC affect the competitiveness of the RMG industry. The outcome of the study is useful for various stakeholders of the Bangladeshi RMG industry sector ranging from the government to various private organizations. The applications of this study are extendable through further adaptation in other industries and various geographic contexts.

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Sustaining Competitive Advantage Via Business Intelligence, Knowledge Management, and System Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-764-2

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Book part
Publication date: 15 December 2016

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Mastering Digital Transformation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-465-2

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2020

Jing Fang, Xiaowei Liu and Wen Guang Qu

Prior IT productivity research usually assumes constant returns on IT investment. This study suggests that the impact of IT investment on productivity may not be constant…

Abstract

Purpose

Prior IT productivity research usually assumes constant returns on IT investment. This study suggests that the impact of IT investment on productivity may not be constant but may change with the IT investment scale and over time. Specifically, we divide IT investment into commercial IT and in-house IT and investigate their changing impacts on industry labor productivity.

Design/methodology/approach

A model of the productivity impacts of commercial IT and in-house IT with changing effects of scale and over time is developed and empirically tested based on industry-level panel data from the US. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA).

Findings

The returns on commercial IT investment increase with scale but decrease over time, while the returns on in-house IT increase over time.

Originality/value

This study provides a new perspective for IT productivity research by investigating the changing productivity impacts of IT investment. It also suggests that commercial IT and in-house IT should be distinguished, as they have different impacts on productivity.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 120 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Case study
Publication date: 27 March 2014

D Karthik and Rajesh S. Upadhyayula

The case traces the genesis of NASSCOM and presents a decision situation faced by the new president who has to formulate a road map in the light of changed circumstances…

Abstract

The case traces the genesis of NASSCOM and presents a decision situation faced by the new president who has to formulate a road map in the light of changed circumstances. NASSCOM has been an exemplary trade association. However, it faces challenges that can jeopardize the future if the industry. While the challenges do not have short term effect on the growing Indian IT-BPO industry, as the active industry ally NASSCOM's new leader has to ensure long term success of IT-BPO industry. The case can be best used to understand the IT industry dynamics through the eyes of an exemplary trade body and also understand how a trade association in emerging economies can play an important role to fill institutional voids.

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Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2633-3260
Published by: Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2017

Sankalpa Bhattacharjee and Debkumar Chakrabarti

The paper aims to unravel the congruence of entrepreneurship and India’s excellence in information technology (IT). Considering the fact that entrepreneurship is a…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to unravel the congruence of entrepreneurship and India’s excellence in information technology (IT). Considering the fact that entrepreneurship is a multifaceted concept encompassing a complex set of contiguous and overlapping constructs, the study takes into consideration interlinkages between the institutional environment, the nature of the industry and the responses and expectations that influenced entrepreneurship. The study complements these factors by analysing the sequential transformation of the Indian IT industry owing to the advent of outsourcing opportunities and concomitant ramifications on entrepreneurial activities. In effect, the study highlights the endogeneity in the system wherein entrepreneurs have continually adapted to the industry dynamics resulting in its significant expansion.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology adopted is the historical research method. Fundamentally idiographic, it helps in understanding contemporary issues, how they arose and how their characteristics unfolded over time. To this end, historical contextualisation has been carried out as an interpretative or analytical activity to capture the dynamic process of entrepreneurship. The idea was to capture the broad consequences of entrepreneurial interactions and processes over a long-time horizon classified into six different phases since inception. The historical contextualisation enabled us not only to pinpoint the disequilibrium processes at each phase of development that ushered in structural changes in the industry but also to identify and examine the complex interactions between the various factors that led to the growth of entrepreneurship.

Findings

Findings reveal that the Indian IT industry has undergone a series of disruptive changes since inception. Disequilibrium in the market plays a critical role in the initiation of entrepreneurship. In the formative phases, disequilibrium is initiated by the “adaptive” responses of the entrepreneurs, whereas in the advanced phases, entrepreneurial process is augmented by the “creative” responses resulting in the perpetuation of disequilibrium. Such shifts in entrepreneurial responses indicate a gradual progression from “gradient” to more “heuristic” search efforts on the part of the entrepreneurs. This progression testifies the perpetuation of entrepreneurship in imparting sustainability to the growth momentum of the industry in the foreseeable future.

Research limitations/implications

The study attempts to fill three important gaps in the literature: First, enrich the Austrian economics with empirical findings. Second, integrate two different strands of literature on entrepreneurship and evolution of India’s IT sector using unique configuration. Third, extend the literature on entrepreneurship in the Indian context to capture entrepreneurial prudence in the Indian IT sector and thereby enrich the literature with newer findings and richer insights.

Practical implications

Analysis of factors that imparted entrepreneurial prudence in the Indian IT sector can endow policymakers with valuable information for enhancing growth in industries that are having a close association with the IT industry in the “product space”.

Originality/value

The study is original on account of the unique configuration that it has adopted to unravel the complexity embedded in the concept of entrepreneurship considering a long-time horizon of six decades since inception which includes the analysis of disequilibrium; the entrepreneurship-institution interlinkages; the nature of the industry; and the role of outsourcing.

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Journal of Global Operations and Strategic Sourcing, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5364

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Jinwei Zhu, Yangyang Wang and Changyu Wang

This paper aims to examine the different impacts of six variables on firm technological innovation performance in different high-tech industries in China. Through a…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the different impacts of six variables on firm technological innovation performance in different high-tech industries in China. Through a comparative analysis of data about growth enterprises market board (GEM)-listed companies, this study attempts to get some conclusions, to help firms in different high-tech industries use resources more rationally and to improve technological innovation performance more effectively.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper constructs semi-parametric models based on the relevant data of GEM-listed companies during 2010 to 2015 for different high-tech industries. These models can ensure that the influencing factors of firm technological innovation performance are no longer restricted to a particular aspect but can provide a comprehensive comparative analysis of the effects of factors on firm technological innovation performance in different high-tech industries.

Findings

The empirical results show that R&D expenditures have a significant positive impact on firm technological innovation performance in most high-tech industries, but not in electronic and communication equipment manufacturing industry; R&D personnel investment and government subsidies have significant positive impacts on firm technological innovation performance in knowledge-oriented industries; technology diversity has a significant positive impact on firm technological innovation performance in technology-oriented industries; the proportion of exports shows an inverted U-shaped relationship with firm technological innovation performance in electronic and communication equipment manufacturing industry, while firm size shows an inverted U-shaped relationship with firm technological innovation performance in general equipment manufacturing industry; and the effect of semi-parametric model fit is superior to the general parameters model.

Originality/value

Drawing on the resource dependence perspective, this paper is the first to consider a comprehensive treatment of differential effects of internal resources (R&D personnel, R&D expenditure), external resources (government subsides) and firm characteristics (firm size, export ratio) on firm technological innovation performance in different high-tech industries in an emerging country, in particular in contrast to previous studies that have focused on a single industry or taken the type of industry as a control variable. In addition, most studies about the determinants of firm innovation performance are based on survey questionnaires, which may introduce large subjective errors. Setting the relationship between variables in advance may also introduce fit error when using a general-parameter model. Semi-parametric regression which is used in this paper is able to prevent this shortcoming effectively. When constructing a regression model, this can be exempted from the formal constraints, thus estimating data more accurately and ensuring superior fit.

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Chinese Management Studies, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1997

IT is accorded a central role in Malaysian Industrial Master Plan 2 (IMP2), not only as the foundation for the future development of the manufacturing sector, but also, as…

Abstract

IT is accorded a central role in Malaysian Industrial Master Plan 2 (IMP2), not only as the foundation for the future development of the manufacturing sector, but also, as the engine of development and growth of other sectors of the economy. To fulfill this central role, what should be the value of IT Products and IT Services? We have computed the necessary capital stock of IT Products at RM21.556 billion in 1978 prices, each unit of which is to produce five times its value in output in the year 2005, for a start. The targeted output of IT Services would be another RM 21.556 billion in 1978 prices, for a total of RM43.112 billion for IT industry in 2005. Bill Gates, Chairman and CEO of Microsoft Corporation, holds that Broadband Network Technology (BNT) indispensable to implement the Information Highway would not be available to most US homes for at least a decade. No matter when BNT arrives, an overriding question is: what will be the UTILIZATION of the exploding multimedia content of the Information Superskyway. How will people USE 1,000 times the current content, arriving 1,000 times as fast? The raison d'etre of the Information Superskyway is the Matrix of Learning, with Content as the rows, Context as the columns, and Learning as the Cells. The user has to identify his (her) context of use (entertain‐ment, education, enlightenment, edification). Investment in input (con‐tent) will depend on the answer to the question: By how much will the context be impaired by delay or deficiency of the content (data)? As the capacity of chips increases exponentially, the price drops dramatically — already it is down to $0.14 per megabyte! In the future, a holographic memory of the size of one's fists could hold the contents of the entire Library of Congress. With fast and furious developments in transfer and transformation of multi‐media content, how should one go about investing in IT to reap the bounty of BNT? We have no guarantee of success; we can increase the probability of success in the long‐run using seven IT investment Considerations/Criteria: (1) Choose the “Long‐run” that is realistic: Consider the odds against surviving one year, let alone 10 years; and choose wisely. (2) Choose Your Segment of the IT Industry: Are you most competent in: communications, computers, or content industries? What is your primary product: information, education, enlightenment, shopping, or e‐mail? (3) Choose Your CONCOL competitor/collaborator in the IT Industry: No matter how powerful you are in your chosen segment of the industry, it is almost mandatory that you collaborate with some other(s) in your own industry, and/or in another of the C3 industries. Bill Gates says: “companies must be able to partner on some projects and compete vigorously in others. Few companies in the computer and communications industries are purely friends or purely foes.” (4) Choose the Technology/Territory Area for CONCOL: How will the CONCOLs be formed and dissolved‐in: (1) Technology, (2) Territory? The choice of future technology would depend on the territory: How long would it take for the particular technology to develop a mass market? In IT parlance, should we back advances in: (I) transfer of data, or (2) transformation of data? (5) Choose the Technology Transformation Profile: Visualizing technology say, five generations ahead would indeed be quite hard and hazardous. But we would choose linear extensions of performance characteristics over Quantum jumps. However, PC industry experience suggests that each successive computer generation tended to provide Quantum jumps, little of the earlier models being useable with the new generation. (6) Choose the Technology Transfer Sequence: By establishing a relationship with the techtransferor over the long‐term, and scrupulously observing the mutually‐agreed conditions of techtransfer, the transferee can steadily increase its technical competence. (7) Fiercely Focus on the UTILIZATION of the Exploding Multime‐dia Content: To make IT win in the marketplace, the mere increase in the volume of content or the mere increase in the speed of its transmission is quite inadequate. What will make the difference is the learning that is made possible by the multimedia content and communication.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 9 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Wen‐Nan Tsan and Chao‐Ching Chang

Confronted with the transformation of industrial economies, the Taiwanese information technology (IT) industry has to upgrade from production to innovation orientation…

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Abstract

Purpose

Confronted with the transformation of industrial economies, the Taiwanese information technology (IT) industry has to upgrade from production to innovation orientation. The paper seeks to explore what is the core competence of the Taiwanese IT industry. In brief, what kind of intellectual capital (IC) is embedded in the Taiwanese IT industry and how this IC is managed effectively. The point is to discover how the Taiwanese IT industry should start to accumulate or enhance the core resource and strategic capability for future competitive advantage.

Design/methodology/approach

The study selected a relatively representative number of IT firms in Taiwan covering six industries. This study conducted a two‐stage survey to construct a measurement model and explored the IC profile of the Taiwanese IT industries.

Findings

This study was able to identify eight IC factors as a measuring model in exploring the IC profiles of four Taiwanese IT industries. The findings indicate the stronger IC in the Taiwanese IT industry as well as the weaker side.

Research limitations/implications

The research was limited by the sample within the Taiwan information communications technology industries. It needs to be extended across further industries in the future. It should also be compared with other countries’ industrial IC under similar assessment and measurement. The significant differences between industries could be explored by case study methodology.

Practical implications

Innovation capability plays an important role in confronting the knowledge‐based economy in Taiwanese IT industries. However, there is no compelling evidence to show that investment in research and development will help to achieve the goal of establishing Taiwan as an “Asia Pacific Electronic Information Industry Resource Integration Center”.

Originality/value

This research indicates that the IC System Model developed would help us to identify the interactions among IC elements. It could help to explore whether it is true that, the higher the IC management, the higher is the influence from the input of IC to the output.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2019

Kelitha Cherian and T.J. Kamalanabhan

This study is a comparative organizational analysis of the four subsectors of the Indian information technology (IT) industry, namely, IT service (ITS), business process…

Abstract

Purpose

This study is a comparative organizational analysis of the four subsectors of the Indian information technology (IT) industry, namely, IT service (ITS), business process outsourcing (BPO), software products services (SPS) and engineering and R&D (ER&D). The purpose of this paper is to empirically identify the cross-sectorial attributes, organizational characteristics and the talent best suited to it.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using a qualitative research design with semi-structured interviews of 17 industry experts.

Findings

Findings suggest there are differences in the internal organization of each subsector and this influences the talent attracted toward it. ITS and BPO are perceived as customer driven sectors where technology is an enabler to facilitate smooth functioning of customer operations. Conversely, technology is the core factor that drives SPS and ER&D. Similar observations and differences in the design, environment, individual motives and competencies are identified. The study also identified the inter-relationships between organizational characteristics, task and social structures in the IT industry using Perrow’s organizational theory.

Research limitations/implications

The findings identify contextual dimensions and shared patterns that exist between the subsectors. At the same time, it distinguishes each subsector in terms of observable and objective characteristics. Significantly, the study highlights the inter-relationships between technology, task, raw material, goal and social interactions. However, the authors stop short of framing hypotheses to test the relationships identified here.

Originality/value

This cross-sectorial study delineates between the four subsectors and provides a foundation for pursuing future investigations in the right direction. This attempt to systematically analyze and compare all the subsectors of the IT industry simultaneously is a distinctive approach. The sectorial diversity suggests a need for talent management practices that will fit the unique characteristics of each subsector.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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