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Book part
Publication date: 30 January 2013

Silke L. Schneider

The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a tool for harmonising education-related information. It covers almost all countries in the world and is…

Abstract

The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a tool for harmonising education-related information. It covers almost all countries in the world and is centrally maintained and documented by UNESCO Institute for Statistics. ISCED is commonly used in official statistics and surveys (e.g. by OECD and Eurostat), but it is also increasingly used for the measurement of educational attainment in academic cross-national surveys. ISCED has been revised between 2008 and 2011, and the new version was adopted by the UNESCO General Conference in November 2011. This research note describes ISCED 2011 and the most important changes as compared to the previous version, ISCED 1997, with a special focus on educational attainment. A brief discussion of strengths and weaknesses of the classification as well as future challenges conclude the note.

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Class and Stratification Analysis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-537-1

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2020

Elaine Wallace, Isabel Buil and Sara Catalán

This study explores consumers' self-congruence with luxury fashion brands they mention on Facebook. It investigates the extent to which those brands are congruent with the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores consumers' self-congruence with luxury fashion brands they mention on Facebook. It investigates the extent to which those brands are congruent with the actual self (ASC) or the ideal self (ISC), and whether ASC or ISC of luxury fashion brands on Facebook predicts purchase intention. It also examines trait antecedents of both ASC and ISC Facebook mentions of luxury fashion brands, specifically materialism, self-monitoring and self-esteem.

Design/methodology/approach

Findings are presented from a survey of Facebook users who mention luxury fashion brands on the social medium.

Findings

Self-esteem was revealed as an antecedent of ASC luxury fashion brands mentioned on Facebook, while materialism and high self-monitoring predicted ISC luxury fashion brands. Only ASC luxury fashion brands mentioned online were positively associated with purchase intention.

Research limitations/implications

Results are exploratory, and they are limited to those who are active Facebook users and who mention a luxury fashion brand on Facebook.

Practical implications

The study offers implications for managers of luxury fashion brands seeking to utilise Facebook to enhance the purchase intention for their brands or to increase the idealisation of the brand.

Originality/value

The paper provides new insights into the relationship between self-congruent mentions of luxury fashion brands on Facebook and purchase intention of those brands, distinguishing between ISC and ASC. This research also offers valuable and useful insights into ISC and ASC antecedents.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2019

Hanna Moon, Doam Ryu and Dongwon Jeon

Industry skills council (ISC) in Korea is at an earlier stage in terms of its formation and incubation. As a governance model similar to sector councils in Canada and UK…

Abstract

Purpose

Industry skills council (ISC) in Korea is at an earlier stage in terms of its formation and incubation. As a governance model similar to sector councils in Canada and UK, it still requires training and development of talents who work for ISCs. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of training programs that are currently provided to personnel of the ISC to foster their learning systematically and to develop measures for effectiveness of the training programs.

Design/methodology/approach

This study evaluated the training program for the staff of the ISC secretariat as a tool to activate the councils’ main functions. In terms of methodology, we developed an effective training model to measure the training transfer and used it as an analytical framework for evaluation. Success case method was applied to identify the best case of training transfer that reinforces the role and function of ISC.

Findings

Learning transfer can help not only the transfer of the learning contents but also the role of the organization that the members belong to and strengthen the function of the ISC. By transferring the content matter of the learning, it can help strengthen the capacity of members to carry out the roles and functions of the ISC, and further strengthen the functions of the council and the role of key players in labor markets.

Research limitations/implications

An effective training model for the personnel of national sectoral bodies or non-profit organization can be further investigated.

Practical implications

The learning transfer evaluation model for ISC staff has unique characteristics that are different from previous studies. ISC has the characteristics of public goods that are established with government support and are active in developing human resources in each industry sector.

Originality/value

Incubating ISC in South Korea is at an earlier stage in terms of research and policy practice. The research findings in this study lay the foundations for further empirical explorations.

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European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 43 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2018

David J. Finch, Gashaw Abeza, Norm O’Reilly and Carola Hillenbrand

The purpose of this paper is to examine the drivers of independent sales contractor (ISC) performance. As independently contracted sales agents, the ISC model is a growing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the drivers of independent sales contractor (ISC) performance. As independently contracted sales agents, the ISC model is a growing method of non-permanent employment utilized in many sectors. Specifically, this study seeks to fill a gap in the literature related to the under-researched link between ISCs and organizational identification.

Design/methodology/approach

This study conducts an exploratory, mixed-methods study based on data collected from 189 ISCs from a professional services firm.

Findings

Results demonstrate that outcomes related to sales performance, retention and advocacy are influenced directly and indirectly by organizational identification. It also shows that tangible benefits related to financial and marketing values are the strongest predictors of ISC organizational identification. Intangible dimensions such as value congruence, management trust and embeddedness play a limited role in the model.

Research limitations/implications

Results show that ISC sales performance is enhanced when an ISC views their identity and the identity of the firm as highly interdependent. These findings suggest that organizational identification can be a key performance indicator when evaluating the return on marketing investment for a firm.

Practical implications

This study provides some important guidance to managers responsible for ISCs. First, the study identifies the primary drivers of organizational identification. Specifically, the study demonstrates that financial and marketing benefits are the primary relational antecedents of organizational identification. Both value congruence and operational benefits play relatively minor roles. Similarly, the results show that both organizational identification and historic sales performance are critical predictors of sales performance.

Originality/value

Few researchers have examined the link between ISCs and organizational identification. Organizational identification is of particular importance in the study of ISCs, as they possess the dual identity of an independent agent and that of a sales representative of the firm they are under contract. This study contributes to existing literature by extending previous studies that examine antecedents of sales performance.

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Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2005

Sean O'Connor

In 2000 a consortium headed by David Richards acquired the commercial and promotional rights to the World Rally Championship (WRC) via International Sportsworld…

Abstract

In 2000 a consortium headed by David Richards acquired the commercial and promotional rights to the World Rally Championship (WRC) via International Sportsworld Communicators (ISC) Ltd. ISC planned to market the WRC with the stated objective of gaining a top five position as a global sports television brand. This case study was developed between 2000 and 2003 by the author, a marketing professional in the WRC, based on interviews with ISC management. The ISC marketing strategy was found to be divided into four phases: research, development and planning, execution, and evaluation and revised strategy.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Case study
Publication date: 20 January 2017

Mohanbir Sawhney, Lisa Damkroger, Greg McGuirk, Julie Milbratz and John Rountree

Illinois Superconductor Corp. a technology start-up, came up with an innovative new superconducting filter for use in cellular base stations. It needed to estimate the…

Abstract

Illinois Superconductor Corp. a technology start-up, came up with an innovative new superconducting filter for use in cellular base stations. It needed to estimate the demand for its filters. The manager came up with a simple chain-ratio-based forecasting model that, while simple and intuitive, was too simplistic. The company had also commissioned a research firm to develop a model-based forecast. The model-based forecast used diffusion modeling, analogy-based forecasting, and conjoint analysis to create a forecast that incorporated customer preferences, diffusion effects, and competitive dynamics.

To use the data to generate a model-based forecast and to reconcile the model-based forecast with the manager's forecast. Requires sophisticated spreadsheet modeling and the application of advanced forecasting techniques.

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Article
Publication date: 26 January 2021

Hanna Moon, Kirak Ryu and Sangoh Park

This paper aims to describe how the human resources development (HRD) policy has shifted from the national level to the sectoral levels; the paper also explains the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe how the human resources development (HRD) policy has shifted from the national level to the sectoral levels; the paper also explains the changes that have been made in skills formation in the economy by presenting the emergence of Industry Skills Councils (ISC).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents perspectives of which include reviewing the change of governance and skills formation at the sectoral level.

Findings

Skills development strategy is needed both at the sectoral and national levels to cultivate the core competencies of Korean talents. The feedbacks based on the HRD practices implemented at the micro level are delivered to the state governments and business associations via the ISCs. The policymaking has thus become more decentralized from the state government, and it now reflects inputs from the practical field in the process of making new policies.

Originality/value

Korean skills regime is still difficult to classify because it does not follow the skills formation regime discussed in current scholarship. While the state government has played an active role in decision-making, financing and delivery of vocational training programs since the early phase of economic development, engagement by social partners has been limited in the Korean vocational education and training (VET) system. The participation of social partners in the Korean VET system has been limited, but various stakeholders such as the labor unions; trade unions; chambers of commerce; and small, medium and large enterprises have been engaged gradually in skills identification, formation, development and implementation within individual sectors.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2020

Mesbahuddin Chowdhury, Girish Prayag, Vidya Patwardhan and Nischal Kumar

Using social capital theory, this study aims to investigate internal social capital (ISC) and external social capital (ESC) as determinants of knowledge sharing intention…

Abstract

Purpose

Using social capital theory, this study aims to investigate internal social capital (ISC) and external social capital (ESC) as determinants of knowledge sharing intention (KSI) and new product development (NPD) in high-end restaurants.

Design/methodology/approach

A theoretical model is developed and tested using data collected from 523 respondents (owners/proprietors, partners and managers) from high-end restaurants in Karnataka, India. Partial least square structural equation modeling is used to analyze the data.

Findings

The results suggest that ISC has a significant and positive influence on ESC. This highlights the important role of ISC in building ESC. While ISC has a positive relationship with KSI, ESC has no influence on KSI. KSI has a positive effect on NPD.

Practical implications

Restaurant managers and owners should invest time and resources in building ISC by nurturing relationships with employees and partners. Encouraging and rewarding collaborative behaviors internally will facilitate the development of external relationships. Results also suggest the existence of an optimum level of knowledge sharing with external partners in restaurants.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to examine the relationship between ISC and ESC, and test the effects of both KSI and NPD in high-end restaurants.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

M.A. Onitiri and S.M. Adedayo

This paper aims to produce iron ore tailings reinforced polypropylene composites (ITR-PPCs) from conventional compo-casting (CC) and a proposed compo-indirect squeeze…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to produce iron ore tailings reinforced polypropylene composites (ITR-PPCs) from conventional compo-casting (CC) and a proposed compo-indirect squeeze casting (C-ISC) processes. It intends to quantify the compressive behaviour of ITR-PPC with respect to production process, iron ore tailings volume and particle size inclusion in polypropylene (PP) through controlled material and compressive testing. The study aims to provide useful information on possibility of the use of ITR-PP for compressive applications which will culminate to judicious use of iron ore tailings that is been piled up as waste material at the iron ore beneficiation sites.

Design/methodology/approach

ITR-PPC compression specimens were produced using C-ISC and CC processes. Prior to production, the iron ore tailings was dried at room temperature according to ASTM 618, ASTM 171 and ASTM E 41. The different particle sizes were generated using standard laboratory sieves. Uniaxial compressive test procedure according to ASTM D 695 was carried out on ITR-PPC compression specimens with length/diameter ratio equal to 2.0 under standard laboratory atmosphere on an Instrom 3,369 machine.

Findings

It was discovered that pure PP produced using the C-ISC process exhibited better compressive strength and Young’s modulus of about 12 and 4.5 per cent, respectively, while a reduction of 9.2 per cent in yield strength was recorded. ITR-PPCs with 150-μm fillers produced from C-ISC process have lower yield stress, compressive strength and Young’s modulus at volume contents above 10 per cent. It also exhibited lower strain at fracture at volume content above 15 per cent, while composites filled with 212- and 300-μm particle size iron ore tailings using the C-ISC process had better strain at fracture.

Research limitations/implications

The present work cannot ascertain the compressive behaviour of ITR-PPC produced from other production processes, hence the need for further work in this area.

Practical implications

The paper provides an avenue to address the pollutant effect of iron ore tailings by putting it to judicious use through addition as fillers in plastics. It also removes the need for expensive and repeated experimentation to determine the compressive behaviour of ITR-PPCs.

Originality/value

This paper has brought to fore the need to study iron ore tailings as filler in plastics and other material matrices.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2010

Zahra Abazari and Alireza Isfandyari‐Moghaddam

This study aims to evaluates the existing and potential facilities in Iranian Islamic Sciences Centers (ISCs), including information resources, budget, human resources and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluates the existing and potential facilities in Iranian Islamic Sciences Centers (ISCs), including information resources, budget, human resources and facilities. It identifies the views of Center managers in order to find grounds for cooperation and collaboration and to develop communication and information exchanges between the Centers.

Design/methodology/approach

The population of this research includes all 123 ISCs in Iran. Questionnaires were distributed in a three‐month interval (August to October, 2008). The data were analyzed using SPSS software (Version 16).

Findings

The findings show that ISCs support the establishment of a network and would join it; however, lack of professionals in the informatics and network development, lack of in‐service training facilities, lack of financial and facilities, lack of access to the resources of other centers and the absence of fast exchange of information are among the problems that need much attention.

Practical implications

To establish the network, three issues should be considered, i.e. human resources, budget, and facilities of the centers.

Originality/value

The paper can serve as a driver to improve the efficiency in ISCs through establishing an information network to serve them.

Details

Interlending & Document Supply, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-1615

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