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Book part
Publication date: 15 October 2015

Pawan Adhikari, Chamara Kuruppu, Andy Wynne and Dayananda Ambalangodage

The adoption of International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSASs) in particular the Cash Basis IPSAS has now become a priority for the World Bank and other donors…

Abstract

Purpose

The adoption of International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSASs) in particular the Cash Basis IPSAS has now become a priority for the World Bank and other donors in less developed countries (LDCs). The paper explores the dissemination and implementation of the Cash Basis IPSAS in Nepal, a less developed country which is considered as one of the front-runners in terms of embracing the Cash Basis IPSAS.

Methodology/approach

The paper draws on diffusion theory to explain the internal and external factors related to the adoption and implementation of the Cash Basis IPSAS in the Nepali public sector. Data for the paper are derived from document analysis and semi-structured interviews.

Findings

The study shows that the adoption and implementation of the Cash Basis IPSAS in Nepal has become more of rhetoric than reality. Claims that the Cash Basis IPSAS is gaining popularity and widespread success across less developed countries are therefore contentious.

Research limitations

The case of Nepalese central government may not be adequate to generalise the adoption of the cash basis IPSAS in all less developed countries. Nonetheless, the study provides an overview of on-going public sector accounting reforms in less developed countries.

Originality/value

The paper emphasises the need for the identification of good accounting practices for less developed countries rather than forcing them into symbolic acceptance of the Cash Basis IPSAS. An example of such a good practice can be the promotion of certain aspects of modified cash accounting.

Details

The Public Sector Accounting, Accountability and Auditing in Emerging Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-662-1

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Book part
Publication date: 18 January 2021

Serap Sebahat Yanik, Seval Kardes Selimoglu and Gul Yesilcelebi

Government accounting shows the assets and resources of the government, the changes that occur in them, to provide the necessary information to evaluate the effectiveness…

Abstract

Government accounting shows the assets and resources of the government, the changes that occur in them, to provide the necessary information to evaluate the effectiveness of the government in revenue and expense management, and to produce the information required by economic management. In this context, the past, present, and future of the Turkish government accounting system discussed in the theoretical framework in the study.

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Article
Publication date: 24 December 2020

Harun Harun, Ian R.C. Eggleton and Stuart Locke

The aim of this study is to critically evaluate the institutionalisation of International Public Sector Accounting Standards in Indonesia.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to critically evaluate the institutionalisation of International Public Sector Accounting Standards in Indonesia.

Design/methodology/approach

This case study approach relies on obtaining its data from document sources and interviews with relevant people and/or organisations involved in policy-making and implementation of IPSAS in Indonesia. To inform the study, we developed and used an integrated model of institutionalisation based on the work done by Dillard et al. (2004) and Dambrin et al. (2007).

Findings

Our model shows that dissemination of new ideals and the transformation of these new ideals into new discourses were institutionalised at the economic and political level. However, the creation of a new [accounting]technique took place in the organisational field, instead of organisational level. The internalisation of IPSAS in the organisational field is characterised by limited use of IPSAS-based reports for making decisions. Overall the institionalisation of IPSAS in Indonesia is dominated by actors external to local governments.

Research limitations/implications

The study’s results reflect the specific socio-economic and political contexts for a specific point in time.

Practical implications

Policy-makers in developing nations should consider the applicability of IPSAS in accordance with the actual needs and capacities of their local governments.

Social implications

The findings show that developing nations and international organisations have underestimated the technical and institutional issues of developing nations in the globalisation of IPSAS.

Originality/value

The study extends institutional theory by developing a new model to conceptualise the dynamic processes, the role of actors and outcomes of public sector accounting reforms in an emerging economy.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2020

Yosra Mnif and Yosra Gafsi

The purpose of this paper is to assess the extent of central government financial information disclosed in accordance with accrual-based International Public Sector…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the extent of central government financial information disclosed in accordance with accrual-based International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) and to investigate the environmental factors affecting this level, drawing on the contingency theory framework.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a self-constructed checklist of 116 items to measure the IPSAS disclosure level by 100 public sector entities from different countries across the globe during the period 2015–2017. Panel regressions have been used.

Findings

The results show significant differences in compliance levels with IPSAS disclosures across nations. They reveal a positive influence of the degree of government openness (political culture), quality of public administration and management and prior experience with International Accounting Standards (IAS)/International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in the public sector on this level, whereas government financial condition is a nonsignificant factor.

Practical implications

The research findings are potentially relevant to academics, researchers, practitioners, standard-setters and government policymakers. By examining the influencing factors of IPSAS disclosure level, this paper paves the way for further investigation of this topic with a more extensive set of micro and macroeconomic variables whether at the central or local government level in other jurisdictions

Originality/value

This study provides new insights into the assessment of the transparency and completeness of government accrual-based financial statements. Based on the contingency theory, this paper is the first to empirically investigate the factors affecting the level of disclosure under accrual-based IPSAS by central government entities in a cross-country analysis.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2020

Mustafa Elkasih Abdulkarim, Mohamed Ismail Umlai and Layth Faris Al-Saudi

The purpose of this study is to investigate the level of readiness of the public sector in Qatar to adopt International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS), based…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the level of readiness of the public sector in Qatar to adopt International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS), based on the innovation diffusion theory. The responses of accountants (preparers) and auditors employed in the public sector are explored in this regard, and challenges faced in IPSAS implementation are highlighted.

Design/methodology/approach

A primary research approach was adopted using a questionnaire that yielded 101 responses. Five dimensions are focused on: relative advantage, top management support, satisfaction with the current accounting system, barriers to adopting IPSAS, and attitudes towards innovation.

Findings

Relative advantage, barriers to adopting IPSAS and satisfaction with the current system were found to be the most significant. The influence of these variables appears to promote or hinder the implementation of IPSAS in the public sector of Qatar and, perhaps, the wider region.

Practical implications

Even if professionals understand the potential benefits of adopting IPSAS, they are unlikely to advance such adoption without upper echelon-sanctioned cost-benefit analyses and approval. Hence, policymakers should consider the need for a top-down shift in the way IPSASs are viewed and promoted to enable their successful implementation in the public sector.

Social implications

The positive association between satisfaction with current systems and the level of IPSAS implementation suggests that respondents view the usefulness and ease of use of their current systems as a primary reason to adopt IPSAS as an ‘upgrade’.

Originality/value

This study advances the understanding of the pre-transition process by drawing on innovation theory, which reveals determinants of IPSAS implementation in the case of Qatar. This study adds to prior studies on government accounting in developing nations.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

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Article
Publication date: 21 January 2020

Saheed Adekunle Muraina and Kabiru Isa Dandago

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of the implementation of the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) on Nigeria’s financial reporting quality.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of the implementation of the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) on Nigeria’s financial reporting quality.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employed a survey research design to determine the effects of the implementation of the IPSAS on Nigeria’s financial reporting quality. Partial Least Square 3(SmartPLS 3) technique of analysis was applied to achieve the research objective.

Findings

The study found that accountability positively and significantly affects the quality of financial reporting in Nigeria. Specifically, IPSAS has improved the level of accountability, which in turn improved Nigeria’s financial reporting quality.

Research limitations

The study only explored two explanatory variables whereas other variables such as transparency, corruption minimization, comparability and faithful representation were not considered in this study. It is, therefore, recommended that further studies could expand the scope to cover some other variables not included in this paper.

Practical implications

IPSAS-Accrual has engendered the Nigerian Government to launch the Asset Tracking and Management Project (ATMProject) in order to easily track its assets for the purpose of accountability. Thus, accountability was discovered in this study to be the most essential factor to enhance the quality of financial reporting using accrual-based IPSAS in Nigeria.

Social implications

Accountability will impact positively on the lives of Nigerians in relation to the application of public funds to impact on the lives of the masses.

Originality/value

The statistical significance of accountability found in this study, using partial least square technique of data analysis, will further enhance financial integrity in the country.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 33 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2017

Andreea Cîrstea, Cristina Silvia Nistor and Adriana Tiron Tudor

Considering the worldwide importance granted to this topic, the purpose of this paper is to analyze, through a detailed pyramidal analysis, the intention of International…

Abstract

Purpose

Considering the worldwide importance granted to this topic, the purpose of this paper is to analyze, through a detailed pyramidal analysis, the intention of International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) to respond better to the public sector characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

The research methodology combines content analysis with the comparative and interpretive method, and also some statistical methods such as residual analysis, association coefficients, that come to bring added value to the public sector literature.

Findings

The main findings of the research concern the appreciation of consolidation approach in the public sphere under a dual aspect. The first one is theoretical, by presenting the evolution of the concept in literature, and the second one is empirical, by analyzing how IPSAS correlates with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), how the Exposure Draft 49 (ED 49) respondents perceive its content and implications, along with the extent to which the publication of IPSAS 35 took into account the exposure draft stage. In the authors’ opinion, the study manages to capture, theoretically and empirically, the evolution and the stage of consolidation in the public sector. The main results of the study lie in the combination in the empirical sphere of the content analysis with the mathematical and statistical methods, in order to assess the correlation IPSAS/IFRS, the responses to ED 49, but also the influences on the final version of IPSAS 35.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitations of the study are: the diversity of the received responses to ED and the number of comment letters submitted by the respondents.

Practical implications

The study addresses to a broad range of users: theoreticians, practitioners or professional bodies/legislators who will have a basis for analyzing what the acceptance and inclusion of IPSAS 35 in the national accounting rules would mean.

Social implications

The paper offers the possibility to understand the evolution of the concept of public sector consolidation.

Originality/value

The first originality aspect is revealed by the theoretical documentation and the second one lies in the combination of the empirical sphere of the content analysis with the mathematical and statistical methods.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

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Article
Publication date: 18 March 2019

Salah Uddin Rajib, Pawan Adhikari, Mahfuzul Hoque and Mahmuda Akter

The purpose of this paper is to examine public sector accounting reforms, mainly the adoption and implementation of the Cash Basis International Public Sector Accounting…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine public sector accounting reforms, mainly the adoption and implementation of the Cash Basis International Public Sector Accounting Standard (IPSAS) in the Central Government of Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on the ideas of new institutionalism, the paper investigates the factors which have forced the country to accept the Cash Basis IPSAS but have delayed its implementation in practice.

Findings

Different approaches towards the Cash Basis IPSAS are now distinct in the Central Government of Bangladesh. Differences between Bangladesh and other emerging economies have been narrowed as the potency of institutional pressures has increased, and there is a risk, as experienced in other emerging economies, that the very adoption of the Cash Basis IPSAS may remain more a rhetoric than a reality in Bangladesh. The paper demonstrates that the extent to which professional accountants and their associations participate in reforms determines the public sector accounting reform trajectories in emerging economies.

Practical implications

The paper demonstrates that reforms driven by indigenous administrators can have the potential of becoming more instrumental in emerging economies than the externally propagated reforms, such as IPSASs and accrual accounting. What is important is to advance incrementally those public sector accounting reforms that local administrators have identified as important, that they could cope with their existing knowledge and capacity, and that they are interested in engaging with the reform process.

Originality/value

First, the study has contributed to extending neo-institutional theory by bringing out the responses of different stakeholders responsible for implementing public sector accounting reforms, mainly the Cash Basis IPSAS, in practice. Next, the paper has raised a question as to whether the Cash Basis IPSAS could be an appropriate reform measure for the central government of Bangladesh.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

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Article
Publication date: 19 August 2019

Yosra Mnif Sellami and Yosra Gafsi

The purpose of this paper is to examine the transparency and completeness of government financial reporting in sub-Saharan African countries by assessing the extent of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the transparency and completeness of government financial reporting in sub-Saharan African countries by assessing the extent of compliance with IPSAS disclosures and to investigate the impact of the strength of public management systems (SPMS) and accounting education on this level.

Design/methodology/approach

This research develops a self-constructed disclosure index from content analysis and applies panel regressions for a sample of 60 sub-Saharan African government entities during the period 2014–2017.

Findings

The study results indicate that IPSAS disclosure levels significantly vary across sub-Saharan African governments. They reveal a positive effect of the SPMS and accounting education on the extent of compliance with IPSAS in this region.

Practical implications

The study findings are of interest to practitioners, researchers, government policy makers, supervisory authorities and professional bodies. By focusing on the effect of the SPMS and accounting education on IPSAS disclosure level, this paper leaves room for future research to investigate other relevant factors associated with the compliance with these standards whether in sub-Saharan Africa or in other parts of the world.

Originality/value

This paper gives new insights into the assessment of the quality and transparency of government financial reporting in sub-Saharan Africa by examining the extent of compliance with IPSAS in this region. It is the first to investigate the impact of the SPMS and accounting education on this level.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 33 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2020

Tobias Polzer and Christoph Reichard

The European Commission is pursuing an initiative to establish European Public Sector Accounting Standards (EPSAS) as a common mandatory set of rules for financial…

Abstract

Purpose

The European Commission is pursuing an initiative to establish European Public Sector Accounting Standards (EPSAS) as a common mandatory set of rules for financial reporting of all member states of the European Union (EU). As a basis for developing EPSAS, the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) are being used. The purpose of this paper is to structure and analyze the discussion around EPSAS, with particular emphasis on the arguments that were brought forward by governments and other stakeholders of various EU countries regarding the suitability of IPSAS.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on several schools of thought in new institutional theory, how the prevailing institutional contexts in countries influence the debates is explored. Empirically, this research investigates the responses to a consultation on the suitability of IPSAS for EU member states and takes a closer look, via document analysis, at France and Germany as two critical cases.

Findings

It is found that, first, the majority of arguments from respondents are framed in a rational choice way. Second, skeptics of IPSAS tend to make arguments rather from positions closer to historical and/or sociological institutionalism.

Research limitations/implications

The paper illustrates that while technical matters around EPSAS seem solvable, political, historical and cultural differences go deeper, and need to be addressed by change agents. Regarding limitations of the research, first, the analysis concentrates on financial reporting and does not deal with the implications for more reliable and comparable national accounts in the context of the European System of Accounts (ESA, 2010). Second, it is focused on debates in the context of the EPSAS proposal, and there is a need for an evaluation after the changes have gone live.

Originality/value

The study looks at a text genre that has so far received less attention in public sector accounting research: responses to consultations. The paper contributes to the literature by showing how institutional contexts matter in settings characterized by contestation of reform contents.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 33 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

1 – 10 of 305