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Article

Supattana Nirukkanaporn and S. Kumar

The purpose of the paper is to analyze the effect on centralized dispatching generation cost under the condition where the single‐buyer electric supply industry (ESI) with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to analyze the effect on centralized dispatching generation cost under the condition where the single‐buyer electric supply industry (ESI) with independent power producer (IPP) scheme (the ESI structure that is widely implemented in developing countries) is opened for bilateral trading. The analysis is based on the Thai power system.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis considers the average generation cost (B/kWh) derived from unit commitment of power generation under three cases – single‐buyer model with must‐run IPP scheme, unconstrained operation case, and the case where bilateral trading is introduced. The analysis is performed for different demand levels.

Findings

The results indicate that the operational constraint from the virtual must‐run power purchase agreement under IPP scheme leads to higher generation cost. The choice of allowing IPP to trade through bilateral trading and removal of the must‐run contract shows potential to lessen the operational constraint and lower generation cost can be achieved under some conditions – depending on the plant type and the share of bilateral market in the system. The planning and policy should take into consideration these conditions especially during the transitional period of ESI reform.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of the analysis is the availability to recent data. The load factor of the demand curve is taken from the peak day of the year, resulting in higher load factor than the average of Thailand. With lower load factor, the must‐run constraints might be more obvious during the lighter load day and more expensive generation cost can be observed. However, the cases are compared at same demand curve. Therefore, the trend of result will lead to the same conclusion.

Originality/value

Uneconomic operation of the single‐buyer ESI with IPP scheme which has been implemented in many developing countries was clearly determined. The literature shows that the ESI operation can be more efficient when the sector moves towards higher degree of competition, either fully competitive market or bilateral trading. The potential for better operating conditions for bilateral trading has been suggested. The simulation based on the power system of Thailand can be an example for other developing countries operating under the similar ESI structure.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

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Article

Teodora Obradovikj Grncarovska, Vladimir Dukovski and Manu Sharma

The purpose of this paper is to formulate an integrated product policy (IPP) framework for the Republic of Macedonia, taking into account unique circumstances faced by the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to formulate an integrated product policy (IPP) framework for the Republic of Macedonia, taking into account unique circumstances faced by the country, particularly the mandatory transposition of European Union (EU) environmental legislation, limited country-specific data availability and the low level of environmental awareness.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed IPP indicators at EU level and the available indicators in Macedonian conditions were used in order to create a composite IPP index as a method of measurement of the level of IPP implementation in the country. Markov Decision Processes (MDPs) are used as a policy decision approach for IPP. The purpose is to evaluate what decisions (taken now and in the future) would lead to the best possible level of IPP implementation. The approach applicability for long-term policy planning is demonstrated using a simple numerical example.

Findings

A stylized numerical example utilizing the composite IPP index and the MDP approach indicate that policy makers should focus not only on transposing the mandatory EU legislation related to IPP, but simultaneously work to raise public awareness of IPP and environmental issues, since this opens the door for more beneficial policy alternatives in the future. Considering the long-term consequences of actions taken in the present time should be an essential part of policy design, given the pervasive and long-term nature of the effects of IPP policy. It is also very important to revisit the assumptions at regular intervals and incorporate into this framework the new learning and data obtained with time.

Originality/value

This IPP framework and quantitative policy decision approach, in spite of its limitations, is a valuable and informative guide for IPP policy makers in the Republic of Macedonia. By incorporating a long-term view, explicit measurement of progress towards IPP implementation and the consideration of possible future consequences of policy decisions made in the present, it should be possible to significantly increase the likelihood of successful IPP implementation and improve environmental outcomes than those obtained using more conventional approaches.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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Article

Guobing Shen

The purpose of this paper is to improve the measurement of nominal level and actual strength of China's intellectual property protection (IPP), and examine whether the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve the measurement of nominal level and actual strength of China's intellectual property protection (IPP), and examine whether the increase of actual protection strength (APS) is positive or negative impact on China's provincial economic growth.

Design/methodology/approach

A modified approach, based on Ginarte‐Park's (GP's) and HL's approaches, is used to measure nominal level and APS of China's intellectual property rights (IPR) from 1995 to 2007. The pooled EGLS method (cross‐section fixed effect) is used to estimate the effect of China's IPP and other variables on provincial economic growth.

Findings

The paper proves that China's APS appears an increase with a phase. China's IPP level by GP approach is on the high side, whereas China's IPP level by HL approach is slightly on the low side. Nominal level of China's IPP is largely influenced by the legislation level, whereas APS mostly embodies the effect of implementing law level. The increase of China's APS has significant positive impact on provincial economic growth. However, at the outset of building an independent innovation country, too strong IPP is bad for the development of innovation capability, and bad for provincial economic growth.

Research limitations/implications

Because the APS is unknown, it is impossible to use APS as the dependent variable to estimate the weights of the main influencing factors. The method that the paper assumes three main factors the same weights is second best choice. Thus, several different weights are supplemented to measure the distribution values of China's APS.

Practical implications

China's APS quantified by a modified approach and strong evidences can be used to estimate the effect on economic growth. Policy effectiveness could be maximized at seeking the endogenous benefit balance between strengthening IPP and promoting economic development.

Originality/value

The paper proposes a modified approach to measure the APS of China's IPR, and proves that the reinforcement of China's APS is beneficial to promoting provincial economic growth. However, at the outset, too strong IPP is harmful.

Details

Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-4408

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Article

Mohammad Meskarpour Amiri, Mohammadkarim Bahadori, Zahra Motaghed and Ramin Ravangard

Informal payments (IPs) for healthcare are a serious obstacle to equitable access and universal health coverage in developing countries. Policy makers need to know more…

Abstract

Purpose

Informal payments (IPs) for healthcare are a serious obstacle to equitable access and universal health coverage in developing countries. Policy makers need to know more about the hidden nature of informal patient payments (IPPs) before any policy adoption and implementation. The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the main factors affecting IPPs.

Design/methodology/approach

This systematic review was conducted in 2018 using the standard guideline of PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. All English original articles on the determinants of IPPs published in the scientific journals, whose full text was available through Scopus, PubMed and Web of Science databases, which were given consideration for review.

Findings

The results showed that IPPs were greatly dependent on the characteristics of healthcare consumers, providers, healthcare system and services. Among healthcare consumers’ characteristics affecting IPPs, the income, age, education, gender, employment and health status were more cited factors, respectively. Among healthcare providers’ characteristics affecting IPPs, the providers’ experience, reputation, and salary satisfaction were better known, respectively. Among healthcare services features, the hospitalization, service specialty and the level of treatment urgency were more noted, respectively.

Originality/value

Policy making against IPs in the health sector requires precise attention to all components of healthcare market, including healthcare consumers, providers, healthcare system and services characteristics.

Details

International Journal of Health Governance, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-4631

Keywords

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Article

Michael Kwamega, Dongmei Li and Eugene Abrokwah

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mediating effect of information sharing (IS) on the link between supply chain integration (SCI) practices (internal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mediating effect of information sharing (IS) on the link between supply chain integration (SCI) practices (internal, customer and supplier) and internal process performance (IPP) by using selected agribusiness firms from an emerging economy, Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

To determine the effect of IS on the nexus between SCI practices and IPP, a research framework was developed and tested using data amassed from 156 agribusiness firms for the study. The data set was assessed and hypotheses were tested using structural equation modelling.

Findings

The outcomes revealed that both INI and CI positively and significantly influenced IS. However, the results disclosed that SI has no significant positive effect on IS among the Ghanaian agribusiness firms. The findings of the study further discovered that IS fully mediates the relationship between INI, CI and IPP, whereas SI has a direct interaction with IPP.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the existing supply chain management research by empirically authenticating IS as the mediator between SCI practices and IPP. From the viewpoint of a developing economy, this paper identifies the significant connection that exists between SCI practices, IS and IPP. The outcomes recommend that IS is a core driving facilitator to reinforce the correlation between SCI practices and IPP.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

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Article

Max Rutherford

Imprisonment for public protection (IPP) has been the subject of much attention and some controversy since its implementation in April 2005. High numbers of IPP prisoners…

Abstract

Imprisonment for public protection (IPP) has been the subject of much attention and some controversy since its implementation in April 2005. High numbers of IPP prisoners, combined with a low release rate, have meant that IPP has had a significant impact on the prison population. This paper charts the genesis of IPP and its historical antecedents. It also explores IPP as an exemplar of the ‘rise of risk’ and focuses on its links to the ‘dangerous severe personality disorder’ pilots. It presents two hypotheses on the mental health implications of IPP.

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

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Article

Melanie Merola

– The purpose of this paper was to understand the experience of those living with the Imprisonment for Public Protection (IPP) sentence.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to understand the experience of those living with the Imprisonment for Public Protection (IPP) sentence.

Design/methodology/approach

Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyse seven interviews with Young Offenders aged 18-21 who were serving an IPP sentence. Two participants were past their tariff expiry date, two had less than a year until their tariff date and three had more than a year until their tariff date.

Findings

Several themes were found, each with their own subthemes: Injustice of the Justice System, Not Knowing, Coping, Change and Walking on Eggshells. Participants still detailed negative aspects of the sentence but within this was one, important, positive aspect, namely the inspiration the sentence gave for them to change their offending behaviour. However, this has come at a cost with participants feeling as though they have been treated unfairly, finding it difficult to cope, feeling victimised and finding it difficult to see a future.

Practical implications

Lapses in motivation do not necessarily reflect the risk of the person but the difficulty of the sentence. Motivation can be fostered and developed through motivational interviewing, praise and peer support IPPs should be given more credit for the way they manage themselves daily and more understanding when they struggle. IPPs could be victimised by determinate prisoners or by staff. Establishments should be aware of this and help IPPs resolve situations without feeling like they are a victim. Consideration should be given to converting IPP sentences to determinate sentences.

Originality/value

Previous research focused on the negative aspects of the sentence, the purpose was therefore to approach the situation with an open mind and by using a method that allows those with an IPP sentence to share their experience of the sentence. IPA allowed for exploration of the effects of the sentence on those serving it and therefore gains a further understanding of the impact of the sentence.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Power Laws in the Information Production Process: Lotkaian Informetrics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-12088-753-8

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Abstract

Details

Power Laws in the Information Production Process: Lotkaian Informetrics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-12088-753-8

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Article

Michael Nii Addy, Stephen Akunyumu and Barbara Simons

Sustained access to efficient electricity plays an essential role in improving living conditions of people and contributes to the economic development of the nation as a…

Abstract

Purpose

Sustained access to efficient electricity plays an essential role in improving living conditions of people and contributes to the economic development of the nation as a whole. Volta River Authority (VRA) mainly manages the generation plants (hydropower sources and thermal plants) alongside independent power producers (IPPs). Power generation in the country has been influenced by myriads of factors. Thus, the purpose of this study is to assess the key risk factors affecting renewable energy of IPPs set-up project in Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative approach was adopted for the study. Empirical investigation was carried out using the survey approach. The likelihood of occurrence of the risk and the degree of impact of same motivated the use of risk significance index to analyze the data and make deductions from the results.

Findings

From the study, three key risk factors have high level of severity, which include long and complex procedures for authorization of project activities, stability of the policy environment and ease of obtaining rights to land. These risks could be found in the business/strategic risks and policy/regulatory risks categories, respectively. A total of 25 key risk factors had moderate level of severity and 12 key risk factors have low level of severity on renewable energy IPP set up projects.

Practical implications

Top-ranked risk factors require maximum attention. The identified risks should be alleviated with strategies to reduce levels of severity by targeting either the likelihood of occurrence or the level of impact. This will serve as a catalyze to promoting renewable energy IPP set-up projects in Ghana.

Originality/value

Key contribution of the paper to the body of knowledge is demonstrated by the empirical evidence of the risks IPPs are likely to encounter in setting up renewable energy plants in Ghana. The distinctive attribute of this study is further demonstrated by the fact that it focused on the set-up stage, which is a critical stage in the renewable energy provision value chain.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

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