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1 – 10 of over 1000
Article
Publication date: 1 December 2022

Asyraf Abdullah and Siti Rabiatull Aisha Idris

This study aims to review the effect of copper percentage in Sn-based solder alloys (Sn-xCu, x = 0–5 Wt.%) on intermetallic compound (IMC) formation and growth after laser…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to review the effect of copper percentage in Sn-based solder alloys (Sn-xCu, x = 0–5 Wt.%) on intermetallic compound (IMC) formation and growth after laser soldering.

Design/methodology/approach

This study reviews the interfacial reactions at the solder joint interface, solder joint morphology and the theory on characterizing the formation and growth of IMCs. In addition, the effects of alloying and strengthening mechanism, including wettability, melting and mechanical properties are discussed.

Findings

This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the composition of tin-copper (Sn-Cu) solders with a potential to enhance their microstructure, mechanical characteristics and wettability by varying the Cu percentage. The study found that the best Cu content in the Sn-xCu solder alloy was 0.6–0.7 Wt.%; this composition provided high shear strength, vibration fracture life value and ideal IMC thickness. A method of solder alloy preparation was also found through powder metallurgy and laser soldering to improve the solder joint reliability.

Research limitations/implications

This study focuses on interfacial reactions at the solder joint interface, solder joint morphology, modelling simulation of joint strength and the theory on characterising the formation and growth of IMC.

Originality/value

The paper comprehensively summarises the useful findings of the Sn-Cu series. This information will be important for future trends in laser soldering on solder joint formation.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 October 2022

Maja Šerić and Josip Mikulić

This paper aims to examine how message consistency pursued through integrated marketing communications (IMC) can build a strong destination brand equity in a very dynamic…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine how message consistency pursued through integrated marketing communications (IMC) can build a strong destination brand equity in a very dynamic environment and whether this process is affected by the perceived risk of COVID-19.

Design/methodology/approach

Data collection was conducted among 333 international tourists visiting Croatia, a destination that has experienced a remarkable boom in the summer/autumn season of 2021, regardless of the pandemic. Partial least squares–structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was used for data analysis.

Findings

Results show that IMC consistency has a significant impact on the four destination brand equity dimensions, i.e. awareness, image, perceived quality and loyalty. This influence is found to be the highest on destination brand awareness and the lowest on destination brand loyalty. Perceived risk of COVID-19 moderates the impact of message consistency on brand image and perceived quality.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that examines the role of IMC consistency in a tourism context during turbulent times. The impact of IMC consistency is analyzed on different components of destination brand equity, which addresses the most recent research call from tourism literature. The moderating effects of perceived risk are considered, thus providing additional implications in a context of high uncertainty. Finally, IMC consistency is assessed from the consumer rather than managerial viewpoints, thus adopting the necessary outside-in approach embedded in the IMC idea.

目的

本文探讨了通过整合营销传播 (IMC) 追求的信息一致性如何在非常动态的环境中建立强大的目的地品牌资产, 以及这一过程是否受到 COVID-19 感知风险的影响。

设计/方法/方法

在 333 名访问克罗地亚的国际游客中进行了数据收集, 该目的地在 2021 年夏季/秋季经历了非凡的繁荣, 无论大流行如何。偏最小二乘 - 结构方程建模 (PLS-SEM) 用于数据分析。

结果

结果表明, IMC 一致性对四个目的地品牌资产维度有显着影响, 即意识、形象、感知质量和忠诚度。发现这种影响对目的地品牌知名度最高, 对目的地品牌忠诚度最低。 COVID-19 的感知风险缓和了信息一致性对品牌形象和感知质量的影响。

原创性/价值

据作者所知, 这是第一项研究动荡时期 IMC 一致性在旅游环境中的作用。分析了 IMC 一致性对目的地品牌资产的不同组成部分的影响, 这解决了来自旅游文献的最新研究呼吁。考虑到感知风险的调节效应, 从而在高度不确定的情况下提供额外的影响。最后, IMC 一致性是从消费者而非管理的角度评估的, 因此采用了嵌入 IMC 理念的必要的由外而内的方法。

Objetivo

Este artículo examina cómo la coherencia del mensaje que se pretende conseguir a través de la Comunicación Integrada de Marketing (CIM) puede generar un fuerte valor de marca de un destino turístico en un entorno muy dinámico y si este proceso se ve afectado por el riesgo percibido del COVID-19.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

La recogida de datos se ha llevado a cabo entre 333 turistas internacionales que visitaron Croacia, un destino que ha experimentado un auge turístico notable en la temporada de verano/otoño de 2021, independientemente de la pandemia. Para el análisis de datos, se ha empleado la técnica de mínimos cuadrados parciales PLS-SEM.

Resultados

Los resultados muestran que la coherencia de la CIM tiene un impacto significativo en las cuatro dimensiones del valor de marca de un destino, es decir, notoriedad, imagen, calidad percibida y lealtad. Este impacto es más alto en el caso de la notoriedad y más bajo en el caso de la lealtad. El riesgo percibido del COVID-19 modera los efectos de la coherencia del mensaje en la imagen de marca y la calidad percibida.

Originalidad/valor

Según el conocimiento de los autores, este es el primer estudio que examina el papel de la coherencia de la CIM en un contexto turístico durante tiempos inestables. Se analiza el impacto de la coherencia de la CIM en diferentes componentes del valor de la marca de destino, dando así respuestas a las llamadas más recientes de la literatura turística. Se consideran los efectos moderadores del riesgo percibido, proporcionando así implicaciones adicionales en un contexto de alta incertidumbre. Finalmente, la coherencia de la CIM se evalúa desde el punto de vista del consumidor, adoptando así el enfoque “de afuera hacia adentro”, que es uno de los principios base de la CIM.

Article
Publication date: 18 September 2009

Jianbiao Pan, Tzu‐Chien Chou, Jasbir Bath, Dennis Willie and Brian J. Toleno

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of reflow time, reflow peak temperature, thermal shock and thermal aging on the intermetallic compound (IMC

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of reflow time, reflow peak temperature, thermal shock and thermal aging on the intermetallic compound (IMC) thickness for Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) soldered joints.

Design/methodology/approach

A four‐factor factorial design with three replications is selected in the experiment. The input variables are the peak temperature, the duration of time above solder liquidus temperature (TAL), solder alloy and thermal shock. The peak temperature has three levels, 12, 22 and 32°C above solder liquidus temperatures (or 230, 240 and 250°C for SAC305 and 195, 205, and 215°C for SnPb). The TAL has two levels, 30 and 90 s. The thermally shocked test vehicles are subjected to air‐to‐air thermal shock conditioning from −40 to 125°C with 30 min dwell times (or 1 h/cycle) for 500 cycles. Samples both from the initial time zero and after thermal shock are cross‐sectioned. The IMC thickness is measured using scanning electron microscopy. Statistical analyses are conducted to compare the difference in IMC thickness growth between SAC305 solder joints and SnPb solder joints, and the difference in IMC thickness growth between after thermal shock and after thermal aging.

Findings

The IMC thickness increases with higher reflow peak temperature and longer time above liquidus. The IMC layer of SAC305 soldered joints is statistically significantly thicker than that of SnPb soldered joints when reflowed at comparable peak temperatures above liquidus and the same time above liquidus. Thermal conditioning leads to a smoother and thicker IMC layer. Thermal shock contributes to IMC growth merely through high‐temperature conditioning. The IMC thickness increases in SAC305 soldered joints after thermal shock or thermal aging are generally in agreement with prediction models such as that proposed by Hwang.

Research limitations/implications

It is still unknown which thickness of IMC layer could result in damage to the solder.

Practical implications

The IMC thickness of all samples is below 3 μm for both SnPb and SAC305 solder joints reflowed at the peak temperature ranging from 12 to 32°C above liquidus temperature and at times above liquidus ranging from 30 to 90 s. The IMC thickness is below 4 μm after subjecting to air‐to‐air thermal shock from −40 to 125°C with 30 min dwell time for 500 cycles or thermal aging at 125°C for 250 h.

Originality/value

The paper reports experimental results of IMC thickness at different thermal conditions. The application is useful for understanding the thickness growth of the IMC layer at various thermal conditions.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Yan Zhu and Fenglian Sun

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of geometric size on intermetallic compound (IMC) growth and elements diffusion of Cu/Sn/Cu solder joint and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of geometric size on intermetallic compound (IMC) growth and elements diffusion of Cu/Sn/Cu solder joint and establish the correlation model between the thickness of the IMC layer and size of the solder joint on the dozens of microns scale.

Design/methodology/approach

The sandwich-structured Cu/Sn/Cu solder joints with different gaps between two copper-clad plates (δ) are fabricated using a reflow process. The microstructure and composition of solder joints are observed and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy.

Findings

After reflow, the thickness of the IMC and Cu concentration in solder layers increase with the reduction of δ from 50, 40, 30, 20 to 10 μm. During isothermal aging, the thickness of the IMC fails to increase according to the traditional parabolic rule due to changes in Cu concentration. The reduction of δ is the root cause of changes in Cu concentration and the growth rule of the IMC layer. A correlation model between the thickness of the IMC layer and δ is established. It is found that the thickness of the IMC layer is the function of aging time and δ. With δ reducing, the main control element of IMC growth transfers from Cu to Sn.

Originality/value

This paper shows the changes of IMC thickness and elements concentration with the reduction of the size of solder joints on the dozens of microns scale. A correlation model is established to calculate the thickness of the IMC layer during aging.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 April 2009

Cong‐qian Cheng, Jie Zhao, Yang Xu, Fu‐Min Xu and Ming‐liang Huang

The aim of this paper is to investigate the growth behaviours of intermetallic compound (IMC) layers in solid‐liquid interfacial reactions of Sn1.5Cu/Cu in various…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to investigate the growth behaviours of intermetallic compound (IMC) layers in solid‐liquid interfacial reactions of Sn1.5Cu/Cu in various intensities of high‐magnetic field.

Design/methodology/approach

Sn1.5Cu solder was prepared and melted in a vacuum furnace at 873 K and cast into solder bars. Samples were mounted using resin and etched after being carefully polished. Then the IMC layers were observed by using scanning electron microscopy.

Findings

The results show that the growth of IMC layers has been accelerated by high‐magnetic field through the comparison of growth kinetics of IMC layers among 0‐2.5 T magnetic filed. IMC grains in high‐magnetic field are much bigger than that in 0 T. By the analyzing of X‐ray diffractometer patterns of IMC layers, it can be found that the orientations of IMC have been changed by magnetic field.

Originality/value

This paper investigates the growth behaviour of IMC layers during the solid‐liquid interfacial reactions of Sn1.5Cu/Cu in a high magnetic field.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Wei Liu, Rong An, Chunqing Wang and Yanhong Tian

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of typical morphologies of Au-Sn IMCs (intermetallic compounds) at the interfaces of solder and pads on shear…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of typical morphologies of Au-Sn IMCs (intermetallic compounds) at the interfaces of solder and pads on shear properties of laser reflowed micro-solder joints.

Design/methodology/approach

Sn-2.0Ag-0.75Cu-3.0Bi (SnAgCuBi) solder balls (120 μm in diameter), pads with 0.1, 0.5, 0.9 or 4.0 μm thickness of Au surface finish, and different laser input energies were utilized to fabricate micro-solder joints with Au-Sn IMCs having different typical morphologies. The joints were performed by a shear test through a DAGE bond test system. Fracture surfaces of the joints were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry to identify fracture modes and locations.

Findings

Morphologies of Au-Sn IMCs would affect shear properties of the joints remarkably. When needle-like AuSn4 IMCs formed at the interfaces of solder and pads, almost entire surfaces presented the manner of ductile fracture. Moreover, shear forces of this kind of solder joints were higher than those of joints without Au-Sn IMCs or with a nearly continuous/continuous Au-Sn IMCs layer. The reason was that the shear performance of the solder joints with needle-like AuSn4 IMCs was enhanced by an interlocking effect between solder and needle-like AuSn4 IMCs. As a nearly continuous or continuous Au-Sn IMCs layer formed, the fracture surfaces presented more character of brittle than ductile fracture. However, if an Au layer still remained under Au-Sn IMCs, the shear performance of the joints would be enhanced.

Originality/value

The results in this study can be used to optimize microstructures and shear properties of laser reflowed micro-solder joints.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 5 November 2018

Wei Wei Liu, Berdy Weng and Scott Chen

The Kirkendall void had been a well-known issue for long-term reliability of semiconductor interconnects; while even the KVs exist at the interfaces of Cu and Sn, it may…

1100

Abstract

Purpose

The Kirkendall void had been a well-known issue for long-term reliability of semiconductor interconnects; while even the KVs exist at the interfaces of Cu and Sn, it may still be able to pass the condition of unbias long-term reliability testing, especially for 2,000 cycles of temperature cycling test and 2,000 h of high temperature storage. A large number of KVs were observed after 200 cycles of temperature cycling test at the intermetallic Cu3Sn layer which locate between the intermetallic Cu6Sn5 and Cu layers. These kinds of voids will grow proportional with the aging time at the initial stage. This paper aims to compare various IMC thickness as a function of stress test, the Cu3Sn and Cu6Sn5 do affected seriously by heat, but Ni3Sn4 is not affected by heat or moisture.

Design/methodology/approach

The package is the design in the flip chip-chip scale package with bumping process and assembly. The package was put in reliability stress test that followed AEC-Q100 automotive criteria and recorded the IMC growing morphology.

Findings

The Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound is the most sensitive to continuous heat which grows from 3 to 10 µm at high temperature storage 2,000 h testing, and the second is Cu3Sn IMC. Cu6Sn5 IMC will convert to Cu3Sn IMC at initial stage, and then Kirkendall void will be found at the interface of Cu and Cu3Sn IMC, which has quality concerning issue if the void’s density grows up. The first phase to form and grow into observable thickness for Ni and lead-free interface is Ni3Sn4 IMC, and the thickness has little relationship to the environmental stress, as no IMC thickness variation between TCT, uHAST and HTSL stress test. The more the Sn exists, the thicker Ni3Sn4 IMC will be derived from this experimental finding compare the Cu/Ni/SnAg cell and Ni/SnAg cell.

Research limitations/implications

The research found that FCCSP can pass automotive criteria that follow AEC-Q100, which give the confidence for upgrading the package type with higher efficiency and complexities of the pin design.

Practical implications

This result will impact to the future automotive package, how to choose the best package methodology and what is the way to do the package. The authors can understand the tolerance for the kind of flip chip package, and the bump structure is then applied for high-end technology.

Originality/value

The overall three kinds of bump structures, Cu/Ni/SnAg, Cu/SnAg and Ni/SnAg, were taken into consideration, and the IMC growing morphology had been recorded. Also, the IMC had changed during the environmental stress, and KV formation was reserved.

Details

PSU Research Review, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2399-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 August 2022

Guisheng Gan, Shiqi Chen, Liujie Jiang, Zhaoqi Jiang, Cong Liu, Peng Ma, Dayong Cheng and Xin Liu

This study aims to evaluate the effect of thermal aging temperature on the properties of Cu/Cu joints.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate the effect of thermal aging temperature on the properties of Cu/Cu joints.

Design/methodology/approach

A new method that 1 um Zn-particles and Sn-0.3Ag-0.7Cu (SAC0307) with a particle size of 25–38 µm were mixed to fill the joint and successfully achieved the micro-joining of Cu/Cu under ultrasonic-assisted at low-temperature, and then the effect of thermal aging temperature on the properties of Cu/Cu joints was researched.

Findings

The composition of the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) on the upper and lower interfaces of Cu/SACZ/Cu joints remained unchanged, which was Cu5Zn8 in aging process, and the thickness of the IMCs on the upper and lower interfaces of the Cu/SACZ/Cu joints increased accordingly. Compared with the as-received joints, the thickness of the upper and lower interfaces IMCs of the soldering aged time for 24 h increased by 404.7% and 505.5% at 150ºC, respectively. The IMCs formation tendency and the IMCs growth rate of the lower interface are larger than those of the upper interface because the soldering seam near the IMCs at the upper and lower interfaces of the as-received joints were mostly white SAC0307 balls black Zn-particles, respectively. The growth activation energy of IMCs in the upper and lower interfaces is about 89.21 and 55.11 kJ/mol, respectively. Under the same aging time, with the increase of the aging temperature, the shear strength of Cu/SACZ/Cu joints did not change significantly at first before 150ºC. When the aging temperature reached 150ºC, the shear strength of the joints decreased significantly; the shear strength of the joints was the smallest at 150ºC for 24 h, which was 39.4% lower than that of the as-received joints because the oxidation degree of Zn particles in the joint with the increase of aging temperature and time.

Originality/value

Cu/Cu joints were successfully achieved under ultrasonic-assisted at low-temperature.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 19 November 2021

Vera Butkouskaya, Joan Llonch-Andreu and María-del-Carmen Alarcón-del-Amo

Taking the customer-centric nature of integrated marketing communications (IMC), this article investigates the specific role of customer performance in IMC effectiveness…

1143

Abstract

Purpose

Taking the customer-centric nature of integrated marketing communications (IMC), this article investigates the specific role of customer performance in IMC effectiveness in various size companies applying inter-country context.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consists of the primary data from developed (Spain) and developing (Belarus) economies. A total of 540 manager respondents participated in the survey. The article uses structural equation modeling and multi-group analysis for analysis.

Findings

When taking into consideration, customer performance affects the IMC outcome on the market and financial performance. The customer performance role varies in firms of various sizes and small- and medium -sized enterprises (SMEs) operating both in developed and developing economies.

Research limitations/implications

The research underlines the significant role of customer performance in IMC implementation, which stimulates further investigation on the topic. It also closes the gap in the IMC outcomes analysis in SMEs operating in developed and developing economies.

Practical implications

Customer evaluation plays a vital role in the IMC outcomes for market growth and financial returns. SMEs and larger companies implement IMC with different levels of effectiveness. SMEs with IMC implementation can gain an advantage over larger rivals and improve their market position. Moreover, the study generalizes the results by applying inter-country context.

Originality/value

This is a pioneering study of the complex IMC outcomes model under firms' size moderate conditions. The research applies an inter-country context.

Details

Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Science, vol. 26 no. 52
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2218-0648

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Jungkeun Kim, Jae-Eun Kim and Roger Marshall

This research aims to examine the moderating role of consumers’ persuasion knowledge (PK) on the persuasive effect of combined advertising and publicity within the same…

2963

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to examine the moderating role of consumers’ persuasion knowledge (PK) on the persuasive effect of combined advertising and publicity within the same medium. The synergistic effect experienced when two messages are thus combined is reversed for readers with high PK who are first exposed to publicity then to advertising. Believability of the message is found to be a mediator within this context.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a review of the appropriate literatures on PK and integrated marketing communication (IMC), this paper tests the hypotheses using two experimental studies.

Findings

The results of two experiments show that publicity-then-advertising yields poorer persuasion than advertising-then-publicity, especially under a high PK condition. The reduced synergistic effect of combinations of advertising and publicity is found especially when consumers activate temporary PK and/or when they have chronically high PK. A mediator for a decrease in the synergistic effect of combinations of advertising and publicity, believability, is examined.

Practical implications

This study contains significant managerial implications for marketing communicators about how to most effectively combine and coordinate publicity and advertising in the implementation of an IMC strategy.

Originality/value

Other than making a contribution to the IMCs’ literature, this research extends understanding of the power of PK within an IMC framework. The research contributes yet another extension to the original PK model of Friestad and Wright (1994) by suggesting an underlying theoretical mechanism to explain how PK works in the IMC domain.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 50 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000