Search results

1 – 10 of 235
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Pia Borlund

The purpose of this paper is to report a study of how the test instrument of a simulated work task situation is used in empirical evaluations of interactive information…

Downloads
1353

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report a study of how the test instrument of a simulated work task situation is used in empirical evaluations of interactive information retrieval (IIR) and reported in the research literature. In particular, the author is interested to learn whether the requirements of how to employ simulated work task situations are followed, and whether these requirements call for further highlighting and refinement.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to study how simulated work task situations are used, the research literature in question is identified. This is done partly via citation analysis by use of Web of Science®, and partly by systematic search of online repositories. On this basis, 67 individual publications were identified and they constitute the sample of analysis.

Findings

The analysis reveals a need for clarifications of how to use simulated work task situations in IIR evaluations. In particular, with respect to the design and creation of realistic simulated work task situations. There is a lack of tailoring of the simulated work task situations to the test participants. Likewise, the requirement to include the test participants’ personal information needs is neglected. Further, there is a need to add and emphasise a requirement to depict the used simulated work task situations when reporting the IIR studies.

Research limitations/implications

Insight about the use of simulated work task situations has implications for test design of IIR studies and hence the knowledge base generated on the basis of such studies.

Originality/value

Simulated work task situations are widely used in IIR studies, and the present study is the first comprehensive study of the intended and unintended use of this test instrument since its introduction in the late 1990’s. The paper addresses the need to carefully design and tailor simulated work task situations to suit the test participants in order to obtain the intended authentic and realistic IIR under study.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 72 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Melanie Landvad Clemmensen and Pia Borlund

The purpose of this paper is to report a study of order effect in interactive information retrieval (IIR) studies. The phenomenon of order effect is well-known, and it is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report a study of order effect in interactive information retrieval (IIR) studies. The phenomenon of order effect is well-known, and it is the main reason why searches are permuted (counter-balanced) between test participants in IIR studies. However, the phenomenon is not yet fully understood or investigated in relation to IIR; hence the objective is to increase the knowledge of this phenomenon in the context of IIR as it has implications for test design of IIR studies.

Design/methodology/approach

Order effect is studied via partly a literature review and partly an empirical IIR study. The empirical IIR study is designed as a classic between-groups design. The IIR search behaviour was logged and complementary post-search interviews were conducted.

Findings

The order effect between groups and within search tasks were measured against nine classic IIR performance parameters of search interaction behaviour. Order effect is seen with respect to three performance parameters (website changes, visit of webpages, and formulation of queries) shown by an increase in activity on the last performed search. Further the theories with respect to motivation, fatigue, and the good-subject effect shed light on how and why order effect may affect test participants’ IR system interaction and search behaviour.

Research limitations/implications

Insight about order effect has implications for test design of IIR studies and hence the knowledge base generated on the basis of such studies. Due to the limited sample of 20 test participants (Library and Information Science (LIS) students) inference statistics is not applicable; hence conclusions can be drawn from this sample of test participants only.

Originality/value

Only few studies in LIS focus on order effect and none from the perspective of IIR.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 72 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

Barbara Wildemuth, Luanne Freund and Elaine G. Toms

One core element of interactive information retrieval (IIR) experiments is the assignment of search tasks. The purpose of this paper is to provide an analytical review of…

Downloads
1879

Abstract

Purpose

One core element of interactive information retrieval (IIR) experiments is the assignment of search tasks. The purpose of this paper is to provide an analytical review of current practice in developing those search tasks to test, observe or control task complexity and difficulty.

Design/methodology/approach

Over 100 prior studies of IIR were examined in terms of how each defined task complexity and/or difficulty (or related concepts) and subsequently interpreted those concepts in the development of the assigned search tasks.

Findings

Search task complexity is found to include three dimensions: multiplicity of subtasks or steps, multiplicity of facets, and indeterminability. Search task difficulty is based on an interaction between the search task and the attributes of the searcher or the attributes of the search situation. The paper highlights the anomalies in our use of these two concepts, concluding with suggestions for future methodological research related to search task complexity and difficulty.

Originality/value

By analyzing and synthesizing current practices, this paper provides guidance for future experiments in IIR that involve these two constructs.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 70 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 27 November 2007

Amanda Spink and Cheryl Dee

Interactive information retrieval (IR) involves many human cognitive shifts at different information behaviour levels. Cognitive science defines a cognitive shift or shift…

Downloads
1315

Abstract

Purpose

Interactive information retrieval (IR) involves many human cognitive shifts at different information behaviour levels. Cognitive science defines a cognitive shift or shift in cognitive focus as triggered by the brain's response and change due to some external force. This paper aims to provide an explication of the concept of “cognitive shift” and then report results from a study replicating Spink's study of cognitive shifts during interactive IR. This work aims to generate promising insights into aspects of cognitive shifts during interactive IR and a new IR evaluation measure – information problem shift.

Design/methodology/approach

The study participants (n=9) conducted an online search on an in‐depth personal medical information problem. Data analysed included the pre‐ and post‐search questionnaires completed by each study participant. Implications for web services and further research are discussed.

Findings

Key findings replicated the results in Spink's study, including: all study participants reported some level of cognitive shift in their information problem, information seeking and personal knowledge due to their search interaction; and different study participants reported different levels of cognitive shift. Some study participants reported major cognitive shifts in various user‐based variables such as information problem or information‐seeking stage. Unlike Spink's study, no participant experienced a negative shift in their information problem stage or level of information problem understanding.

Originality/value

This study builds on the previous study by Spink using a different dataset. The paper provides valuable insights for further research into cognitive shifts during interactive IR.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Miamaria Saastamoinen and Kalervo Järvelin

The purpose of this paper is to investigate information retrieval (IR) in the context of authentic work tasks (WTs), as compared to traditional experimental IR study designs.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate information retrieval (IR) in the context of authentic work tasks (WTs), as compared to traditional experimental IR study designs.

Design/methodology/approach

The participants were 22 professionals working in municipal administration, university research and education, and commercial companies. The data comprise 286 WTs and 420 search tasks (STs). The data were collected in natural situations. It includes transaction logs, video recordings, interviews, observation, and daily questionnaires.

Findings

The analysis included the effects of WT type and complexity on the number of STs, queries, search keys and types of queries. The findings suggest that simple STs are enough to support most WTs. Complex WTs (vs more simple ones) and intellectual WTs (vs communication, support and editing WTs) include more STs than other WT categories.

Research limitations/implications

Further research should address the problems related to controllability of field studies and enhance the use of realistic WT situations in test-based studies, as well.

Originality/value

The study is an attempt to bring traditional IR studies and realistic research settings closer to each other. Using authentic WTs when studying IR is still rare. The representativeness of the WT/ST types used in interactive IR experiments should be carefully addressed: in the work flow, people seldom consciously recognise separate “STs”. This means that STs may mainly be an academic construct even to the point that studying IR without a decent context does violence to the further understanding of the phenomenon.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 72 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 January 2012

Dev Raj Adhikari, Katsuhiko Hirasawa, Yutaka Takakubo and Dhruba Lal Pandey

This paper aims to review the situation of decent work (DW) and quality of work life (QWL) in the context of Nepal.

Downloads
2168

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the situation of decent work (DW) and quality of work life (QWL) in the context of Nepal.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a literature survey. Institutional arrangements for DW and QWL are studied in connection with current labor legislations, national policy documents, and company policies and initiatives. The status of DW and QWL is described, examining national policy documents published by the Government of Nepal, National Planning Commission, labor legislations, International Labor Organization (ILO) and other relevant literature.

Findings

At present, although the country has been successful in reducing the number of people under the poverty line, there are challenges in meeting the DW goals. In the case of QWL, since there is rising dissatisfaction among employers and employees in the present economic and political circumstances, they are interested in short‐term benefits.

Research limitations/implications

There are a number of factors affecting DW and QWL. In this paper only national economic and social conditions, poverty level, employment situation and income generation are considered for analysis. The analysis of the QWL situation is done only on the basis of published information rather than using primary sources of information.

Practical implications

The findings of this study will have a number of implications in understanding and improving the level of current institutional arrangements in order to ensure DW and QWL. The observations made in this paper can add some value in the process of formulation of national policy for, and regulation of DW. The issues discussed will have substantial implication for the development and framing of new labor laws and policies.

Originality/value

The paper focuses on DW and QWL for the first time in the Nepalese context. This is an original contribution by the authors to familiarize readers with the situation of DW and QWL in Nepalese organizations.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Dan Albertson and Boryung Ju

The purpose of this paper is to examine perceived self-efficacy of users within an interactive video retrieval context. The motivation for this research includes that…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine perceived self-efficacy of users within an interactive video retrieval context. The motivation for this research includes that understanding self-efficacy will provide insight on how potential users target resources and in turn promote and sustain use of retrieval tools and systems.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey method was employed. In total, 270 participants rated levels of perceived self-efficacy for successfully fulfilling different video needs if using a particular system. Perceived self-efficacy was explored quantitatively, both overall and across different potentially influential factors, such as topic type, topic familiarity, system experience, and system context. In addition, open-ended responses on the survey were categorized through content-analysis and subsequently analyzed using weighted frequencies.

Findings

Findings demonstrated significant associations between participants’ perceived self-efficacy and different topical factors, including familiarity and topic type, and also system factors, such as exposure (or experience) and system context.

Research limitations/implications

User confidence is one belief or attitude about technology acceptance, with self-efficacy intersecting multiple factors related to initial and sustained use of technologies. Findings give researchers a look at users’ preconceptions of interactive video retrieval situations, which, in turn, suggest positive implications for future research and design.

Originality/value

Video retrieval comprises considerations that are unique from other contexts due to the structure and physical makeup of video. However, until now, self-efficacy has not been directly examined in relation to video or according to several of the specific retrieval factors as explored in the current study, which is thus warranted.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 72 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 February 2000

Pia Borlund

This paper presents a set of basic components which constitutes the experimental setting intended for the evaluation of interactive information retrieval (IIR) systems…

Downloads
1799

Abstract

This paper presents a set of basic components which constitutes the experimental setting intended for the evaluation of interactive information retrieval (IIR) systems, the aim of which is to facilitate evaluation of IIR systems in a way which is as close as possible to realistic IR processes. The experimental setting consists of three components: (1) the involvement of potential users as test persons; (2) the application of dynamic and individual information needs; and (3) the use of multidimensional and dynamic relevance judgements. Hidden under the information need component is the essential central sub‐component, the simulated work task situation, the tool that triggers the (simulated) dynamic information needs. This paper also reports on the empirical findings of the metaevaluation of the application of this sub‐component, the purpose of which is to discover whether the application of simulated work task situations to future evaluation of IIR systems can be recommended. Investigations are carried out to determine whether any search behavioural differences exist between test persons‘ treatment of their own real information needs versus simulated information needs. The hypothesis is that if no difference exists one can correctly substitute real information needs with simulated information needs through the application of simulated work task situations. The empirical results of the meta‐evaluation provide positive evidence for the application of simulated work task situations to the evaluation of IIR systems. The results also indicate that tailoring work task situations to the group of test persons is important in motivating them. Furthermore, the results of the evaluation show that different versions of semantic openness of the simulated situations make no difference to the test persons’ search treatment.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 56 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Dejan Mirković, Predrag Petković and Vančo Litovski

The purpose of this paper is to design a tool for IIR digital filters obtained from analog prototypes, which preserves simultaneously the amplitude and the group delay…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to design a tool for IIR digital filters obtained from analog prototypes, which preserves simultaneously the amplitude and the group delay response.

Design/methodology/approach

A new s-to-z transform is developed based on a second order formula used for numerical integration of differential equations. Stability of the newly obtained transfer functions in the z-domain is proved to be preserved. Distortions introduced by the new transform into the original amplitude and group delay responses are studied.

Findings

The new formula, when implemented to all-pole prototypes, exhibits lower selectivity than the original while reducing the pass-band group delay distortions. In the same time its structure is importantly simpler than the functions obtained by the well-known bilinear transform. When implemented to a prototype having “all kinds” of transmission zeros the resulting filter has almost ideally the same characteristic as the prototype.

Research limitations/implications

The new transform may be used exclusively to synthesize even order filters. The new function is twice the order of the analog prototype. This kind of transformations are used to design IIR digital filters only. Low-pass transfer functions were studied being prototypes for all other cases.

Originality/value

This is a new result never mentioned in the literature. Its effectiveness is confined to a niche problem when simultaneous sharp selectivity and low group delay distortions are sought.

Details

COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 June 2021

Amir Hosein Keyhanipour and Farhad Oroumchian

Incorporating users’ behavior patterns could help in the ranking process. Different click models (CMs) are introduced to model the sophisticated search-time behavior of…

Abstract

Purpose

Incorporating users’ behavior patterns could help in the ranking process. Different click models (CMs) are introduced to model the sophisticated search-time behavior of users among which commonly used the triple of attractiveness, examination and satisfaction. Inspired by this fact and considering the psychological definitions of these concepts, this paper aims to propose a novel learning to rank by redefining these concepts. The attractiveness and examination factors could be calculated using a limited subset of information retrieval (IR) features by the random forest algorithm, and then they are combined with each other to predicate the satisfaction factor which is considered as the relevance level.

Design/methodology/approach

The attractiveness and examination factors of a given document are usually considered as its perceived relevance and the fast scan of its snippet, respectively. Here, attractiveness and examination factors are regarded as the click-count and the investigation rate, respectively. Also, the satisfaction of a document is supposed to be the same as its relevance level for a given query. This idea is supported by the strong correlation between attractiveness-satisfaction and the examination-satisfaction. Applying random forest algorithm, the attractiveness and examination factors are calculated using a very limited set of the primitive features of query-document pairs. Then, by using the ordered weighted averaging operator, these factors are aggregated to estimate the satisfaction.

Findings

Experimental results on MSLR-WEB10K and WCL2R data sets show the superiority of this algorithm over the state-of-the-art ranking algorithms in terms of P@n and NDCG criteria. The enhancement is more noticeable in top-ranked items which are reviewed more by the users.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a novel learning to rank based on the redefinition of major building blocks of the CMs which are the attractiveness, examination and satisfactory. It proposes a method to use a very limited number of selected IR features to estimate the attractiveness and examination factors and then combines these factors to predicate the satisfactory which is regarded as the relevance level of a document with respect to a given query.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

1 – 10 of 235