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Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2016

Leith L. Dunn and Ayanna T. Samuels

This study examines the problem of unequal access to the Caribbean ICT industry on the part of women, and considers causes, consequences and possible solutions. The latter…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the problem of unequal access to the Caribbean ICT industry on the part of women, and considers causes, consequences and possible solutions. The latter includes integrating gender perspectives in ICT policies and programmes to increase access for all to education and employment opportunities for national development.

Methodology/approach

Mixed Methods research techniques (questionnaire surveys, elite interviews and focus group discussions) were used to collect data from national stakeholders in Jamaica and St Lucia.

Findings

Despite policy commitments to gender equality and the deployment of ICTs to promote development, significant gaps persist between policy and practice. Results show that disadvantages in ICT access for women result in gender differences in sector involvement. Gender socialisation and the resulting discrimination in education and employment undermine commitments to inclusive development. Consequences include untapped opportunities for innovation, efficiency and business along the ICT value chain relating to development.

Research limitations

Case studies only represent Anglophone Caribbean and may not reflect all subregional contexts.

Practical implications

The paper demonstrates the value of collecting, analysing and using data disaggregated by sex to identify needs of vulnerable groups relating to inclusive development.

Social implications

Equitable access to ICTs for women through training, community Internet-access-points, and support to establish/expand Micro Small and Medium-sized Enterprises will enable women to combine paid and unpaid family caregiving work and to participate in the ICT value chain.

Originality/value

There is a dearth of gender-based analysis of ICT policymaking in the Caribbean. The paper contributes theoretical, methodological and policy analysis geared towards understanding and promoting inclusive access and gender equality in ICTs for sustainable development in the Caribbean.

Details

Communication and Information Technologies Annual
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-481-5

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Arief Rahman

Citizens are substantial stakeholders in every e-government system, thus their willingness to use and ability to access the system are critical. Unequal access and…

Abstract

Citizens are substantial stakeholders in every e-government system, thus their willingness to use and ability to access the system are critical. Unequal access and information and communication technology usage, which is known as digital divide, however has been identified as one of the major obstacles to the implementation of e-government system. As digital divide inhibits citizen’s acceptance to e-government, it should be overcome despite the lack of deep theoretical understanding on this issue. This research aimed to investigate the digital divide and its direct impact on e-government system success of local governments in Indonesia as well as indirect impact through the mediation role of trust. In order to get a comprehensive understanding of digital divide, this study introduced a new type of digital divide, the innovativeness divide.

The research problems were approached by applying two-stage sequential mixed method research approach comprising of both qualitative and quantitative studies. In the first phase, an initial research model was proposed based on a literature review. Semi-structured interview with 12 users of e-government systems was then conducted to explore and enhance this initial research model. Data collected in this phase were analyzed with a two-stage content analysis approach and the initial model was then amended based on the findings. As a result, a comprehensive research model with 16 hypotheses was proposed for examination in the second phase.

In the second phase, quantitative method was applied. A questionnaire was developed based on findings in the first phase. A pilot study was conducted to refine the questionnaire, which was then distributed in a national survey resulting in 237 useable responses. Data collected in this phase were analyzed using Partial Least Square based Structural Equation Modeling.

The results of quantitative analysis confirmed 13 hypotheses. All direct influences of the variables of digital divide on e-government system success were supported. The mediating effects of trust in e-government in the relationship between capability divide and e-government system success as well as in the relationship between innovativeness divide and e-government system success were supported, but was rejected in the relationship between access divide and e-government system success. Furthermore, the results supported the moderating effects of demographic variables of age, residential place, and education.

This research has both theoretical and practical contributions. The study contributes to the developments of literature on digital divide and e-government by providing a more comprehensive framework, and also to the implementation of e-government by local governments and the improvement of e-government Readiness Index of Indonesia.

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E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

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Book part
Publication date: 27 September 2019

Ane Turner Johnson

Higher education institutions around the world have increasingly come to see information and communication technology (ICT) as vital to the business of teaching and…

Abstract

Higher education institutions around the world have increasingly come to see information and communication technology (ICT) as vital to the business of teaching and learning. Institutions invest a considerable amount of time and resources to erecting the appropriate institutional infrastructure, creating policy and practice, instituting strategy, training faculty, and building the capacity of technology staff. However, in under-resourced regions of the world, such as Africa, ICT, the availability and use of, has several challenges to overcome: a lack of institutional infrastructure, sufficient bandwidth, and limited capacity to employ ICT in the research process or the classroom. Universities report inadequate funding, poor management and infrastructure, resistance to change, inadequate training, and high costs associated with effective ICT use. Moreover, critiques of Western technopositivism surface misgivings related to the performance outcomes and appropriateness of ICT adoption in Africa. In this chapter, the author will explore the work of international organizations and regional and national research and education networks in the diffusion of ICT discourse, consider on-the-ground adoptions and innovation at universities in Nigeria, and reflect on the suitability and sustainability of technology adoption, all within an ICT for development (ICT4D) framework that lenses the evolution of technological applications in higher education. This chapter is significant in that it connects African higher education to ICT4D and frames the various discourses, policy landscapes and practice arenas, as they relate to international actors, continental initiatives, networks, universities, and faculty.

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Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2018
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-416-8

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2020

Kamla Ali Al-Busaidi

Information and communications technology (ICT) is the driving force and key enabler of a knowledge economy. The purpose of this study is to identify the critical ICT

Abstract

Purpose

Information and communications technology (ICT) is the driving force and key enabler of a knowledge economy. The purpose of this study is to identify the critical ICT indicators that foster the development of the knowledge economy and its main pillars (education, innovation and economic and institutional regimes) in Oman.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a qualitative approach and conducted four Delphi studies on four groups of experts (ICT experts, educators, innovation experts and economists) in Oman.

Findings

The results indicated that the most commonly top-listed ICT indicators of a boost in the country’s knowledge economy are related to the national level (total research and development expenditure on ICT, ICT patents as a percentage of national total and ICT as an overall priority for the government), firm level (the proportion of businesses using the internet, the proportion of businesses using computers and the proportion of businesses with a Web presence), and inhabitant level (mobile phone subscribers per 100 inhabitants, internet subscribers per 100 inhabitants and personal computers per 100 inhabitants).

Originality/value

ICT is the driving pillar of a knowledge economy. The literature indicated that most of the ICTs for development studies are conducted in developed countries; hence, there is a great need for investigations in the context of less developed economies such as Oman. This study can provide insights for the country on how to develop and exploit ICT to boost the development of the overall knowledge economy and its pillars and to provide guidance for exploiting ICT to gain economic value. Oman’s vision for 2020 and 2040 aims at economic diversification; the knowledge economy is a critical aspect of the country’s economic diversification. In addition, the literature indicated that the relationship between ICT and development is still not clear; hence, this study provided some insights into the context of knowledge economy development.

Details

VINE Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, vol. 50 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5891

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2002

Robin Mansell

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) represent a major opportunity for world development. However, the “digital divide” is increasing rather than diminishing…

Abstract

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) represent a major opportunity for world development. However, the “digital divide” is increasing rather than diminishing existing inequalities. This paper suggests several ways in which experiences with ICTs can be shared and in which more resources could be mobilised to support local ICT projects and locally‐defined goals. The activities of the Commonwealth’s agencies in this area are used to provide illustrations of a variety of initiatives. It is argued that strategic action on the part of agencies within their own organisations and in co‐operation with others is likely to help to facilitate the process of constructing a stronger knowledge base for knowledge‐driven development, but that there is no room for complacency. In addition to improved co‐ordination and co‐operation, effort is needed to focus on the purposes and goals of knowledge‐driven development, rather than on the short‐term interests of individual stakeholder organisations.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Oleg V. Ena and Gulnara I. Abdrakhmanova

Developing methodically sound approaches for defining and analysing measurements of sectoral science and technology (S&T) priorities is a key pre-requisite of a successful…

Abstract

Purpose

Developing methodically sound approaches for defining and analysing measurements of sectoral science and technology (S&T) priorities is a key pre-requisite of a successful and effective state science, technology and innovation management system. This paper aims to present the results of research into the evolution of Russia’s S&T priorities in information and communication technologies (ICTs) based on a system founded on detailed profiles for sectoral critical technologies (CTs) supplemented by quantitative statistics on the development of the information society in Russia.

Design/methodology/approach

This analysis of Russia’s ICT S&T priorities was broken down into three periods which tie in with milestones when large-scale changes in ICT were observed: 2002-2006; 2007-2010; 2011-2015.

Findings

This paper presents the results of research into the evolution of Russia’s S&T priorities in ICTs based on a system founded on detailed and carefully studied profiles for sectoral CTs supplemented by quantitative statistics on the development of the information society in Russia. An important aspect in support of this approach is regular large-scale processes to update the profiles of sectoral CTs (on average once every five years) and to conduct statistical observations in ICT (once every year). The involvement in this process of updating CTs of large (500 or more) numbers of sectoral experts representing industry leaders, research and educational institutions, core ministries and regulatory bodies guarantees a comprehensive cross-section in researching and profiling CTs in different important areas: science, production and government administration.

Originality/value

For more than 15 years, the Higher School of Economics has been conducting a range of statistical studies on ICT: the amount of goods and services output in the ICT sector and the level of diffusion and use of ICT in the economy, social sphere and public and private life. The results of these studies are used as an evidence base when defining and updating STI priorities to develop Russia’s ICT industry. This paper presents a retrospective view of the evolution of Russia’s S&T priorities from 2002 to the present and discusses the effects of ICT’s transformation in specific changing markets and identifies priority areas for the future.

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Article
Publication date: 5 April 2013

Felix M. Edoho

This paper aims to examine the challenges and opportunities for implementing ICTs in Africa. It identifies potential areas that ICTs can be targeted and implemented for

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the challenges and opportunities for implementing ICTs in Africa. It identifies potential areas that ICTs can be targeted and implemented for maximum in the region, and offers an integrated framework that could help the region to coordinate various components and institutionalize ICTs in the economy. It is argued that Africa needs an integrated approach to leverage ICTs for socioeconomic development.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews African theoretical perspectives of ICTs. Synthesizing literature on African perspectives of ICTs, an integrated framework is developed to help provide a coherent focus for the implementation of ICTs in a holistic manner.

Findings

Basic systems for leveraging ICTs for development in Africa are fragmented and uncoordinated. Critical physical infrastructure and human capacity do not work synergistically to effectively implement ICTs. Where the basic infrastructure exists, various components do not operate synergistically to engender optimal results.

Practical implications

Ideas formulated in this study will be helpful to future researchers relative to how various ICT components could be systematized and managed to stimulate sustainable socioeconomic development and structural changes in Africa. The framework will help to guide policymakers to design and implement ICT‐friendly policies and strategies.

Originality/value

A systemic framework is developed to help policymakers in Africa to institutionalize ICTs in their economies.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2019

Kalu N. Kalu

Based on data collected over a 15 year period (2000–2015) for 89 countries selected across nine geopolitical regions of the world, the purpose of this paper is to explore…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on data collected over a 15 year period (2000–2015) for 89 countries selected across nine geopolitical regions of the world, the purpose of this paper is to explore the role of economic development and the Hofstede index of national cultures in influencing level of government effectiveness and ICT diffusion; as well as the impact of ICT diffusion on government effectiveness. The level of economic development and a country’s ranking on the E-government index were found significant in explaining ICT diffusion and level of government effectiveness, respectively. But the findings also indicate that only the cultural factors such as Indulgence and long-term orientation (LTO) were quite significant in explaining level of government of effectiveness and ICT diffusion, respectively. The findings conclude that while some cultural factors may provide partial explanations for a country’s level of government effectiveness or ICT diffusion, but for other cultural elements, the path of influence is still unclear and at best debatable. Hence, in light of the growing emphasis placed on it in the literature, the effect of culture is limited and may have been overstated. ICT diffusion, while a necessary tool for administrative efficiency, is only but one piece of a larger puzzle and should be developed in consideration of and in the context of a broader framework of economic development, institutional design and behavioral practices.

Design/methodology/approach

This study examines how existing ICT diffusion and infrastructures among a set of 89 countries spread across nine world geopolitical zones has been able to improve their government effectiveness – as measured by their relative scores or rankings on the global “government effectiveness index” over a 15 year period (2000–2015); and also how specific cultural factors may influence the level of ICT diffusion. Drawing data from the United Nations e-Government knowledge database, the United Nations Development Program, the GlobalEconomy.com, as well as other socio-demographic sources, I examine key and associated indicators that influence information technology diffusion and its contributory effects on level of government effectiveness; as well as the impact of national cultures on ICT diffusion.

Findings

Overall, the finding from this analysis point to the fact that only two of the Hofstede national culture variables were significant (LTO and Indulgence). The other four national culture variables (Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity/Femininity and Uncertainty Avoidance) were not. Indulgence has a negative effect on level of government effectiveness, while LTO has a positive effect on ICT diffusion. The other culture variables were not significant in any of the regression models, but they seem to congregate much closer to or around the mean.

Originality/value

This is the only work of its kind that has utilized the seven Hofstede indicators to test for the relationship between culture and technology over a long period of 15 years.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

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Book part
Publication date: 15 December 2016

Abstract

Details

Mastering Digital Transformation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-465-2

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