Search results

1 – 10 of 388
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 29 January 2020

Jamshaid Anwar Chattha, Syed Musa Alhabshi and Ahamed Kameel Mydin Meera

In line with the IFSB and BCBS methodology, the purpose of this study is to undertake a comparative analysis of dual banking systems for asset-liability management (ALM…

Abstract

Purpose

In line with the IFSB and BCBS methodology, the purpose of this study is to undertake a comparative analysis of dual banking systems for asset-liability management (ALM) practices with the duration gap, in Islamic Commercial Banks (ICBs) and Conventional Commercial Banks (CCBs). Based on the research objective, two research questions are developed: How do the duration gaps of ICBs compare with those of similar sized CCBs? Are there any country-specific and regional differences among ICBs in terms of managing their duration gaps?

Design/methodology/approach

The research methodology comprises two-stages: stage one uses a duration gap model to calculate the duration gaps of ICBs and CCBs; stage two applies parametric tests. In terms of the duration gap model, the study determines the duration gap with a four-step process. The study selected a sample of 100 banks (50 ICBs and 50 CCBs) from 13 countries for the period 2009-2015.

Findings

The paper provides empirical insights into the duration gap and ALM of ICBs and CCBs. The ICBs have more variations in their mean duration gap compared to the CCBs, and they have a tendency for a higher (more) mean duration gap (28.37 years) in comparison to the CCBs (11.79 years). The study found ICBs as having 2.41 times more duration gap compared to the CCBs, and they are exposed to increasing rate of return (ROR) risk due to their larger duration gaps and severe liquidity mismatches. There are significant regional differences in terms of the duration gap and asset-liability management.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies also consider “Off-Balance Sheet” activities of the ICBs, with multi-term duration measures. A larger sample size of 100 ICBs with 10 years’ data after the GFC would be more beneficial to the industry. In addition, the impact of an increasing benchmark rate (e.g. 100, 200 and 300 bps) on the ICBs as per the IFSB 20 per cent threshold can also be established with the duration gap approach to identify the vulnerabilities of the ICBs.

Practical implications

The study makes profound contributions to the literature and suggests various policy recommendations for Islamic banks, regulators, and standard setters of the ICBs, for identifying and measuring the significance of the duration gaps; and management of the ROR risk under Pillar 2 of the BCBS and IFSB, for financial soundness and stability purposes.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is a pioneer study in Islamic banking involving a sample of 100 banks (50 ICBs and 50 CCBs) from 13 countries. The results of the study provide original empirical evidence regarding the estimation of duration gap, and variations across jurisdictions in terms of vulnerability of ICBs and CCBs in dual banking systems.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 24 August 2012

Suraya Ahmad and Abdul Rahim Abdul Rahman

The purpose of this study is to examine the relative efficiency of the Islamic commercial banks (ICBs) and conventional commercial banks (CCBs) in Malaysia. The study…

Downloads
3886

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the relative efficiency of the Islamic commercial banks (ICBs) and conventional commercial banks (CCBs) in Malaysia. The study measures and compares the level of efficiency of both ICBs and CCBs from the year 2003 to 2007.

Design/methodology/approach

There are ten local commercial banks selected in Malaysia, which comprise of eight CCBs and two ICBs. The study uses data envelopment analysis (DEA) to measure the relative efficiency of the selected banks in intermediating inputs into outputs. The study then analyses the difference in the average efficiency score of the ICBs and CCBs using the Mann‐Whitney U test.

Findings

This study found that the CCBs outperformed ICBs in all efficiency measures. The finding indicates that the CCBs may be more efficient than the ICBs due to managerial efficiency and technological advancement.

Research limitations/implications

This study may be extended in various ways. Since, this study only covers a sample period of five years, i.e. 2003 to 2007, future research might cover more sample periods. Further studies could also take a bigger sample size by including both the domestic and foreign commercial banks.

Practical implications

The study indicates that the domestic commercial banks' management is well organised, reflecting the effective roles of a bank as the mediator between the savers and entrepreneurs. The technology used in the commercial banks may be up‐to‐date and fully utilised in the bank's operation. However, the commercial banks in Malaysia are facing the scale inefficiency. This means that the banks are unable to fully utilise their capabilities and capacities in generating the outputs from their resources. The findings also indicate that the scale inefficiency is the main factor that leads to the low technical efficiency in the ICBs as their size is relatively smaller than the CCBs.

Originality/value

This study identified the most and least efficient domestic banks and the finding could be useful to the regulators and the banks to identify the bank's ranking within the industry. Thus, it is hoped that the regulators are able to address the gap between the best and worst‐practices. The study may also improve the awareness among the least efficient banks to initiate the proactive measures in order to be sustainable in the industry.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 August 2009

Lauren R. Skinner, Chad W. Autry and Charles W. Lamb

The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a scale for measuring interorganizational citizenship behaviors (ICBs). ICBs are types of tactical boundary…

Downloads
1776

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a scale for measuring interorganizational citizenship behaviors (ICBs). ICBs are types of tactical boundary spanning activities employed by firms in supply chain relationships geared toward improving overall supply chain success. ICBs are theoretically grounded in organizational citizenship behaviors research (OCBs) and adapted to apply to the interorganizational context. Based on a previous research article, the paper aims to report on multidimensional scale development for ICBs that should be useful for future empirical research efforts in this and related areas.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adhere as closely as possible to the formalized measurement scale development heuristic posited by Hinkin.

Findings

The process reveals four measurement scales useful for operationalizing unique types of ICBs in empirical research articles.

Originality/value

This paper operationalizes four common ICBs: interorganizational altruism, tolerance, loyalty, and compliance. It provides evidence to support the convergent and discriminant validity of the four ICB scales evaluated.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Jamshaid Anwar Chattha and Simon Archer

This paper aims to provide a methodology for designing and conducting solvency stress tests, under the standardised approach as per IFSB-15, including the establishment of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a methodology for designing and conducting solvency stress tests, under the standardised approach as per IFSB-15, including the establishment of macro-financial links, running scenarios with variation of assumptions and stress scenario parameters; apply and illustrate this methodology by providing a stylised numerical example through a tractable Excel-based framework, through which Islamic Commercial Banks (ICBs) can introduce additional regulatory requirements and show that they would remain in compliance with all capital requirements after a moderate to severe shock; and identify the potential remedial actions that can be envisaged by an ICB.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses the data of the one of the groups to which certain amendments and related assumptions are applied to develop a stylised numerical example for solvency stress-testing purposes. The example uses a Stress Testing Matrix (STeM; a step-by-step approach) to illustrate the stress-testing process. The methodology of the paper uses a two-stage process. The first stage consists of calculating the capital adequacy ratio (CAR) of the ICB using the IFSB formulae, depending on how the profit sharing investment account (PSIA) are treated in the respective jurisdiction. The second stage is the application of the stress scenarios and shocks.

Findings

Taking into account the specificities of ICBs such as their use of PSIA, the results highlighted the sensitivity of the CAR of an ICB with respect to the changes in the values of alpha and the proportion of unrestricted PSIA on the funding side. The simulation also indicated that an ICB operating above the minimum CAR could be vulnerable to shocks of various degrees of gravity, thus bringing the CAR below the minimum regulatory requirement and necessitating appropriate remedial actions.

Practical implications

The paper highlights various implications and relationships arising out of stress testing for ICBs, including the vulnerability of an ICB under defined scenarios, demanding appropriate immediate remedial actions on future capital resources and capital needs. The findings of the paper provide a preliminary discussion on developing a comprehensive toolkit for the ICBs similar to what is developed by the International Monetary Fund Financial Sector Assessment Programme.

Originality/value

This paper focuses on the gap with respect to the stress testing of capital adequacy. The main contribution of the paper is twofold. The first is the development of an STeM – a step-by-step approach, which provides a method for simulating solvency (i.e. capital adequacy) stress tests for ICBs; the second is the demonstration of the potentially crucial impact of profit-sharing investment accounts and the way they are managed by ICBs (notably the smoothing of profit payouts) in assessing the capital adequacy of the ICBs.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 28 January 2014

Nitza Schwabsky

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of teachers’ optimism and trust in their individual citizenship behavior (ICB), and the extent to which teachers’ optimism…

Downloads
1034

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of teachers’ optimism and trust in their individual citizenship behavior (ICB), and the extent to which teachers’ optimism is related to teachers’ ICB, and mediated by teachers’ trust. ICB is a concept coined by Hoy et al. (2008). The concept refers to teachers’ voluntary and discretionary behavior directed toward colleagues, students, and the students’ parents, that exceeds the formal job expectations. The primary aim of ICB is to enhance students’ academic success.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 370 teachers from public elementary schools in northern Israel completed questionnaires, assessing teachers’ optimism, trust, and ICB; the category was examined both by direct and projective measures. Factor and reliability analyses; a bi-variate correlation Pearson test; a hierarchical regression analysis; and a structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis were conducted to analyze the data.

Findings

The research hypotheses were partially supported: teachers’ optimism, trust, and ICB were positively correlated; teachers’ optimism and trust predicted ICB; trust in students and their parents mediated the association between optimism and ICB, whereas trust in teachers mediated the association between optimism and the projective measure of ICB.

Originality/value

The study results confirm that optimism and trust in students and their parents, and in other teachers have a significant presence in teachers’ ICB; emphasize the importance of a positive school environment; emphasize the importance of teachers’ ICB toward students’ and their parents; indicate the potential benefit of using direct and projective measures; and show support for the mediating model.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 52 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 29 May 2019

Mohd Zaidi Md Zabri and Razali Haron

This study aims to compare and contrast the financial affordability of Islamic home financing instruments such as bay’ bithaman ajil and musharakah mutanaqisah (MM…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to compare and contrast the financial affordability of Islamic home financing instruments such as bay’ bithaman ajil and musharakah mutanaqisah (MM) offered by various home financing institutions in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

Mathematical simulations were carried out in examining the financial affordability (or lack thereof) of various Islamic home financing by both Islamic commercial banks (ICB) and financial cooperatives (FC).

Findings

This study has shown that MM by FC is a workable, more financially affordable option to potential homeowners. Unlike ICB, MM by FC uses rental rates as a benchmarking tool because of its inherent nature of flexibility.

Research limitations/implications

MM by FC has the potential to reduce the cost of home acquisition (purchase affordability) and the amount of monthly installments (repayment affordability) of homeowners in Malaysia.

Originality/value

This study shows the financial implication of unaffordable Islamic home financing instruments may have on the Malaysian households, which were derived from using official data from various government agencies.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 12 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2001

Josep María Viedma Marti

Researchers in the area of strategic management agree on the key role of knowledge as a source of sustainable competitive advantage, but very few know how to manage…

Downloads
2448

Abstract

Researchers in the area of strategic management agree on the key role of knowledge as a source of sustainable competitive advantage, but very few know how to manage knowledge that produces value or intellectual capital in an efficient way. Intellectual capital benchmarking system (ICBS) is trying to fill this gap using benchmarking techniques, and facilitating the process of learning from the best competitors. ICBS is at the same time a new strategic management method and a new strategic management tool that allows companies to benchmark core competencies or intellectual capital against world class best competitors of the same business activity. When using ICBS in an orderly systematic and repetitive way, we obtain competitiveness balance sheets that complement and perfect financial balance sheets and lead companies to leveraging intellectual capital. The system has been tested and successfully implemented in more than 30 European enterprises.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 2 April 2021

Rico Piehler, Ayla Roessler and Christoph Burmann

This study aims to investigate the brand-oriented leadership of a city’s mayor and city online brand communication as brand management-related antecedents of residents…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the brand-oriented leadership of a city’s mayor and city online brand communication as brand management-related antecedents of residents’ city brand commitment. It thus examines if city brand managers can apply internal branding concepts from the corporate branding domain in a city branding context.

Design/methodology/approach

The relationships between the brand management-related antecedents and the internal city branding (ICB) objective are tested through structural equation modeling using cross-sectional survey data of 414 residents of a German city.

Findings

Both the brand-oriented leadership of the mayor in terms of acting as a role model by living the city brand and its identity and by showing commitment to the brand and the city’s online brand communication in terms of its quality have positive effects on residents’ city brand commitment. Moderation analyses reveal no significant differences between the path estimates for age, place of birth, duration of residency and education. However, the results differ significantly for gender.

Research limitations/implications

As this study’s sample is limited to only one city in Germany, further research needs to investigate the relationships in different cities and other countries to ensure the generalizability of the results. Future studies might also include other aspects of city brand communication, as well as cognitive and behavioural ICB objectives.

Practical implications

To increase residents’ city brand commitment, city brand managers should ensure that a city’s online brand communication is adequate, complete, credible, useful and clear. Furthermore, through creating awareness for the importance of a mayor’s brand-oriented leadership and through educating and training the mayor to engage in this specific form of brand-oriented transformational leadership, city brand managers can increase residents’ emotional attachment with the city brand.

Originality/value

This study integrates internal branding research from the corporate branding domain with place and city branding research. It confirms that certain aspects of internal branding (i.e. brand-oriented leadership, brand communication and brand commitment) are applicable not only in the corporate branding domain but also in other branding contexts such as city branding if adapted properly.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Chun-Hsien Su and Ping-Kuo Chen

This paper aims to provide an innovative solution on new service development (NSD) implementation by the project management competences and processes of IPMA ICB 3.0 and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide an innovative solution on new service development (NSD) implementation by the project management competences and processes of IPMA ICB 3.0 and PMI PMBOK Guide 5th E.

Design/methodology/approach

By breaking NSD work breakdown structure into five control accounts, each account has its own suggested work packages concluded from reviewed literatures.

Findings

This research sequentially presents proper PM competences and processes as solutions for these control accounts and their work packages.

Research limitations/implications

This study was to provide an innovative solution on NSD implementation by the project management competences and processes of IPMA ICB 3.0 and PMI PMBOK Guide 5th E. By breaking NSD work breakdown structure into five control accounts, each account has its own suggested work packages concluded from reviewed literatures. This research sequentially presents proper PM competences and processes as solutions for these control accounts and their work packages. Consequently, we concluded that the PM competences and processes furnish a favorable base where any NSD project is suitable to deploy without compromising its original features.

Practical implications

Consequently, it is concluded that the PM competences and processes furnish a favorable base where any NSD project is suitable to deploy without compromising its original features.

Details

International Journal of Innovation Science, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-2223

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2012

Demelash Demessie

Public procurement is characterized as a distorted market which grants limited access to foreign suppliers and contractors. However, the different impediments existing…

Abstract

Public procurement is characterized as a distorted market which grants limited access to foreign suppliers and contractors. However, the different impediments existing within the public procurement policies and their relative significance in restricting effective international competition are not very well known. This paper, through the process of developing a model of Trade Restrictiveness Index, identifies weighs and scales 17 impediments existing within the public procurement policies. The paper also reveals that implicit restriction which emanates mainly from lack of transparency imposes a greater level of restriction in the market. In a final application of the model, comparison of the public procurement policies of selected Common Market for Eastern and Southern African (COMESA) countries, has shown that with a rated index of 1, the procurement policies of Kenya and Uganda are rated as most restrictive while Rwandaʼs is found to be least restrictive.

Details

Journal of Public Procurement, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1535-0118

1 – 10 of 388