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Article

Alina Lee, John Neilson, Greg Tower and J‐L.W. Mitchell Van der Zahn

The first objective of this study is to examine the nature and extent of intellectual capital (IC) information Australian hospitals disclose to their stakeholders…

Abstract

Purpose

The first objective of this study is to examine the nature and extent of intellectual capital (IC) information Australian hospitals disclose to their stakeholders (patients, general public, healthcare professionals) via the internet. The second objective is to examine whether four hospital characteristics influence the disclosure of IC‐related information.

Design/methodology/approach

Analysis reported in this study is based on IC disclosures by 128 hospitals on their internet web sites. IC disclosure is measured using an 85‐item research constructed index that covers six major sub‐categories. Measurement of IC disclosure was conducted during a four month period in the last third of 2005.

Findings

It is found that whilst the incidence rate of hospitals disclosing IC information is high, the extent of IC disclosure is relatively low. The quantity of IC disclosure varied significantly between different IC sub‐categories. In addition, the paper investigates possible determinants of variations in IC disclosure by Australian hospitals. Specifically, it is found that the quantity of IC information disclosed on a hospital web site varied according to the state location, designation as a private or public hospital, whether the hospital is specialized or general in its operations, and if the hospital is based in a city or regional location. A hospital's designation as being network or non‐networked is not a significant determinant.

Originality/value

Few studies have examined the disclosure of IC information by healthcare providers such as hospitals. No studies, to the knowledge of the authors, have examined the specific disclosure of IC information by hospitals on their internet web sites.

Details

Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1401-338X

Keywords

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Article

Raf Orens, Walter Aerts and Nadine Lybaert

The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically the impact of web‐based intellectual capital (IC) reporting on firm's value and its cost of finance.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically the impact of web‐based intellectual capital (IC) reporting on firm's value and its cost of finance.

Design/methodology/approach

A content‐analysis of corporate web sites is conducted from four continental European countries (Belgium, France, Germany and The Netherlands) on the presence of IC information. Simultaneous regression modelling is used to control for endogeneity within a firm's disclosure strategy.

Findings

The data show that cross‐sectional differences in the extent of IC disclosure are positively associated with firm value. Greater IC disclosure in continental Europe is associated with lower information asymmetry, lower implied cost of equity capital and lower rate of interest paid.

Research limitations/implications

The study is restricted to an analysis of firm's benefits of increased web‐based disclosure without considering related costs.

Practical implications

The results of the study show that firms tend to benefit economically from better IC disclosure.

Originality/value

Existing evidence is extended by considering the capital market implications of IC related disclosure and web‐based related disclosure.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 47 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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Article

Isabel Brusca, Sandra Cohen, Francesca Manes-Rossi and Giuseppe Nicolò

The purpose of this study is to compare of the way intellectual capital (IC) is disclosed in the websites of the universities in three European countries to assess the way…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to compare of the way intellectual capital (IC) is disclosed in the websites of the universities in three European countries to assess the way universities decide to communicate IC to their stakeholders and identify potential patterns and trends. In addition, the relation between the level and the type of IC Web disclosure in universities and academic rankings as a proxy of performance is explored to reveal interrelations.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a sample of 128 universities coming from Greece (22), Italy (58) and Spain (48). The websites of the universities are content-analysed to measure the level of IC disclosure. The IC disclosure metrics are then correlated with the academic rankings of the World Ranking.

Findings

While the level of IC disclosure among universities and among countries is not homogeneous, human capital and internal capital items are more heavily disclosed compared to external capital items in all three countries. In addition, larger universities in terms of number of students tend to disclose more on IC. Moreover, there is a positive correlation between the level of IC Web disclosure and the academic ranking that challenges the IC disclosure strategies followed by the universities.

Originality/value

The paper represents an innovative contribution to the existing literature as it investigates websites to assess the level of IC disclosure provided by universities in a comparative perspective. Furthermore, it analyses the relationship between the online IC disclosure and European universities’ academic rankings and provides evidence on the interaction between the IC disclosure and the ecosystem in which the universities operate contributing to the fourth stage of IC research.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

Keywords

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Article

Filippo Vitolla, Nicola Raimo, Michele Rubino and Antonello Garzoni

The football industry presents a unique setting for intellectual capital analysis. This study aims to investigate the online intellectual capital disclosure level of top…

Abstract

Purpose

The football industry presents a unique setting for intellectual capital analysis. This study aims to investigate the online intellectual capital disclosure level of top football clubs and to analyse the impact of some explanatory factors on the level of information provided.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use manual content analysis of the websites to measure intellectual capital disclosure levels along with a regression analysis on a sample of the 80 football clubs that qualified for the group stages of the 2019–20 UEFA Champions and Europa League.

Findings

Empirical results reveal that football clubs disclose a limited amount of information regarding intangibles on their websites. In addition, they show that sports performance, technical market value and social media visibility have a positive effect on the disclosure level.

Originality/value

This study extends the horizon of intellectual capital disclosure to a sector (football) that is currently under-explored and broadens the list of antecedents of the intellectual capital disclosure level.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

Keywords

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Article

Deborah Branswijck and Patricia Everaert

The purpose of this paper is to compare intellectual capital disclosure in the prospectus of an initial public offering (IPO) with the intellectual capital disclosure in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare intellectual capital disclosure in the prospectus of an initial public offering (IPO) with the intellectual capital disclosure in the subsequent annual report. The first objective was to investigate whether companies make a commitment toward intellectual capital disclosure. The second objective was to investigate whether companies report more on intellectual capital in the prospectus.

Design/methodology/approach

This study investigated the prospectus and annual report using a sample of 55 firms that applied for an initial listing in Belgium and The Netherlands from 2005‐2009. A coding framework of 86 items was used to perform the content analysis.

Findings

The existence of intellectual capital disclosure commitment was confirmed. Moreover, the results demonstrated that companies report more extensively on intellectual capital in their prospectus in comparison to their annual reports.

Originality/value

This paper documents the first study to provide empirical evidence on the existence of intellectual capital disclosure commitment. Therefore, it offers a new path for future intellectual capital disclosure research.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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Article

Francesca Manes Rossi, Giuseppe Nicolò and Paolo Tartaglia Polcini

The purpose of this paper is to explore a new way to disclose intellectual capital (IC) in universities through their websites. Going beyond traditional tools used for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore a new way to disclose intellectual capital (IC) in universities through their websites. Going beyond traditional tools used for intellectual capital disclosure (ICD), this study aims at identifying possible determinants of ICD via the web.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper analyses the institutional websites of a sample of Italian universities adapting the theoretical framework developed by Low et al. (2015) to the peculiarities of the Italian university system. Moreover, the relationship between certain explanatory factors identified in previous research and the extent of online ICD represented by two disclosure indexes was tested through an ordinary least squares regression model.

Findings

The analysis reveals the extensive use of ICD via websites, especially regarding human and internal capital, while the disclosure of external capital through this means is still limited. Internationality and online visibility both positively affect the extent of a university’s ICD.

Research limitations/implications

The paper represents the first study investigating online ICD and its determinants in universities, contributing new knowledge to help answer the how and what of the matter.

Practical implications

The results can serve as encouragement to university managers to enhance online ICD to meet the information needs of a wider audience.

Originality/value

This is the first study to provide evidence about online ICD in universities and to reveal some of the possible determinants to improve this disclosure.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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Article

Yolanda Ramírez and Ángel Tejada

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent and quality of online intellectual capital (IC) disclosure released via websites and social media in relation to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent and quality of online intellectual capital (IC) disclosure released via websites and social media in relation to university stakeholders’ information needs in Spanish public universities. In addition, this paper examines whether there are differences in the online IC disclosure according to the type of university.

Design/methodology/approach

The study applies content analysis and a survey. The content analysis was used to analyse the websites and social media (Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn and Instagram) of all Spanish public universities in the year 2019, whereas the survey was submitted to all members of the Social Councils of Spanish public universities.

Findings

The findings indicate that university stakeholders attach great importance to online disclosure of specific information about IC. However, the findings emphasise that Spanish universities’ website and social media content are still in their infancy. Specifically, this study found that the quality of disclosed information on IC in public universities’ websites is of low level, particularly with regard to the disclosure of relational capital. The study found that the information provided by Spanish public universities via social media mainly concerns the structural and relational capital. Likewise, the results of this paper evidence that the larger and more internationally focused universities reveal more online information on IC.

Practical implications

The results of the research may be beneficial for managers of higher education institutions as a basis for developing adequate strategies addressing IC disclosure through the websites. In order to satisfy the information needs of university stakeholders, Spanish universities can be recommended to focus on reporting higher-quality information on financial relations, students’ satisfaction, quality standard, work-related knowledge/know-how and collaboration between universities and other organisations such as firms, local government and society as a whole.

Originality/value

This study explores two innovative tools to provide IC disclosure in the higher education institutions context, namely, websites and social media, whereas previous studies focused on traditional tools as annual report. Likewise, this study considers the quality of this information.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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Article

Lídia Oliveira, Lúcia Lima Rodrigues and Russell Craig

The purpose of this paper is to analyse voluntary disclosures of intellectual capital (IC) items in the sustainability reports of Portuguese companies. The paper aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse voluntary disclosures of intellectual capital (IC) items in the sustainability reports of Portuguese companies. The paper aims to highlight the level, pattern and determinants of IC disclosures in those sustainability reports; and the potential for sustainability reports to be a medium for IC disclosures.

Design/methodology/approach

An index of voluntary disclosure of intangibles is constructed and deployed to analyse IC disclosures in the sustainability reports for 2006 of Portuguese firms, published on the web site of the Portugal's Business Council for Sustainability Development. Four hypotheses are tested about associations between that disclosure index and firm‐specific variables.

Findings

Disclosure of information about IC is more likely in sustainability reports of firms that have a higher level of application of the Global Reporting Initiative framework, and are listed companies.

Research limitations/implications

This study is cross‐sectional. Subjective judgment is involved in constructing the disclosure index.

Practical implications

The observed level and pattern of disclosure of IC information suggests that the preparation of a sustainability report is an opportune starting point for the development of IC reporting.

Originality/value

The study highlights the determinants of IC disclosures in sustainability reports; the high incidence of such disclosures; and points to the enhancement of legitimacy and reputation as potential incentives for firms to engage in such practice.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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Article

Giuseppe Nicolò, Natalia Aversano, Giuseppe Sannino and Paolo Tartaglia Polcini

This study aims to analyse the extent and type of online intellectual capital (IC) disclosure provided by a sample of 117 Italian listed companies. The study also seeks to…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyse the extent and type of online intellectual capital (IC) disclosure provided by a sample of 117 Italian listed companies. The study also seeks to identify possible determinants of the extent and type of intellectual capital disclosure (ICD) practiced by Italian listed companies via the Web.

Design/methodology/approach

A content analysis is conducted to investigate the extent and type of online ICD provided through websites by a sample of 117 Italian listed companies. Two multivariate ordinary least squares regression models are applied to estimate the associations proposed in the research hypotheses.

Findings

The results show that Italian listed companies are exploiting the potential of websites to satisfy the information needs of investors and other stakeholders in relation to strategic IC-based corporate resources, with a particular focus on external capital. For the most part, ICD is conveyed in narrative form. Moreover, while the size and board independence positively affect both the extent and type of ICD, profitability exerts a positive influence only on the extent of online ICD.

Originality/value

Unlike previous ICD studies, which focussed on annual reports, this study explores an emerging and innovative tool to convey ICD, namely, the website. In today’s world, websites are considered to be the most expedient and effective tools for sharing and transmitting information, including IC; they are a vehicle that can shift the IC focus from the organisation to the wider ecosystem.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

Keywords

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Article

Yolanda Ramirez, Elena Merino and Montserrat Manzaneque

The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to know the views of university stakeholders concerning intellectual capital (IC) reporting; second, to examine the quality…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to know the views of university stakeholders concerning intellectual capital (IC) reporting; second, to examine the quality of voluntary IC disclosure by public Spanish universities on their websites; and third, to analyze some of the potential factors affecting this kind of disclosure.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper applies a content analysis and a survey. The content analysis was used to analyze the websites of 50 public Spanish universities in the year 2016, while the survey was submitted to all members of the Social Councils of Spanish public universities. Also, a regression analysis (ordinary least square model) is conducted to relate the disclosure index to its determinants.

Findings

The results of this study show that human capital was the most disclosed category with relational capital being the least frequently disclosed. However, the quality of structural capital disclosures was higher than relational and human capital. Moreover, the results show that size and university’s internationality affect IC disclosure in Spanish public universities.

Practical implications

This paper stimulates the debate between universities and policy-makers concerning the benefits related to IC reporting as a tool for addressing different stakeholders’ needs. In order to satisfy the information needs of university stakeholders, Spanish universities can be recommended to focus on reporting higher quality information on financial relations, students’ satisfaction, quality standard, work-related knowledge/know-how and collaboration between universities and other organizations such as firms, local government and society as a whole.

Originality/value

This research brings new expertise regarding IC disclosure in higher education and to reveal some of the possible determinants to improve this disclosure.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 43 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

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