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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1999

Albert T.P. So, Alvin C.W. Wong and K‐c. Wong

Intelligent building (IB) is the future of our building industry. All new commercial buildings and probably luxurious domestic buildings are designed with a common goal  

3440

Abstract

Intelligent building (IB) is the future of our building industry. All new commercial buildings and probably luxurious domestic buildings are designed with a common goal – to become intelligent buildings. However, the official definition of IB has not yet been standardised around the world. In the USA, an IB is categorised by four basic elements, namely building structure, building systems, building services and building management. In Europe, the emphasis is on information technology and the genuine need of the user. In Singapore and China, it appears that the term “automation” has been dominating with a great emphasis on high technology. It is our view that a proper definition of IB should be based on users’ needs instead of the image of the building itself. We have therefore developed a new method for defining and specifying IBs. The requirements of users are categorised into eight key modules. All building systems and features are summarised in terms of tens of elements. Selected elements are assigned to a particular key area, i.e. module. Each type of building is then allocated certain key areas for detailed design. Once the areas have been chosen, the elements will automatically be assigned for the consultants to carry out detailed design works. This concept of definition has both advantages of comprehensiveness and flexibility, hoping that it will be useful for the developments of IBs not merely in Asia but also the whole world.

Details

Facilities, vol. 17 no. 12/13
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 May 2021

Zul-Atfi Bin Ismail

The contemporary practice of conventional maintenance for industrialised building system (IBS) constructions suffers from poor service delivery and defect repetition. A…

432

Abstract

Purpose

The contemporary practice of conventional maintenance for industrialised building system (IBS) constructions suffers from poor service delivery and defect repetition. A key problem impeding the widespread adoption of emerging technologies is the lack of competent contractors to support the effectiveness of the technology implemented in conventional methods and to ensure returns on investment. The shortcomings of conventional methods are assessed from the perspective of IBS buildings. This paper aims to identify the different system approach using Building Information Modelling (BIM) technology that is equipped with decision making processes.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper describes the establishment of key problem areas, the elements involved in implementing good practice and the requirements for integrating maintenance management processes and information databases in the maintenance management system.

Findings

Conventional methods have little emphasis on defect diagnosis tools. They also enhance inadequate strategic decision-making in the analysis of information when attempting to improve the maintenance project outcomes for IBS construction. The characteristics identified in a case study of IBS buildings are presented and analysed.

Originality/value

The conclusions and recommendations drawn from the analysis of the IBS case study are discussed, synthesised and deliberated upon. The approach presented in this paper integrates various aspects of building information modelling technology to facilitate improved execution of IBS maintenance activities.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 March 2020

Zul-Atfi Ismail

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the system approaches and their application for managing IBS building in the context of Malaysian maintenance practice. Currently…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the system approaches and their application for managing IBS building in the context of Malaysian maintenance practice. Currently, the maintenance management method has affected the efficiency of the complex and high-rise industrialised building system (IBS) building maintenance management in Malaysia. Many issues such as poor service delivery, limited budgets, less competent staff and defect repetition emerged because of the usage of conventional method applications (paper-based form). The data revealed that the practice of maintenance management for complex and high-rise IBS buildings needs to be digitalised.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative research was carried out by conducting literature review and semi-structured interviews. Eight major maintenance organisations were selected based on a conventional method of practice in managing maintenance for complex and high-rise IBS buildings. The computerised system was developed using a data flow diagram and coding. Subsequently, the prototype system was tested.

Findings

By having this prototype system, the defect diagnosis and decision-making process become easier, faster and cost-effective in facilitating the maintenance assessment, defect diagnosis and control in relation to IBS building structure components.

Originality/value

In conclusion, the prototype system may improve the effectiveness of maintenance management practices for IBS building structure components in reducing defect design risks such as design calculation error to provide high-quality IBS building structure components for a safe and healthy environment.

Details

Facilities , vol. 39 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 May 2020

Zul-Atfi Ismail

The current maintenance management method affects the efficiency of the complex, high-rise industrialised building system (IBS) building maintenance management projects in…

Abstract

Purpose

The current maintenance management method affects the efficiency of the complex, high-rise industrialised building system (IBS) building maintenance management projects in Malaysia. The usage of a conventional system (paper-based reports/unsystematic database) has various drawbacks, such as IBS component aesthetic and structural defects which occur repeatedly in the building and maintenance of conventional building, lack of integration between maintenance systems and lack of the intelligent capabilities of linking defect diagnosis operations in maintenance affecting various building elements with IBS component defect knowledge. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to focus on the development of a mechanism to improve IBS component defect knowledge transfer in IBS building maintenance projects through the integration of building information modelling (BIM).

Design/methodology/approach

Eight clients/maintenance contractors were selected based on the major problems of using a conventional system to investigate the maintenance management practices in each complex and high-rise IBS building.

Findings

The findings indicated that several computerised systems such as Building Automation System and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System are used by a client/maintenance contractor. Moreover, BIM technology awareness was found to be limited, with no implementation in IBS building maintenance till now. The results of this case study were used as a foundation for the development of a prototype system using Computerised Maintenance Management System, Expert System and BIM.

Originality/value

The development of this new system improves IBS component diagnosis knowledge integration with the BIM technology.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 June 2019

Zul-Atfi Ismail

The purpose of this study is to develop a new information and communication technology (ICT)-based approach for optimising safety transportation according to the needs of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop a new information and communication technology (ICT)-based approach for optimising safety transportation according to the needs of the current industrialised building system (IBS) building construction schemes. The improper handling and information management of road transport workers appears to be a major problem in the safety of the IBS building construction industry. Transportation activity is particularly problematic for IBS building construction projects in which traffic incident and safety management level are not in good condition to match with construction specification.

Design/methodology/approach

A new ICT-based approach is suggested for optimising safety transportation in accordance with the needs of the current IBS building construction schemes. As a precursor to this work, the concept of road transport workers practices is reviewed and the main features of ICT tools and techniques currently being used on such projects are presented.

Findings

The sophisticated road transport workers system solutions is described as an essential component of this optimisation to promote long-term safety and quality improvements of IBS building construction projects.

Originality/value

Finally, the potential for a research framework for developing such a system in the future is presented.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 December 2018

Zul-Atfi Ismail

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the development of an integrated computerised maintenance management system to improve the information storage of design and…

1077

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the development of an integrated computerised maintenance management system to improve the information storage of design and construction, diagnostic and defect risk assessments on IBS building through the integration of building information modelling (BIM).

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology used interviews with the IBS building client/maintenance contractor in Malaysia to gather information about maintenance management problems, approaches to address problems, information and communication technology implementation and use of emerging technologies, in addition to prototyping a system development life cycle for system development.

Findings

Relevant process flowchart documents of system development were obtained from the case study and reviewed to assist in providing an automation technique for decision-making and structural defect diagnostic operation through the integration of Visual Basic.Net, MS Access and Autodesk Revit software.

Originality/value

This research focuses on automatic bidirectional communications between an Expert System and BIM on a database level. Adoption of the approaches suggested in the research will enable the system to promote the development of zero IBS building maintenance.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 May 2020

Som Sekhar Bhattacharyya

The purpose of this study is international business strategy (IBS) has evolved into a complex and vast domain of study. Given this fact, the author first proposed a set of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is international business strategy (IBS) has evolved into a complex and vast domain of study. Given this fact, the author first proposed a set of screens that a firm’s IBS manager was required to assess before venturing into a foreign country. Then the author developed an integrated IBS framework to secure a holistic view regarding IBS. Finally, the author proposed a typology to classify IBS archetypes.

Design/methodology/approach

The author undertook a systematic and integrated literature review of IBS literature. The literature review was carried out with a conceptual perspective in mind. Incremental and argumentative logic was applied to develop the integrated IBS framework from a wide domain of literature. Furthermore, the typology on IBS initiatives was also developed based upon a classification scheme developed in the framework.

Findings

The author developed the integrated conceptual framework based upon six building blocks which were conceptual elements. The framework consisted of the antecedent variable as internationally deployable organizational resources and capabilities (IDORC), the mediating variables as internationally implementable organizational process (IIOP), internationally executable practices and activities (IEPA) and international market product service offerings (IMPSO). The moderating variable was international initiatives management direction and control (IIMDC), while the dependent variable was international market performance assessment (IMPA). Thus, IDORC, IIOP, IEPA, IMPSA, IIMDC and IMPA were the building blocks of IBS framework. There were 12 types of IBS typologies based upon the dominant role played by the home and host countries in the six building block elements of IBS mentioned. The 12 typologies were domestic reproduction (DR), foreign country centric offerings (FCCO), international offerings perspective (IOP), foreign country-driven activities (FCDA), international-driven activities (IDA), foreign country-driven process (FCDP), international-driven process (IDP), foreign country initiatives domestically controlled (FCIDC), international initiatives domestically controlled (IIDC), international initiatives home-dominant foreign dyad controlled (IIHDFDC), international independent initiative (III) and international coordinated network approach (ICNA).

Research limitations/implications

In this study, an integrated framework on IBS was developed. In the theoretical framework, antecedent (DORC), mediating (IIOP, IEPA and IMPSA), moderating (IIMDC) and dependent variables (IMPA) have been incorporated. This was the first theoretical contribution of this paper toward IBS theorization. Second contribution of this paper was toward typology development regarding IBS initiatives archetypes. The 12 typologies were DR, FCCO, IOP, FCDA, IDA, FCDP, IDP, FCIDC, IIDC, IHDFDC, III and ICNA. The IBS typology is based upon the six constituent concepts developed from literature.

Practical implications

Managers who are responsible for the planning and execution of IBS initiatives could from the integrated IBS framework comprehend what would be the steps required to plan and execute an IBS strategy in its entirety for success in foreign markets. Furthermore, managers could understand the various mediation and moderation roles regarding the IBS factors present in any firm internationalization effort. This would help managers not only to amplify the mediating effects but also to tweak the efforts of moderation so as to arrive at better internationalization performance. The section on typology on IBS initiatives would help managers to secure a better fit for the IBS initiative of the firm. The typology would anchor managerial perspectives regarding how the home country firm organizational contributions on resources and capabilities, processes, practice activities and products and services need to be offered in foreign countries.

Originality/value

To the best of author’s knowledge, this is one of the first frameworks regarding an integrated perspective on IBS and a typology on IBS based upon a set of antecedent (resources and capabilities), mediation (process, activities and market offerings), moderation (management control) and dependent (performance) variables building on firm resource-based view perspectives.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2002

Albert T.P. So and K.C. Wong

A paper on a new definition of intelligent buildings for Asia was published in Facilities in late 1999. This definition was later adopted by The Asian Institute of…

3053

Abstract

A paper on a new definition of intelligent buildings for Asia was published in Facilities in late 1999. This definition was later adopted by The Asian Institute of Intelligent Buildings as the official definition of intelligent buildings (IBs). The requirements of users were categorised into nine quality environment modules. Under each module, there are technologies and facilities supporting the operation of an IB. The beauty of that definition is that it can be further explored to arrive at a comprehensive and quantitative method of assessment for IBs, the Intelligent Building Index (IBI). Existing methods of assessment, in particular for environmentally friendly buildings in the USA and Hong Kong, have been reviewed. Shortcomings of the existing methodology and the room for improvement have been highlighted and discussed. The concept, mathematics and utilisation of the IBI are detailed in this paper.

Details

Facilities, vol. 20 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 July 2022

Sushilawati Ismail, Carol K.H. Hon, Philip Crowther, Martin Skitmore and Fiona Lamari

Malaysia’s industrialised building system (IBS) has been increasingly adopted for sustainable development by the country’s construction industry. However, although it has…

Abstract

Purpose

Malaysia’s industrialised building system (IBS) has been increasingly adopted for sustainable development by the country’s construction industry. However, although it has been used for commercial building projects, its application to sustainable infrastructure development has been limited to date. This study aims to examine the drivers and challenges involved.

Design/methodology/approach

A preliminary conceptual framework was initially developed based on a systematic literature review. Semi-structured interviews involving 20 participants were undertaken to gain insightful thoughts from the construction practitioners to discover the perception towards IBS application in the construction industry, the applicability of IBS, particularly in infrastructure projects, the strategies of IBS delivery and the sustainable potential of its application. A two-round Delphi study was conducted with 15 experienced and knowledgeable panellists to further identify, verify and prioritise factors developed from the literature review and interview findings. Then, the results were synthesised and triangulated to demonstrate a holistic insight.

Findings

The results show the main drivers to be better productivity, quality, environmental, safety and health, constructability design and cost, policy and requirements, with the main challenges being project planning and cost-related issues, inexperience and industry capacity.

Originality/value

The study’s main contribution is in systematically determining the practical implications involved in applying the IBS to sustainable infrastructure developments in Malaysia and other similar developing countries.

Details

Construction Innovation , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Uttam Kumar Roy and Madhumita Roy

This paper aims to develop a set of affordable space and dimensional standards for market-driven low-income housing in Indian context for the purpose of mass production…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a set of affordable space and dimensional standards for market-driven low-income housing in Indian context for the purpose of mass production using industrialised building system.

Design/methodology/approach

For this, the paper first explains the significance of standardisation from the literature and revisits the codes and contemporary practices in industrialised building system (IBS) in India. Next, it undertakes a market survey of ongoing/completed housing projects to study the space/dimensions reflected in the market demand by the people. After considering conditions like modular grid suitability and provisions of code, it identifies a set of dimensional standards of activity spaces, emerging from the market study. It also suggests a framework of modular units showing the incremental attachment possibility for component-based construction using IBS. These standards and design frameworks will make the path for developing various products and components towards an open system in India.

Findings

The paper gives an insight of the market trends of low-income housing, focusing on unit designs and spatial elements.

Research limitations/implications

Local contextualisation during the unit designs will be required and that is not addressed in this paper.

Practical implications

This will benefit developers, manufacturers, designers as well as policymakers towards a market-driven housing delivery using IBS.

Social implications

As a result of this standardisation, housing delivery will be faster and there will be more numbers of market-driven affordable housing in masses for low-income people, thus solving housing shortage.

Originality/value

A developing country like India is a diversified country having many geographical and social variations. Such standardisation for a space and design framework has never been attempted before and will make a contribution for the public housing sector.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

Keywords

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