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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1988

Pauline Rafferty, Blaise Cronin and James Carson

Image is important in business. Corporate advertising is a means of raising salience, heightening consumer awareness, establishing market presence and credibility…

Abstract

Image is important in business. Corporate advertising is a means of raising salience, heightening consumer awareness, establishing market presence and credibility, creating an organisational culture and, more recently, influencing shareholders and averting hostile takeover bids. To quote Management Today: ‘Familiarity breeds favour, not contempt. Nine times out of ten in every country, there is a high correlation between how well people know a company and how well they regard it’. It is hardly surprising that corporate expenditures on media advertising can be reckoned in billions of dollars. Transnational corporations (TNCs) and political parties alike have discovered that image is not a matter of peripheral concern, but a fundamental lever in manipulating public opinion. Opinion polls over the last decade have demonstrated that seven out of 10 people believe that a company with a good reputation will not sell poor quality goods. That perception may be spurious, but its effect on profitability is very real. However,‘… if a company can't deliver its corporate promise at point of sale, lavish ad campaigns are nothing less than a waste of money’.

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Aslib Proceedings, vol. 40 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1999

Alessandro Gandolfo and Franco Padelletti

In the 1980s, a profound change in the information technology (IT) market forced IBM to modify the organisation and management of its selling structure. There was only an…

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3070

Abstract

In the 1980s, a profound change in the information technology (IT) market forced IBM to modify the organisation and management of its selling structure. There was only an internal sales channel at first and IBM had interactive relationships with individual customers. The process of change began when the number of customers increased and their average size decreased. IBM began to support its internal channel of sales representatives with an external channel of business partners for the distribution of high volume products. Having to face new problems, like business partner loyalty and the loss of market control, IBM has decided to adopt, as a general strategy, a new go‐to‐market model called the hybrid model. By mixing and coordinating direct activities, such as mailings, phone calls and tele‐coverage, with commercial business partner actions and operations, IBM now has a new competitive advantage.

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European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Book part
Publication date: 18 August 2006

Marietta L. Baba

Jelinek has developed a multi-level model for conceptualizing the contextual influences through which intellectual property (IP) is “understood, interpreted and made sense…

Abstract

Jelinek has developed a multi-level model for conceptualizing the contextual influences through which intellectual property (IP) is “understood, interpreted and made sense of” by key parties to IP “deals.” This commentary reflects upon that model through a historical examination of industry–university relationships in one case – specifically, IBM. Since the late 1920s, IBM has encouraged multifaceted relationships with universities. From the start, IBM sought relationships with academia not only because of the market potential represented by university campuses, but also because Thomas Watson Sr. viewed academic customers as potential research collaborators, a novel idea at the time that later proved instrumental in the development of the corporation's successful research enterprise. IBM's university relationships have continued to evolve over time, reflecting shifts in the corporation's business strategy, and changes in larger macroeconomic structures. The case of IBM reveals complex interactions among governmental, corporate, and academic actors and their policies at different points in time, providing support for Jelinek's multi-level approach to framing IP dynamics, and suggesting possible refinements of the model for the future.

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Multi-Level Issues in Social Systems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-432-4

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2020

Cheng-Kui Huang, Kwo-Whei Lee and Chien-Huei Chou

Since business competition has become more intense throughout the world, most enterprises are seeking to engage in business cooperation with other partners in order to…

Abstract

Purpose

Since business competition has become more intense throughout the world, most enterprises are seeking to engage in business cooperation with other partners in order to enhance their competitive strengths. However, they do not necessarily develop mature information technologies’ (ITs) capabilities and skills internally but rather outsource them to IT providers. Therefore, the benefits received by firms which adopt the approach of business cooperation with IT providers have become an interesting issue for managers and shareholders.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopted an event study methodology for apprising the short-term business value from the stock market. The authors predicted that investors will react as they receive news coverage about the strategy of business cooperation between outsourcing firms and an IT provider, International Business Machines (IBM) Corporation. The authors then collected all news coverage regarding the firms which had announced business cooperation with IBM and observed different types of abnormal returns.

Findings

On analyzing 53 announcements of cooperation with IBM from 2008 to 2016, the authors found that the announcement of business cooperation had a significantly positive influence on companies' market value.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the issue for market reaction to the announcement of business cooperation with IBM.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 46 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1997

In the era of dramatic developments in technology worldwide, the relative competitiveness of a corporation/country over time has to be continuously calibrated and…

Abstract

In the era of dramatic developments in technology worldwide, the relative competitiveness of a corporation/country over time has to be continuously calibrated and pro‐actively protected. Here, for the first time, we develop two sufficient conditions, and 12 necessary conditions of continuous competitiveness (CC): the ratio of value‐added per unit of currency of OUR product (service) to THEIR product (service). In Chapter 1, we apply CC to three corporations (IBM, CEC, API) and to three countries (Japan, Taiwan, Korea). At a time when IBM enjoyed 80 percent of the market, it decided to commit 83 percent of the next four years' TOTAL SALES to build a new generation of computers on the unproven technology of integrated circuits to assure IBM's continuous competitiveness. To the same end, Japan pro‐actively selected the growth industry of each decade beginning in the '50s (computers), and nurtured it, taxing other industries. The first year in which the US trade with the Pacific exceeded that of the Atlantic, 1982, is the benchmark of a study of competitiveness of two countries of comparable population and exports, Korea and Taiwan. If Taiwan exports rose in volume but lost in profitability, Taiwan needs to make better products cheaper and faster. If the required technology advances are not fully available domestically, they need to be imported: Which is the rationale of technology transfer (techtransfer). Techtransfer can meet one of the necessary conditions of CC, viz., the desired technological progression‐from linear extensions of performance characteristics along the same curve, to quantum jumps from one technology curve to another. The techtransfer over two decades from IBM‐Taiwan to Taiwan Manufacturers as a whole progressed from components to complete product: Which could be considered at best as linear extensions of performance characteristics. For a country like Taiwan, whose trade (i.e. exports + imports) is as much as 94.8% of GNP, and which does not have a highly developed R&D base, techtransfer is a prime means of upgrading the technology. We will examine two Taiwan corporations which expanded exports through techtransfer: one, a Taiwan components manufacturer; and two, a Taiwan power supply manufacturer. As vendors to IBM, they aggressively pursued techtransfer from IBM. These empirical applications set the stage to examine Malaysian experience of E&E in Chapter 2.

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Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 9 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

George K. Chacko

The singular success of Louis V. Gerstner, Jr. in rescuing IBM from dismemberment and destruction in terms of his shifting the institutional memory of 300,000 employees…

Abstract

Purpose

The singular success of Louis V. Gerstner, Jr. in rescuing IBM from dismemberment and destruction in terms of his shifting the institutional memory of 300,000 employees from corporate politics to customer service focus, has been expalined memory management explain failures as well?

Design/methodology/approach

Chacko (memory management in survival decisions of corportions 1956‐2003, Barmarick Publications, UK, 2006) published a sequence of ordered procedures (protocol) of memory management: memory management disequilibria dimensions (MD)2 protocol. This paper applies the protocol to the birth and death of the GO computer.

Findings

The memory management disequilibria dimensions (MD)2 protocol analyzes accurately the Jerry Kaplan narrative of founding on August 14, 1987, the GO corporation to AT&T firing the last remaining employees of EO, the spin‐off of GO on July 29, 1994. (MD)2 Step 1: Chief Ntrapreneur officer will to win became a casualty, founder CTO/CNO Kaplan reflecting that money wasn’t the problem, but loss of faith of the chief financial officer on the viability, of the Software VP on the development schedules, of the CEO on market momentum, and of the CTO/ECO on the “stick‐to‐itveness” of the new management team.

Orginality/value

The habit patterns of thought and action that make a corporation/country unique are instructed/inscribed in individual/institional memory. This paper demonstrates that the (MD)2 protocol explains both success and failure, providing a basis to make memory management effective.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

George K. Chacko

Gives an in depth view of the strategies pursued by the world’s leading chief executive officers in an attempt to provide guidance to new chief executives of today…

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7080

Abstract

Gives an in depth view of the strategies pursued by the world’s leading chief executive officers in an attempt to provide guidance to new chief executives of today. Considers the marketing strategies employed, together with the organizational structures used and looks at the universal concepts that can be applied to any product. Uses anecdotal evidence to formulate a number of theories which can be used to compare your company with the best in the world. Presents initial survival strategies and then looks at ways companies can broaden their boundaries through manipulation and choice. Covers a huge variety of case studies and examples together with a substantial question and answer section.

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Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 11 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2010

Jim Bramante, Ron Frank and Jim Dolan

The strategic initiative IBM undertook to resurrect itself after the dot.com era of a decade ago provides meaningful lessons for other multinational corporations looking

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3277

Abstract

Purpose

The strategic initiative IBM undertook to resurrect itself after the dot.com era of a decade ago provides meaningful lessons for other multinational corporations looking to pursue higher margins, globalize their operations, and change and reduce their cost structures. This paper aims to look at these lessons.

Design/methodology/approach

This case describes how IBM executed a number of strategic shifts – from investing billions of US dollars in strategic acquisitions and new markets, such as India, China and Brazil, to aggressively driving costs out of selling, general and administrative expense (SG&A) – to create a stronger portfolio of offerings and a more efficient operating model.

Findings

IBM achieved success by executing toward four strategic goals: Capture higher value: migrate to more attractive customer segments as well as higher‐value products and service offerings; invest for growth: take advantage of the global footprint to benefit from global growth, as well as invest in new market offerings; shift the operating model to drive productivity: improve operating performance by globally integrating, while pushing decisions further down into the organization; and apply shared values and performance management

Research limitations/implications

This is an internal case analysis.

Practical implications

IBM has shifted substantial focus and investments to growth markets in recent years and created an operating unit dedicated to the world's growth markets in 2008. The newly established growth markets unit generated more than twice the revenue growth of IBM major markets operations in 2008.

Originality/value

Enabled by global integration, supported by increased visibility and driven by an integrated management team, the IBM operating model investigated here provides the capability to understand and balance not only what is needed to perform today, but also to meet the needs of the future. It creates a dynamic that gives managers and senior leaders the ability to both lead and follow the enterprise's aspirations and each other.

Details

Strategy & Leadership, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1087-8572

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2005

George K. Chacko

Absent Chief Entrepreneur/Intrapreneur (‘Ntrepreneur) Officer (CNO)Churchill’s un wavering commitment of significant resources to the unproven radar (Decision to Dare) as…

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1241

Abstract

Absent Chief Entrepreneur/Intrapreneur (‘Ntrepreneur) Officer (CNO) Churchill’s un wavering commitment of significant resources to the unproven radar (Decision to Dare) as early as the autumn of 1937, Great Britain would have not survived as a nation: No country survival. Absent Watson, Jr.’s unwavering determination to push IBM into computers, launching in 1951 the Defense Calculator, which at $3 million “was by far the most expensive project in IBM history,” IBM would not have survived: No corporate survival. From the [rather flimsy] briefing by Dr. R.V. Jones weaving fact and fancy, how did Churchill draw the firm conclusion that radar would be invented; and risk rewriting the entire plans for the air defense of Great Britain around radar? How did Watson, Jr. dismiss the unanimous recommendation of IBM’s 18 best systems experts that magnetic tape had no place at IBM; and launch the most expensive project at IBM to break into the unknown field of computers? Based on first‐person narratives, how could the single input of relatively flimsy data produce as the output, the certain realization of a futuristic technology? The most‐cited work on the psychology of decision‐making (Kahneman‐Tversky) is seen to be in applicable. Sigmund Freud’s Self‐Analysis offers a method of systematic introspection/ret rospection. We develop an established sequence of ordered procedures (Protocol) of memory management (Memory Management Disequilibria Dimensions (MD2) Protocol) which applies equally well to both the country and corporate survival decisions, and offers some suggestions to improve Memory Management for Decisions to Dare.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 28 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

George K. Chacko

Develops an original 12‐step management of technology protocol and applies it to 51 applications which range from Du Pont’s failure in Nylon to the Single Online Trade…

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2423

Abstract

Develops an original 12‐step management of technology protocol and applies it to 51 applications which range from Du Pont’s failure in Nylon to the Single Online Trade Exchange for Auto Parts procurement by GM, Ford, Daimler‐Chrysler and Renault‐Nissan. Provides many case studies with regards to the adoption of technology and describes seven chief technology officer characteristics. Discusses common errors when companies invest in technology and considers the probabilities of success. Provides 175 questions and answers to reinforce the concepts introduced. States that this substantial journal is aimed primarily at the present and potential chief technology officer to assist their survival and success in national and international markets.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 14 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 19000