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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1979

DAVID I.G. JONES

The aim of this paper is to review, briefly and selectively, some highlights of the progress made in the development of damping materials technology for vibration control…

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to review, briefly and selectively, some highlights of the progress made in the development of damping materials technology for vibration control, in the past two decades, with particular emphasis on the developments sponsored by the US Air Force Materials Laboratory at Wright‐Patterson Air Force Base.

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Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 51 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Transport Survey Quality and Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-044096-5

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Book part
Publication date: 8 December 2016

Heather M. Rintoul and Duncan MacLellan

In the last two decades Ontario’s universities have been experiencing major financial and administrative re-structuring resulting in decision-making challenges…

Abstract

In the last two decades Ontario’s universities have been experiencing major financial and administrative re-structuring resulting in decision-making challenges, specifically in relation to a decreasing focus on ethical leadership and good governance. Ethical decision-making in Ontario universities is multifaceted because of the variety and complexity of demands placed on the senior administrative units and the bicameral structure of many universities, which is composed of a Board of Governors and a Senate. The authors propose approaches to improve ethical leadership and governance that focus on servant leadership, reflection, and stewardship within the bicameral process to support greater trust amongst elected and appointed senior decision-makers in Ontario’s university sector.

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The Dark Side of Leadership: Identifying and Overcoming Unethical Practice in Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-499-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1962

P.O.A.L. Davies

ALTHOUGH the University of Southampton has had an independent existence for ten years it has roots going back almost a century in the Hartley Institute. An early pioneer…

Abstract

ALTHOUGH the University of Southampton has had an independent existence for ten years it has roots going back almost a century in the Hartley Institute. An early pioneer in aeronautics, F. W. Lanchester received his technical training in Southampton and the first of the new engineering buildings at the university has been called after him.

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Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Book part
Publication date: 14 September 2007

Michael G. McNally and Craig R. Rindt

Abstract

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Handbook of Transport Modelling
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-045376-7

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Aristides Matopoulos, Ana Cristina Barros and J.G.A.J. (Jack) van der Vorst

The study aims to define a research agenda for creating resource-efficient supply chains (RESCs) by identifying and analysing their key characteristics as well as future…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to define a research agenda for creating resource-efficient supply chains (RESCs) by identifying and analysing their key characteristics as well as future research opportunities.

Design/methodology/approach

We follow a systematic review method to analyse the literature and to understand RESC, taking a substantive theory approach. Our approach is grounded in a specific domain, the agri-food sector, because it is an intensive user of an extensive range of resources.

Findings

The review shows that works of literature has looked at the use of resources primarily from the environmental impact perspective. There is a need to explore whether or not and how logistics/supply chain decisions will affect the overall configuration of future food supply chains in an era of resource scarcity and depletion and what the trade-offs will be.

Research limitations/implications

The paper proposes an agenda for future research in the area of RESC. The framework proposed along with the key characteristics identified for RESC can be applied to other sectors.

Practical implications

Our research should facilitate further understanding of the implications and trade-offs of supply chain decisions taken on the use of resources by supply chain managers.

Originality/value

The paper explores the interaction between supply chains and natural resources and defines the key characteristics of RESC.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2011

Jadav Chandra Mandal and Anesh S. Iyer

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel numerical method to solve incompressible flows with natural and mixed convections using pseudo‐compressibility formulation.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel numerical method to solve incompressible flows with natural and mixed convections using pseudo‐compressibility formulation.

Design/methodology/approach

The present method is derived using the framework of Harten Lax and van Leer with contact (HLLC) method of Toro, Spruce and Spears, that was originally developed for compressible gas dynamics equations. This work generalizes the algorithm described in the previous paper to the case where heat transfer is involved. Here, the solution of the Riemann problem is approximated by a three‐wave system.

Findings

A few test cases involving incompressible laminar flows inside 2D square cavity for various Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers are considered for validating the present method. The computed results from the present method are found to be quite promising.

Originality/value

Although pseudo‐compressibility formulation has been found to have superior performance and has the potential to have numerical treatments similar to compressible flow equations, only two numerical methods have been applied so far; namely Jameson method and Roes flux difference splitting method. A new sophisticated numerical method, following the framework of HLLC method, is derived and implemented for solving pseudo‐compressibility‐based incompressible flow equations with heat transfer.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1994

K.A. Pericleous

The flow development and heat transfer in a differentially heated cavitycontaining a non‐Newtonian fluid is studied using CFD techniques.Investigations are made for a…

Abstract

The flow development and heat transfer in a differentially heated cavity containing a non‐Newtonian fluid is studied using CFD techniques. Investigations are made for a fluid obeying a power‐law type behaviour, for a nominal Rayleigh number of 105. Both dilatant and pseudoplastic regimes are considered and the Nusselt number is obtained for a range of power‐law index values. The results, given in a graphical and tabular form, suggest that deviations from Newtonian stress‐strain behaviour can lead to large changes in overall heat transfer. These changes are due to the behaviour of the wall boundary layers. In the dilatant, or shear‐thickening regime, the isothermal wall layers are thick and slow‐moving; as a consequence, buoyancy induced flow affects the whole of the cavity volume. In contrast, the pseudoplastic (or shear‐thinning) regime leads to thin, fast‐moving wall layers whose effect does not propagate to the core of the cavity which remains stagnant. This behaviour, which is directly attributable to the local value of the fluid viscosity, causes the average Nusselt number to decrease with the power‐law index, n. Pseudoplastic fluids are therefore better at conducting heat than Newtonian fluids, and conversely dilatant fluids are worse. The information contained in this paper is of general interest to workers in heat transfer, but is more specifically relevant to researchers in non‐Newtonian fluids. Example applications include biotechnology, where close temperature control of bio‐cultures in enclosed vessels is required, the food processing industry, the metals casting industry and areas where heat transfer in fine suspensions is required.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 24 June 2020

Emmanuel Ferguson Aikins and Usha Ramanathan

The purpose of this paper is to empirically identify key factors of UK food supply chains (SCs) that significantly contribute to CO2 emissions (CO2e) taking into account…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically identify key factors of UK food supply chains (SCs) that significantly contribute to CO2 emissions (CO2e) taking into account the life cycle assessment (LCA). The UK food supply chain includes imports from other countries.

Design/methodology/approach

This research develops a conceptual framework from extant literature. Secondary data obtained from ONS and FAOSTAT covering from 1990 to 2014 are analysed using Multilinear Regression (MLR) and Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) to identify the factors relating to CO2 emissions significance, and the efficient contributions that are being made to their reduction in the UK food supply chains.

Findings

The study results suggest that Transportation and Sales/Distribution are the two key factors of CO2 emissions in UK food supply chains. This is confirmed by two multivariate methods, MLR and SFA. MLR results show that transportation increases UK CO2 emissions by 10 tonnes of CO2 emissions from one tonne of fruits and vegetables imports from overseas to the UK Sales and Distribution reduces the UK CO2 emissions by 1.3 tonnes of CO2 emissions due to improved, technological operation activities in the UK. In addition, the SFA results confirm that the key factors are sufficient to predict an increase or decrease in CO2 emissions in the UK food supply chains.

Research limitations/implications

This study has focused on the LCA of the UK food supply chain from limited data. Future studies should consider Sustainability Impact Assessment of the UK food supply chain, identifying the social, economic, regulatory and environmental impacts of the food supply chain using a re-defined LCA (all-inclusive assessment) tool.

Practical implications

This research suggests that food supply chain professionals should improve efficiency, e.g. the use of solar energy and biogas, and also integrate low-carbon policies and practices in food supply chain operations. Furthermore, governments should encourage policies such as mobility management programmes, urban redevelopment and privatisation to enhance better transportation systems and infrastructure to continuously reduce CO2e from the food trade.

Originality/value

Although logistics play a major role in CO2 emissions, all logistics CO2 emissions for other countries are not included in the ONS data. This research reveals some important insights into the UK food supply chains. Logistics and other food supply chain processes of importing countries significantly contribute to CO2 emissions which are yet to be considered in the UK food SCs.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 40 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Jim Connelly

Realism is emerging as a paradigm for research and explanation in the natural and social sciences. A realist framework is elaborated and applied to the four possible…

Abstract

Realism is emerging as a paradigm for research and explanation in the natural and social sciences. A realist framework is elaborated and applied to the four possible situations that may generate the observations of randomised, controlled trials. It is demonstrated that by using two realist concepts “mechanism” and “context” a number of misinterpretations of such trials from within the dominant empiricist paradigm may be rectified. Evidence based medicine should adopt realism to temper a misleading empiricism, this will involve relegating statistical arguments to their proper subsidiary place and adopting an adequate theory of causation.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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