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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1991

H.K. Straschil, I. Kadija, J. Maisano and J.A. Abys

Electroplating of palladium‐nickel alloy is becoming widely used, mainly for interconnection applications in the electronics industry and for decorative purposes. Enhanced…

Abstract

Electroplating of palladium‐nickel alloy is becoming widely used, mainly for interconnection applications in the electronics industry and for decorative purposes. Enhanced hardness and brightness combined with superior wear properties compared with hard gold deposits make this alloy desirable in many applications. Like pure palladium, palladium‐nickel is frequently covered with a thin layer of hard gold to improve contact reliability; this results in a much less expensive and longer‐lasting contact material than hard gold on its own. In response to the growing demand, the authors have developed a palladium‐nickel alloy electroplating process that can plate alloys of varying composition (10–50 w % Ni) at current densities ranging from <5 mA/cm to >500 mA/cm. This process produces specular, hard and ductile deposits up to a thickness of ‐25 ?m. The new palladium‐nickel alloy electroplating process is described with regard to its chemistry, operating conditions, bath maintenance and regeneration, diagnostic measures, and properties of the electrodeposits.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 September 1999

Chonglun Fan, Joseph A. Abys and Alan Blair

Palladium surface finishes are utilized on leadframes, printed wiring boards and automobile sensors. Their superior functional performance and the considerable…

Abstract

Palladium surface finishes are utilized on leadframes, printed wiring boards and automobile sensors. Their superior functional performance and the considerable environmental impact of plating lead‐free finishes for packaging processes have been increasingly recognized by the electronic industry. Wire bondable and solderable palladium finishes meet military and industrial standards at no extra cost in the overall assembly processes when compared to traditional packaging techniques. In addition to the development of palladium plating chemistries and technologies, the functional properties of the surface finishes including their wire bonding performance have also been investigated at Bell Laboratories. In this study, gold and aluminum wire bonding to palladium finishes was tested and the wire bond pull force and break position were examined in order to optimize the bonding processes. The results of the study are reported in this paper.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Yun Zhang and Joseph A. Abys

A novel tin electrodeposition chemistry and process has been developed at Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, New Jersey, USA. This process produces smooth, satin…

1454

Abstract

A novel tin electrodeposition chemistry and process has been developed at Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, New Jersey, USA. This process produces smooth, satin bright tin deposits which have stable, large grain structures. The deposits contain very low organic content and, as a consequence, exhibit excellent ductility, solderability and reflowability. The chemistry is capable of operating at elevated temperatures over a wide range of current densities, and is, thus, applicable to rack, barrel and reel‐to‐reel operations. All chemical components, including breakdown products are fully analyzable with conventional analytical methods. Extensive bath life studies show that the deposit appearance and material properties, including grain structures, are stable in relation to the age of the electroplating chemistry. In addition, the grain refiners used are highly stable, and have few breakdown products as the chemistry ages. All these features imply a robust process which has been confirmed in various manufacturing environments. This tin electroplating process has been utilized in plating coatings for connectors, solder bumps, PWBs and components for semiconductor applications.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Kadija Charni and Stephen Bazen

Cross-section data suggest that the relationship between age and hourly earnings is an inverted U shape. Evidence from panel data does not necessarily confirm this finding…

1530

Abstract

Purpose

Cross-section data suggest that the relationship between age and hourly earnings is an inverted U shape. Evidence from panel data does not necessarily confirm this finding suggesting that older workers may not experience a reduction in earnings at the end of their working life. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper the authors use panel data on males for Great Britain in order to examine why the two types of data provide conflicting conclusions. Concentrating on the over 50s, several hypotheses are examined: overlapping cohorts, job tenure, job-changing, labour supply behaviour, and selectivity bias.

Findings

Cohort and individual fixed effects partly explain the divergent conclusions. However, for fully, year-on-year employed individuals, there is no evidence of earnings decline at the end of working life. The authors find no role for selectivity due to retirement, although shorter working hours or partial retirement along with job-changing late in life does provide an explanation for why hourly earnings decline for certain older workers.

Originality/value

The authors find no evidence that the process of ageing itself leads to lower earnings as suggested by the cross-section profile.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Gayle Morris and David Beckett

This article draws on the understanding of the lives and experiences of two Somali women, as case studies, to examine the relationship between identity, work and language…

809

Abstract

This article draws on the understanding of the lives and experiences of two Somali women, as case studies, to examine the relationship between identity, work and language learning. It begins with a brief discussion of embodied knowledge, with a view to exploring how “know how” intersects with literacy and identity. The article then moves to the two case studies to illustrate how certain experiences of work, and of seeking work, embody vital knowledge. The article concludes by considering how this practical embodied knowledge can be confirmed and harnessed to enrich adults’ learning for the workplace.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 16 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 August 2013

Haya Al-Dajani and Susan Marlow

The purpose of this paper is to develop an empirically informed conceptual framework to analyse the gendered relationship between empowerment and entrepreneurship…

6408

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop an empirically informed conceptual framework to analyse the gendered relationship between empowerment and entrepreneurship contextualised within the lives of displaced Palestinian migrant women operating home-based enterprises in Amman, Jordan.

Design/methodology/approach

A longitudinal qualitative study was undertaken during which semi-structured in-depth interviews were regularly conducted with 43 women producing high-quality traditional embroidered goods within home-based enterprises. The empirical material was utilised to inform and illustrate the creation of an empowerment framework.

Findings

Entrepreneurship is popularly presented as an individually focused economic undertaking. However, this paper demonstrates it is also a socio-politically situated activity; within this particular context, marginalised subordinated women were empowered through their home-based enterprises.

Originality/value

This paper offers a gender informed conceptual framework to inform the analyses of empowerment and entrepreneurship. The discussion describes the necessary processes for development goals to be realised, and explains how traditionally subordinated women can utilise enterprise to contribute to social change. In so doing, the proposed conceptual framework acts as a theoretical illustration of the gendered relationship between empowerment and entrepreneurship.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 March 2019

Juliana Zeni Breyer, Juliana Giacomazzi, Regina Kuhmmer, Karine Margarites Lima, Luciano Serpa Hammes, Rodrigo Antonini Ribeiro, Natália Luiza Kops, Maicon Falavigna and Eliana Marcia Wendland

The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe hospital quality indicators, classifying them according to Donabedian’s structure, process and outcome model and in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe hospital quality indicators, classifying them according to Donabedian’s structure, process and outcome model and in specific domains (quality, safety, infection and mortality) in two care divisions: inpatient and emergency services.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic review identified hospital clinical indicators. Two independent investigators evaluated 70 articles/documents located in electronic databases and nine documents from the grey literature, 35 were included in the systematic review.

Findings

In total, 248 hospital-based indicators were classified as infection, safety, quality and mortality domains. Only 10.2 percent were identified in more than one article/document and 47 percent showed how they were calculated/obtained. Although there are scientific papers on developing, validating and hospital indicator assessment, most indicators were obtained from technical reports, government publications or health professional associations.

Research limitations/implications

This review identified several hospital structure, process and outcome quality indicators, which are used by different national and international groups in both research and clinical practice. Comparing performance between healthcare organizations was difficult. Common clinical care standard indicators used by different networks, programs and institutions are essential to hospital quality benchmarking.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first systematic review to identify and describe hospital quality indicators after a comprehensive search in MEDLINE/PubMed, etc., and the grey literature, aiming to identify as many indicators as possible. Few studies evaluate the indicators, and most are found only in the grey literature, and have been published mostly by government agencies. Documents published in scientific journals usually refer to a specific indicator or to constructing an indicator. However, indicators most commonly found are not supported by reliability or validity studies.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2013

Marc Lemire, Olivier Demers‐Payette and Justin Jefferson‐Falardeau

Developing a performance measure and reporting the results to support decision making at an individual level has yielded poor results in many health systems. The purpose…

1300

Abstract

Purpose

Developing a performance measure and reporting the results to support decision making at an individual level has yielded poor results in many health systems. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the factors associated with the dissemination of performance information that generate and support continuous improvement in health organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic data collection strategy that includes empirical and theoretical research published from 1980 to 2010, both qualitative and quantitative, was performed on Web of Science, Current Contents, EMBASE and MEDLINE. A narrative synthesis method was used to iteratively detail explicative processes that underlie the intervention. A classification and synthesis framework was developed, drawing on knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) literature. The sample consisted of 114 articles, including seven systematic or exhaustive reviews.

Findings

Results showed that dissemination in itself is not enough to produce improvement initiatives. Successful dissemination depends on various factors, which influence the way collective actors react to performance information such as the clarity of objectives, the relationships between stakeholders, the system's governance and the available incentives.

Research limitations/implications

This review was limited to the process of knowledge dissemination in health systems and its utilization by users at the health organization level. Issues related to improvement initiatives deserve more attention.

Practical implications

Knowledge dissemination goes beyond better communication and should be considered as carefully as the measurement of performance. Choices pertaining to intervention should be continuously prompted by the concern to support organizational action.

Originality/value

While considerable attention was paid to the public reporting of performance information, this review sheds some light on a more promising avenue for changes and improvements, notably in public health systems.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

Keywords

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