Atmospheric dependent, gas sensitive resistors seem to be good candidates for detecting critical air pollution levels. Recently, great progress has been made in the…
Atmospheric dependent, gas sensitive resistors seem to be good candidates for detecting critical air pollution levels. Recently, great progress has been made in the development of various sensor types, but less attention seems to be paid to the integration of sensor elements with different characteristics. The aim of this international project is to develop a smart hybrid gas multi‐sensor module for environmental applications, i.e. by combining classical thick‐ and thin‐film elements with polymer‐film based sensors and also a signal processing ASIC within a single package, which should be useful for all sensor types. The module should enable multi‐sensor operation as well, when connected to an intelligent signal‐processing unit.
Polymeric materials have gained a wide theoretical interest and practical application in sensor technology. They can be used for very different purposes and may offer…
Polymeric materials have gained a wide theoretical interest and practical application in sensor technology. They can be used for very different purposes and may offer unique possibilities. The paper gives a broad summary about the sensor structures and sensing polymer films used in a wide variety of sensors. Finally, the present status and perspectives as well as the advantages of specific polymer based sensors are summarised.
The opportunity for mutual benefit across Europe to develop low‐cost MCM technologies arose from recognition of the scientific skills and design and prototyping…
The opportunity for mutual benefit across Europe to develop low‐cost MCM technologies arose from recognition of the scientific skills and design and prototyping capabilities in organic and inorganic circuits in countries of Central Europe. As a result, the leading research institutions and small/medium‐size enterprises of Hungary, Romania and Slovenia together with relevant institutions of the UK and Belgium proposed and received approval for a European Union INCO‐Copernicus project “Cheap multichip models” to establish fast prototyping low cost multichip module (MCM) technology facilities. The project commenced in May 1997.
Recently, a growing need for harmony has been observed worldwide. Harmony is a universal value in both Western and Asian countries. This paper aims to study how the concept of harmony is reflected in the innovation of European multinational grocery retailers and how harmony-related innovations affect the financial performance of the retailers.
The research is based on a multisource database including innovation outcomes and financial performance indicators of 17 European multinational grocery retailers in the period of 2011–2018. In sum, 1,399 innovations were identified by content analysis. The relationship between innovation outcomes and financial performance was measured by panel regression analysis.
Results indicate that retailers differ in launching harmony-oriented innovations. Moreover, 40% more innovations are related to harmony with people as those related to harmony with nature. Finally, harmony-with-people innovations have a significantly positive effect on retailers' sales growth.
Based on the research findings, retailers can improve their sales growth by launching innovations that focus on harmony in human relationships.
This paper extended the concept of harmony to the field of innovations. First, the research showed how the value of harmony appears in the innovations of multinational retailers. Second, the study differentiated between harmony-with-people and harmony-with-nature innovations. Third, the findings revealed that harmony-oriented innovations contribute to retailers' financial performance.