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Case study
Publication date: 16 March 2021

Hyun-Woo Lee, Umer Hussain, Shawn Saeyeul Park, Sunyun Shin and Woo Taek Shim

The questions raised in the case study could escort a classroom or online discussion for understanding licensed product consumption motives among the internal workforce.

Abstract

Learning outcomes

The questions raised in the case study could escort a classroom or online discussion for understanding licensed product consumption motives among the internal workforce.

Case overview/synopsis

Despite the Asiad (an abbreviation of Asian Games) being organized in the most populous continent, its financial profitability is minimal compared with the summer Olympic Games and other major sporting events. Thereby, Asiad board members are seeking to understand how they can target the right segment via licensed products. This will ultimately increase licensed product sales. On July 1, 2017, a board meeting was held in which the licensing product manager, Young Lee, proposed to target the internal workforce via licensed products based on 17th Asiad’s data and previous literature. Lee analyzed the attributes of licensed products sold at 17th Asiad and its psychological connection with the internal workforce. Hence, the purpose of this case study was to decipher the internal workforce feasibility as the right segment to target via licensed products for Asiad's management. The case study’s primary data was collected via IB worldwide (now Galaxia SM CO, Ltd), one of the leading sport marketing organizations in South Korea. The IB worldwide (now Galaxia SM CO, Ltd) signed an exclusive product license agreement with the Incheon Asian Games Organizing Committee jointly and individually with the Olympic Council of Asia to produce licensed products (e.g. Mascot dolls). This realistic case study should be understood through the lens of symbolic interactionism. Finally, this study is important to consider because the internal workforce licensed products consumption has gained little attention in sports marketing literature.

Complexity Academic Level

The case can be taught in marketing research and consumer behavior courses.

Subject code

CSS 8: Marketing.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 February 2022

Sangchul Park, Shinhyoung Lee and Hyun-Woo Lee

This study aims to examine how and when trainers' muscle mass impacts service purchase of personal fitness training, drawing upon signaling theory. Specifically, the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine how and when trainers' muscle mass impacts service purchase of personal fitness training, drawing upon signaling theory. Specifically, the authors investigated (1) the mediating role of perceived competence in the relationship between trainers' muscle mass (highly vs moderately muscular) and customers' service registration intention and (2) the moderating role of customer expertise in this mediating mechanism.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conceptualized trainers' muscle mass, developed its experimental stimuli and validated them through the two pretests (total n = 387). Using the validated stimuli, the authors conducted the two experiments (total n = 802). In both experiments, the authors recruited participants via MTurk using the convenience sampling method and employed a single-factor between-subject design based on random assignment.

Findings

Findings supported the authors’ proporsed model. Consumers perceived highly (vs moderately) muscular trainers as more competent, which in turn engendered greater service registration intention. This effect emerged for expert consumers but not for novice consumers.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first attempts to empirically test the influence of trainers' muscle mass on consumer acquisition in the context of personal fitness training. It also expands the sport marketing literature to the consumer psychology and behavior fields addressing the characteristics of sport-service providers. The findings also provide fitness organizations with managerial insights into how to effectively leverage trainers' physical appearance as a marketing tool.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 April 2020

Hyun-Woo Lee, Heetae Cho, Emily Lasko, Jun Woo Kim and Woong Kwon

In highlighting brain wave responses of emotional processing, the purpose of this study is to investigate (1) the effect of sport participation involvement on affective…

Abstract

Purpose

In highlighting brain wave responses of emotional processing, the purpose of this study is to investigate (1) the effect of sport participation involvement on affective reaction in viewing photos; and (2) the association between affective reaction and behavioral intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

Using lateralized event-related potentials, the authors examined how brain wave reactions are different based on different sport involvement between two groups where one group had varsity sport experience while the other expressed that they were not fans of the sport.

Findings

Results indicated a significant difference in lateralization between groups. Brain responses were greater in the high involvement group and positively correlated with the intention to attend future games.

Originality/value

The findings in this study elucidate the linkage between one's history of sport involvement and affective brain wave responses. Implications from neurophysiological evidence provide means to further dissect the multifaceted construct of involvement in the field of sport marketing.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 May 2020

Hyun-Woo Lee, Heetae Cho, Emily M. Newell and Woong Kwon

The purpose of this study was to investigate the complexity of how spectators' multiple identities influence their behavioral intention. Specifically, the authors examined…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate the complexity of how spectators' multiple identities influence their behavioral intention. Specifically, the authors examined the effects of spectators' place identification, team identification and an interaction effect on attendance intention using social identity complexity framework.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from spectators attending professional baseball games in South Korea. While 550 questionnaires were returned, 475 (86.36%) were used in the analysis after excluding incomplete responses. The research model was tested using latent moderated structural equations modeling.

Findings

Results indicated place identification only influenced attendance intentions through an interaction effect, while team identity directly affects attendance intention. Highly identified sport consumers intended to attend future games regardless of place identification, while the sense of love for the team's home region motivated low-identified sport consumers more to attend future games.

Originality/value

The findings of this research led to understanding the relationships between multiple identities and behavioral intention and provided the spectator sport industry with valuable strategies to manage their sport consumers.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 May 2019

Heetae Cho, Hyun-Woo Lee and Do Young Pyun

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of perceived environmental quality of the stadium on fans’ future intentions to attend a game by highlighting the…

1554

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of perceived environmental quality of the stadium on fans’ future intentions to attend a game by highlighting the moderating effect of team loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

Using latent moderated structural equations modeling, this study tested the direct impacts of stadium factors on consumers’ desire to stay and revisit intentions and the moderation effects of team loyalty based on Mehrabian and Russell’s environmental psychology behavioral model.

Findings

The results showed significant direct effects of team loyalty and desire to stay on revisit intentions. The stadium environment influenced desire to stay and revisit intentions only by the interactions with team loyalty. More specifically, higher loyalty led to higher desire to stay and revisit intentions, whereas fans’ positive experience of stadium environment intensified the effect.

Originality/value

The authors highlight the significant role of desire to stay on revisit intentions by incorporating the cognitive-affective system of human behavior. In addition, this study provides essential information for identifying the interaction effects of environmental factors and team loyalty on consumer behavior in sport settings.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 October 2022

Sangchul Park, Hyun-Woo Lee and Calvin Nite

Fitness service organizations often promote the personal training service by attributing competent features, qualifications, or/and service provision of fitness service…

Abstract

Purpose

Fitness service organizations often promote the personal training service by attributing competent features, qualifications, or/and service provision of fitness service providers to efforts or talents. This study aims to investigate whether and when the promotional attribution of fitness service providers' competent features, qualifications, or/and service provision contributes to customers' compliance with service instructions.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors developed the experimental stimuli of performance attribution promotion (i.e. effort attribution and talent attribution) and validated them via a pretest (N = 400). Utilizing the validated stimuli, the authors conducted an experiment (N = 400) employing a single-factor (performance attribution promotion: effort vs talent) between-subject design. The authors performed partial least squares structural modeling (PLS-SEM) to test our hypotheses.

Findings

The results revealed the interaction effect of performance attribution promotion and customers' implicit mindset on customer participation expectation. Specifically, when customers were high in implicit mindset (i.e. incremental-minded), attributing competent features, qualifications, or/and service provision of fitness service providers to effort (vs talent) increased customer participation expectation. Yet, when customers were low in implicit mindset (i.e. entity-minded), such an effect did not occur. Further, the authors identified customers' intention to comply with service instructions as a downstream consequence of the aforementioned interaction effect.

Originality/value

The contribution of this paper is twofold. It enriches the performance attribution literature by finding its new consequences and boundary condition. Moreover, the findings aid fitness service practitioners in developing strategies for eliciting customers' compliance with service instruction through performance attribution promotion.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 October 2021

Sanghoon Kim, Ho Yeol Yu and Hyun-Woo Lee

The purpose of the study was (1) to examine the motivational composites determining consumers' continued intention to use digital ticketing via self-service technology…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study was (1) to examine the motivational composites determining consumers' continued intention to use digital ticketing via self-service technology (SST) by integrating service satisfaction and (2) to ascertain the differences between consumers according to their psychological discomfort toward technology.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, and a total of 323 were included in the analysis. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was utilized to test motivational determinants of digital ticketing. In addition, permutation-based multi-group analysis was performed to investigate the differences between consumers with high and low technology discomfort.

Findings

Both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are positive predictors of continued intention to use digital ticketing, but only intrinsic motivation has a positive impact on continued intention through service satisfaction. Moreover, the relationship between intrinsic motivation, service satisfaction and continued intention was stronger for consumers with high psychological discomfort than those with low psychological discomfort.

Originality/value

Given the conspicuous characteristics of the digital ticketing process for sporting events, the insights gained from the study may be of assistance to researchers and practitioners in understanding sport consumers' ticket consumption behavior and the determinants of SST usage.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 April 2021

Jun-Phil Uhm, Hyun-Woo Lee, Jin-Wook Han and Dong-Kyu Kim

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of background music on consumer's psychological and physiological responses when watching sports advertisements. We…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of background music on consumer's psychological and physiological responses when watching sports advertisements. We investigated how consumers' exposure to background music affects emotional arousal, attention, brand attitude and purchase intentions; and further tested consumers' information processing by using the same measures. Effects of music on viewer responses were hypothesized using arousal theory while the information processing was hypothesized using hierarchy-of-effects model.

Design/methodology/approach

We employed a between-subjects experimental design with random assignment. Fifty-four participants were recruited with 27 in an experimental group and 27 in a control group. Quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) and self-report measures were used to assess information processing. A multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted to compare the mean differences of variables between the groups. Partial least squares algorithm and bootstrapping were performed to further explore the relationships among the measures.

Findings

Mean differences indicated that the background music exposed group's emotional arousal, attention, brand attitude and purchase intention were significantly higher than those of the non-exposure group. Path analysis showed that the level of arousal induced by watching sports advertisements affected attention, attention affected brand attitude and brand attitude affected purchase intention. Indirect paths from arousal to brand attitude and attention to purchase intention were significant.

Originality/value

This study provides practical implications for sports marketers regarding methods to increase the effectiveness of sport advertisement. Results might contribute theoretically to the sports advertisement field by demonstrating the relationship between physiological and marketing-effect factors. Our method of measuring physiological response using qEEG is also expected to influence physiological measurement in sports marketing.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Hyun-Woo Joung, Eun-Kyong (Cindy) Choi and James Joseph Taylor

The purpose of this paper is to examine differences of the perceived internal marketing practices (IMP), job satisfaction (JS), organizational commitment (OC) and turnover…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine differences of the perceived internal marketing practices (IMP), job satisfaction (JS), organizational commitment (OC) and turnover intention (TI) between full- and part-time employees and to incorporate employment status as a moderator in the restaurant employee turnover model.

Design/methodology/approach

The target population included current restaurant full- or part-time employees in the USA. The questionnaire was distributed to potential participants through an online survey that the company used to collect nationwide data.

Findings

Full-time employees’ perceptions of the IMP were comparably greater than those of part-time employees, and full-time employees were also more committed to the organization and had less intention to leave than their part-time counterparts. Significant moderating effects of employment status existed in the restaurant employee turnover model.

Research limitations/implications

The current study may not adequately capture the differences between full- and part-time employees by asking respondents to identify their employment status.

Practical implications

IMP should be facilitated at the management level to provide insight and value to their employees, and more attention and effort in the internal marketing and human resource practices for part-time employees are needed to have more satisfied and committed employees, and, in turn, better performance.

Originality/value

The literature on full- and part-time employees was incomplete, and there was minimal research that tested differences between full- and part-time employees in the foodservice industry.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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