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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1991

Hyun O. Lee and Randall G. Rogan

Based on the collectivism‐individualism structure, the present study compared organizational conflict management behaviors between Korea (a collectivistic culture) and the…

Abstract

Based on the collectivism‐individualism structure, the present study compared organizational conflict management behaviors between Korea (a collectivistic culture) and the U.S. (an individualistic culture). Employing a three‐way factorial design (Culture type x Relational distance x Power relationship), the present study registered robust effects of culture type in determining one's organizational conflict management behaviors. Specifically, Koreans are found to be extensive users of solution‐orientation strategies, while Americans prefer to use either non‐confrontation or control strategies in dealing with organizational conflicts. Moreover, the data also indicated that Koreans are more sensitive in exercising power when facing conflicts with subordinates in the organization. On the other hand, the effect of relational distance (ingroup vs. outgroup) in determining one's choice of organizational conflict management styles is found to be minimal. Implications of present findings for future intercultural communication research are also discussed.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 30 November 2017

Sora Shin, Hae-Hyun Choi, Yung Bin Kim, Byung-Hee Hong and Joo-Young Lee

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects of intermittent and continuous heating protocols using graphene-heated clothing and identify more effective body…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects of intermittent and continuous heating protocols using graphene-heated clothing and identify more effective body region for heating in a cold environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Eight males participated in five experimental conditions at an air temperature of 0.6°C with 40 percent relative humidity: no heating, continuous heating the chest, continuous heating the back, intermittent heating the chest, and intermittent heating the back.

Findings

The results showed that the electric power consumption of the intermittent heating protocol (2.49 W) was conserved by 71 percent compared to the continuous protocol (8.58 W). Rectal temperature, cardiovascular and respiratory responses showed no significant differences among the four heating conditions, while heating the back showed more beneficial effects on skin temperatures than heating the chest.

Originality/value

First of all, this study was the first report to evaluate cold protective clothing with graphene heaters. Second, the authors provided effective intermittent heating protocols in terms of reducing power consumption, which was able to be evaluated with the characteristics of fast-responsive graphene heaters. Third, an intermittent heating protocol on the back was recommended to keep a balance between saving electric power and minimizing thermal discomfort in cold environments.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Book part
Publication date: 28 August 2015

Jose Guerra Vio

This chapter focuses on South Korea’s newly found regional leadership, as the emergent middle power of East Asia, in order to advance regional integration and…

Abstract

This chapter focuses on South Korea’s newly found regional leadership, as the emergent middle power of East Asia, in order to advance regional integration and institution-building. Policy leadership is observed and analyzed from an international lens, linked to the literature of middle powers. The chapter first conceptualizes middle powers in connection with the issue of international leadership, since such states often play important roles in promoting cooperation. The chapter looks especially into South Korea’s foreign policy behavior toward East Asian regional processes and how it has manifested innovative and capable leadership. More specifically, the last three presidencies of Kim Dae-jung (1998–2002), Roh Moo-hyun (2003–2008), and Lee Myung-bak (2008–2013) are scrutinized in the hope of underscoring how their particular administrations, political leadership, and strategic approaches to foreign policy toward the region influenced South Korea’s regional leadership attempts and middle power status.

Details

Asian Leadership in Policy and Governance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-883-0

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2020

June-Hyuk Kwon, Seung-Hye Jung, Hyun-Ju Choi and Joonho Kim

This study aims to empirically analyze the effects of marketing communications, such as advertisement/promotion and social network service (SNS) content, on consumer…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to empirically analyze the effects of marketing communications, such as advertisement/promotion and social network service (SNS) content, on consumer engagement (CE), brand trust and brand loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

The study’s participants were 230 US and 376 Korean consumers who have used (i.e. contacted) a food service establishment (i.e. family restaurant) at least once before and who continue to use an SNS (e.g. Facebook and Instagram). This study conducted a hypothesis test using structural equation modeling analysis. In addition, hierarchical analysis was performed to further generalize and support the statistical analysis results.

Findings

Advertisement/promotion and SNS content have a statistically significant positive effect on CE. Advertisement/promotion has a statistically significant positive effect on brand trust, and SNS content has a statistically significant negative effect on brand trust. CE has a statistically significant positive effect on brand trust, and CE and brand trust have a statistically significant positive effect on brand loyalty. No statistically significant differences were shown between the US and Korean consumer groups (critical ratios for difference of path coefficient < ± 1.96). The hypothesis test results of the structural equation model analysis and hierarchical analysis were the same for the entire group.

Originality/value

The findings indicate that the overall mediating role of CE is important. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to investigate which marketing communication channels are most effective in the restaurant sector.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Wei Wei

This paper aims to examine the main developments of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) research in hospitality and tourism. It also aims to pinpoint fruitful…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the main developments of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) research in hospitality and tourism. It also aims to pinpoint fruitful directions for tourism and hospitality research on VR and AR applications.

Design/methodology/approach

A selective literature review of full-length papers published in the period from 2000 to 2018 was conducted. A total of 60 journal papers were retrieved and thoroughly reviewed.

Findings

This paper first presents a summary of the distribution of published papers. Then, this paper synthesizes the stimuli, dimensions and consequences of VR/AR-related user behavior experience, upon which a theoretical framework is developed. Additionally, this paper provides a detailed report for the progress on the theories and research methodologies, offering a useful background concerning what remains to be achieved. Finally, this paper puts forward fruitful directions for advancing the current understanding of VR/AR and its management.

Practical implications

This research presents diverse positive outcomes of using VR/AR technologies, which encourage industry practitioners such as destination marketing organizations (DMOs) and marketing firms to incorporate recent technological developments into their strategic plans.

Originality/value

This paper represents one of the first endeavors that critically reviews research progress on VR/AR in tourism and hospitality from 2000 to 2018. Not only are information technology researchers provided with a comprehensive guide to the latest, influential VR/AR literature but also the proposals of wide-ranging directions for future research would stimulate further investigation of VR/AR.

研究目的

本论文研究旅游酒店业在VR和AR研究的主流发展情况。此外, 本论文还指出AR和VR在旅游酒店应用的未来发展方向。

研究设计

研究样本为2000年至2018年发表的文章选集, 共60篇研究文献。

研究结果

本论文首先总结了发表文章的分布情况。其次, 本论文总结了VR/AR相关行为体验研究的起因、方向、以及影响, 并开发了一个理论架构。此外, 本论文还对相关理论和方法进行总结, 从而指出哪些方面需要进一步研究。最后, 本论文还为如何进一步加深对VR/AR及其管理的理解做出指示性说明。

研究实际意义

本论文展示了多个不同层面的使用VR/AR科技的积极影响, 从而鼓励行业者如DMOs和营销机构来应用最近科技创新来完善战略决策。

研究价值

本论文是前沿研究著作之一, 对VR/AR在旅游酒店行业2000年至2018年文献进行梳理的文章。这不仅仅对科技研究学者对信息技术研究、VR/AR文献做了全面梳理, 还对未来VR/AR研究提出多角度全面的启发。

关键词

虚拟现实 、增强现实 、酒店管理 、旅游管理 、科技 、述评

纸张类型 - 文献综述

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

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Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2015

Chun Kit Lok

Smart card-based E-payment systems are receiving increasing attention as the number of implementations is witnessed on the rise globally. Understanding of user adoption…

Abstract

Smart card-based E-payment systems are receiving increasing attention as the number of implementations is witnessed on the rise globally. Understanding of user adoption behavior of E-payment systems that employ smart card technology becomes a research area that is of particular value and interest to both IS researchers and professionals. However, research interest focuses mostly on why a smart card-based E-payment system results in a failure or how the system could have grown into a success. This signals the fact that researchers have not had much opportunity to critically review a smart card-based E-payment system that has gained wide support and overcome the hurdle of critical mass adoption. The Octopus in Hong Kong has provided a rare opportunity for investigating smart card-based E-payment system because of its unprecedented success. This research seeks to thoroughly analyze the Octopus from technology adoption behavior perspectives.

Cultural impacts on adoption behavior are one of the key areas that this research posits to investigate. Since the present research is conducted in Hong Kong where a majority of population is Chinese ethnicity and yet is westernized in a number of aspects, assuming that users in Hong Kong are characterized by eastern or western culture is less useful. Explicit cultural characteristics at individual level are tapped into here instead of applying generalization of cultural beliefs to users to more accurately reflect cultural bias. In this vein, the technology acceptance model (TAM) is adapted, extended, and tested for its applicability cross-culturally in Hong Kong on the Octopus. Four cultural dimensions developed by Hofstede are included in this study, namely uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, individualism, and Confucian Dynamism (long-term orientation), to explore their influence on usage behavior through the mediation of perceived usefulness.

TAM is also integrated with the innovation diffusion theory (IDT) to borrow two constructs in relation to innovative characteristics, namely relative advantage and compatibility, in order to enhance the explanatory power of the proposed research model. Besides, the normative accountability of the research model is strengthened by embracing two social influences, namely subjective norm and image. As the last antecedent to perceived usefulness, prior experience serves to bring in the time variation factor to allow level of prior experience to exert both direct and moderating effects on perceived usefulness.

The resulting research model is analyzed by partial least squares (PLS)-based Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach. The research findings reveal that all cultural dimensions demonstrate direct effect on perceived usefulness though the influence of uncertainty avoidance is found marginally significant. Other constructs on innovative characteristics and social influences are validated to be significant as hypothesized. Prior experience does indeed significantly moderate the two influences that perceived usefulness receives from relative advantage and compatibility, respectively. The research model has demonstrated convincing explanatory power and so may be employed for further studies in other contexts. In particular, cultural effects play a key role in contributing to the uniqueness of the model, enabling it to be an effective tool to help critically understand increasingly internationalized IS system development and implementation efforts. This research also suggests several practical implications in view of the findings that could better inform managerial decisions for designing, implementing, or promoting smart card-based E-payment system.

Details

E-services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-709-7

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2019

Hyun-Young Park, Ho-Young Lee and Jin Wook Kim

Based on 3,775 firm-year observations from 2009 to 2013 using publicly available disclosure data for Korean listed firms, this study examines whether and how firm-level…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on 3,775 firm-year observations from 2009 to 2013 using publicly available disclosure data for Korean listed firms, this study examines whether and how firm-level governance characteristics are associated with investment in internal auditing proxied by compensation and the number of statutory internal auditors.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors investigate the association between governance characteristics and investment in internal auditing proxied by compensation and the number of statutory internal auditors.

Findings

The authors find that firms with greater ownership of the largest shareholders and with a higher proportion of outside directors invest more in internal auditing. These results indicate that firms with higher incentive and demand for monitoring are more likely to invest more in internal auditing. The authors further find that the positive effect of the largest shareholder ownership (board independence) on investment in internal auditing is attenuated in firms with greater board independence (ownership of the largest shareholders) suggesting that the complementary effect of the two governance mechanisms associated with internal auditing weakens as they function simultaneously.

Research limitations/implications

The results provide regulators and investors with a clear picture of the governance characteristics of firms associated with investment in internal auditing. The results imply that both the largest shareholders and the outside board of directors play a significant role in resource allocation in internal auditing within a firm. The effect of allocation, however, can be attenuated contingent upon the combined characteristics of governance mechanisms.

Originality/value

Using large amounts of public archival data, this study adds to the extant literature on firm characteristics associated with investment in internal auditing. This study also contributes to the literature by expanding the scope of research on executive compensation to the locus of statutory internal auditors.

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2019

Haijing Liu and Hyun-Ah Lee

This paper aims to verify the effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on Chinese listed firms’ earnings management and tax avoidance. Specifically, this study…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to verify the effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on Chinese listed firms’ earnings management and tax avoidance. Specifically, this study investigates whether government-guided CSR implementation indeed drives firms to behave in a responsible manner by constraining earnings management and tax avoidance.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyses a sample of Chinese listed companies that are confronted with the unique situation of CSR being developed at a rapid pace by government-led policy and regulation. The study further investigates whether the effect of CSR on earnings management and tax avoidance is different for state-owned and private enterprises by partitioning the sample into these two subgroups.

Findings

The findings of this study show that government-guided CSR could be effective in reducing the firms’ earnings management and tax avoidance, even though the effect is limited to state-owned enterprises.

Originality/value

This paper provides new evidence on the relation of CSR with earnings management and tax avoidance in the Chinese context and sheds light on the importance of differentiating between the state-owned and private enterprises when studying the corporate behaviors of Chinese firms.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Hyun-Ah Lee and Won-Wook Choi

This study aims to verify the circumstances under which managing the allowance for uncollectible accounts is used as a tool of earnings management.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to verify the circumstances under which managing the allowance for uncollectible accounts is used as a tool of earnings management.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors investigate whether bad debt expense, which is an income statement counterpart of allowance for uncollectible accounts, is adjusted downward when pre-managed earnings is slightly above zero earnings, prior year’s earnings or analysts’ forecasts.

Findings

The findings of this study show that firms manage bad debt expense downward to avoid losses, sustain the prior year’s earnings and meet or beat analysts’ forecasts. The authors also find that the understatement of bad debt expense to meet earnings benchmarks is pronounced for firms with high tax costs.

Social implications

Standard setters and auditors can gain a better understanding in detail of the practices and methods of managing earnings via the allowance for uncollectible accounts.

Originality/value

This study is the first to examine earnings management via the allowance for uncollectible accounts in non-financial Korean firms. In addition, the findings provide the evidence that firms prefer to use the allowance for uncollectible accounts as a strategic tool to meet benchmarks, especially when their tax costs are high.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

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Article
Publication date: 27 June 2019

Heesup Han, Hyoungeun Moon and Sunghyup Sean Hyun

This paper aims to examine the relationship of internal/external physical environments and emotional well-being and to explore the possible influence of such an…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the relationship of internal/external physical environments and emotional well-being and to explore the possible influence of such an association with guest satisfaction and retention considering the moderating role of price perception in the luxury resort hotel context.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 603 responses were gathered from a field survey at luxury resort hotels. The data were analyzed using quantitative data analyses to achieve research objectives.

Findings

The results from the structural model assessment revealed that both internal and external physical environments elicited emotional well-being, which in turn leads to the increased guest satisfaction and retention. More specifically, internal atmospherics had a stronger impact on triggering subsequent variables compared to external environment factors. The outcomes also indicated the significant mediating role of emotional well-being and satisfaction. Emotional well-being was found to mediate the effect of internal and external physical environments on guest satisfaction, while guest satisfaction mediated the effect of emotional well-being on guest retention. Moreover, price perception significantly moderated the guest satisfaction–guest retention association. Overall, the proposed conceptual framework satisfactorily accounted for variance in guest retention.

Originality/value

The findings help practitioners in luxury resort hotels to develop ways to boost guests’ post-purchase behaviors by using internal/external atmospherics and emotional well-being.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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