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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2010

Xin Qi, Margaret Band, Richard Tester, John Piggott and Steve J. Hurel

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate if slow release starch (SRS) could be used to control/limit hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetics.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate if slow release starch (SRS) could be used to control/limit hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetics.

Design/methodology/approach

Ten type‐1 diabetic volunteers were fitted with continuous glucose monitors for two periods of 3 days when undertaking their normal routine or when consuming 60 g SRS before sleep.

Findings

The average number of nocturnal hypoglycaemic episodes where no SRS was consumed over 3 days was 2.7 ± 2.0 but only 0.7 ± 1.1 after SRS consumption before sleep. The duration of these events was equivalent to 318 ± 282 and 140 ± 337 min, respectively. Average nocturnal blood glucose concentration was 7.9 ± 1.4 mmol l−1 without SRS consumption but increased to 9.7 ± 2.7 mmol l−1 when SRS was consumed. These data were highly significant when subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) test on a subject by subject basis. The SRS may be used as a cost effective therapy to avoid hypoglycaemia in patients with type‐1 diabetes.

Originality/value

This paper reports for the first time the use of a physically modified waxy maize starch (SRS) to prevent/limit the incidence of nocturnal hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetics.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1979

Vincent Marks

The total amount of glucose in the body at any one time is very small indeed, rarely exceeding 20g in total and generally less than half that amount. This would ordinarily…

Abstract

The total amount of glucose in the body at any one time is very small indeed, rarely exceeding 20g in total and generally less than half that amount. This would ordinarily be sufficient to keep the brain and red cells, the only major glucose‐requiring tissues, supplied with energy for a little more than an hour or so were it not constantly being replenished either by food or, in the interval between meals, by glycogen stores in the liver. Even these stores contain sufficient carbohydrate to meet requirements for only 24 hours or so yet we know from experimental and clinical evidence that most people can survive, providing they have ready access to water, for days or even weeks without food and without their blood glucose level falling to below 75% of their ordinary overnight fasting level. This is because under conditions of dietary carbohydrate deprivation the body has the capacity, by means of a series of interrelated mechanisms, to reduce, to an absolute minimum, the utilisation of glucose as a fuel by all the tissues of the body save the brain and red cells and at the same time increase glucose production in the liver. In between meals and during longer fasts, fat becomes the major fuel of all the tissues of the body apart from the brain and red cells.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 79 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Ishawu Iddrisu, Ibok Oduro, Marina Aferiba Tandoh and Reginald Adjetey Annan

The purpose of this paper was to synthesis all primary evidence relevant to the anti-diabetic effect of dandelion. Dandelion leaf and root have been used extensively for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to synthesis all primary evidence relevant to the anti-diabetic effect of dandelion. Dandelion leaf and root have been used extensively for its medicinal and health benefits since hundreds of years ago. This systematic review was conducted to gather scientific evidence that are available with regards to the anti-diabetic effect of dandelion leaf and root.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic search was conducted using PubMed, BioMed, PLUSONE and Cochrane databases between June 6, 2013 and June 30, 2013. Manual search was also done on books and journals in the KNUST library and its electronic database for possible documented effects of dandelion leaf or root on diabetic patients. Key words “dandelion”, “Taraxacum”, “dandelion and diabetes”, “Taraxacum officinale”, “Taraxacum and diabetes”, “dandelion and hypoglycemia” and “dandelion and hyperglycemia” were used in the search.

Findings

The search yielded 713 papers, and after the removal of duplicates and papers not relevant to this review, 20 papers were accepted for the review. These included studies conducted in humans and animals (rats and mice). Among the 20 studies reviewed, only 1 study examined and reported a positive hypoglycemic effect of dandelion on diabetic rats.

Research limitations/implications

The review only considered published papers and might have left out some unpublished research works.

Practical implications

The results of this review suggest paucity of data available on the use of dandelion in the treatment/management of diabetes. There is the need for well-designed clinical trials to ascertain the anti-diabetic effect of dandelion.

Social implications

The consumption of dandelion by type 2 diabetic patients to treat or manage their blood glucose has not been clinically proven to be effective, as shown by the review.

Originality/value

The paper provides a clear picture of the evidence available in the use of dandelion as an anti-diabetic herb, and this provides some preliminary data for the conduct of a clinical research on it.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1990

Alastair Thompson

The suggestion that there is a causal relationship between diet and delinquent behaviour is not new. In 1893 Egleston, an engineer at Columbia University, attempting to…

Abstract

The suggestion that there is a causal relationship between diet and delinquent behaviour is not new. In 1893 Egleston, an engineer at Columbia University, attempting to sponsor research into nutrition wrote: ‘As a trustee of a large charitable organization … I have been using proper methods of cooking as a prevention of crime with great success …’ While in this country in 1900 Miles writing about prisons and the treatment of criminals suggested: ‘In these we have people who have somehow or other gone wrong. Most of us fail to reflect why; but few would deny that it might possibly be the food … If it were, then here is our chance. We have them in our hands as we have no other class in this free country: we can help them, if needs be, against their will, until with better health the better will itself may come.’

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 90 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2001

Peter U. Abel and Thomas von Woedtke

To overcome the problem of metabolic crashes as hypoglycaemic as well as hyperglycaemic episodes in diabetic patients the continuous or at least very frequent checking of…

Abstract

To overcome the problem of metabolic crashes as hypoglycaemic as well as hyperglycaemic episodes in diabetic patients the continuous or at least very frequent checking of the circulating intracorporal glucose concentration is necessary. Biosensors measuring glucose in vivo are suitable for estimating the transient interstitial glucose concentration in human beings. Biologically and/or biochemically caused processes are responsible for limiting the functional stability of implanted sensors. It is now possible to advance beyond the current practice of hand making glucose sensors in the laboratory and produce these sensors as industrial products with reproducible characteristics. This gives us a real chance to avoid hypoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic metabolic attacks.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Dawn Kernaghan, Gillian C. Penney and Donald W.M. Pearson

To assess pregnancy‐related care and outcomes for women with pre‐gestational, Type 1 diabetes.

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Abstract

Purpose

To assess pregnancy‐related care and outcomes for women with pre‐gestational, Type 1 diabetes.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was a prospective, population‐based, clinical audit in Scotland. A total of 273 and 179 pregnancies in two 12‐month audit periods (during 1998/99 and 2003/04 respectively) were examined.

Findings

In both years, antenatal care for women with diabetes was well organised by dedicated multi‐professional teams. Provision of formal pre‐pregnancy clinics increased (1998, four of 22 maternity units; 2003, six of 20 units). Pregnancies documented as “planned” (1998/99, 116/273, or 42.5 per cent; 2003/04, 105/179, or 58.7 per cent; p=0.001) and periconceptual folic acid supplementation, 5 mg daily (1998/99, 40/273, or 14.7 per cent; 2003/04, 71/179, or 39.7 per cent; p<0.0001) increased over time. In both years, women whose pregnancies progressed to delivery attended early for antenatal care (median eight weeks' gestation) and had meticulous monitoring of diabetic control and foetal wellbeing. In the recent year, fewer women had hypoglycaemia during pregnancy (1998/99, 86/212, or 43.9 per cent; 2003/04, 47/160, or 29.4 per cent; p<0.0001). In both years, macrosomia was common (mean z scores: 1.57 in 1998/99 and 1.64 in 2003/04; standard deviations above a reference population mean) and perinatal mortality appeared higher than for the Scottish population (27.9/1,000 in 1998/99 and 24.8/1,000 in 2003/04). There was a (non‐significant) fall in congenital anomaly rate (1998/99: 13/215 births, or 60/1,000; 2003/04, 6/161 births, or 24.8/1,000).

Originality/value

Re‐audit after a five‐year interval showed that periconceptual care and pregnancy planning for Scottish women with Type 1 diabetes has improved. Although pregnancy outcomes remain poorer than for the general Scottish population, the apparent reduction in congenital anomalies is encouraging.

Details

Clinical Governance: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7274

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1995

A.A. Shaltout, M.A. Qabazard, M. Al Khawari, R. Bushnaq, N.A. Abdella, R. Abdul Salam and H. Mughal

Presents the results of a medical audit of the records of 199children diagnosed as diabetic and admitted to Al‐Amiri Hospital,Kuwait. Uses the measurement of glycosylated…

246

Abstract

Presents the results of a medical audit of the records of 199 children diagnosed as diabetic and admitted to Al‐Amiri Hospital, Kuwait. Uses the measurement of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1) to indicate the levels of control achieved. Finds that the degree of glycaemic control compares favourably with studies done in other hospitals, but unfavourably with specialized diabetic clinics. Proposes that glycaemic control could be improved by provision of the services of specialized support staff such as dietitian, educator, psychologist and health visitor.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 8 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 3 December 2020

Hamdiye Arda Sürücü, Hatice Okur Arslan and Sıdıka Çetik

The purpose of this study was to investigate diabetes self-care behaviors, stigmatization and A1C as predictors of a negative perception of insulin treatment in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate diabetes self-care behaviors, stigmatization and A1C as predictors of a negative perception of insulin treatment in insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients.

Design/methodology/approach

A descriptive cross-sectional and relational design was used. The study was carried out in the Diabetes Training Centre and Endocrine and Metabolism Clinic of a university hospital in the southeast of Turkey between May and October 2017. The research sample consisted of 100 type 2 diabetic patients determined by using a convenience sampling method. An introductory information form for type 2 diabetic patients, the Insulin Treatment Appraisal Scale (ITAS), Diabetes Self-Care Activities Survey (DSCAS) and Barriers to Insulin Treatment Scale (BIT) were used to collect the research data. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlations and step wise multi-linear regression.

Findings

The number of daily insulin injections, training received about insulin and stigmatization was significant predictors of a negative perception of insulin treatment.

Originality/value

Strategies to decrease diabetic individuals' fear of stigmatization should be utilized to minimize their negative insulin treatment perception (giving diabetic individuals training about diabetes, planning public training to inform society and using mass media tools). Diabetes educators should know that diabetic individuals' perception of the severity of the illness could influence the daily number of injections applied and decrease the negative perception regarding insulin.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0857-4421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1983

Safety precautions in the use of raw materials, in manufacturing and processing, marketing and enforcement of food and drug law on purity and quality may appear nowadays…

Abstract

Safety precautions in the use of raw materials, in manufacturing and processing, marketing and enforcement of food and drug law on purity and quality may appear nowadays to be largely a matter of routine, with manufacturers as much involved and interested in maintaining a more or less settled equilibrium as the enforcement agencies. Occasionally the peace is shattered, eg, a search and recovery operation of canned goods of doubtful bacterial purity or containing excess metal contamination, seen very much as an isolated incident; or the recent very large enforcement enterprise in the marketing of horseflesh (and other substitutions) for beef. The nationwide sale and distribution of meat on such a vast scale, only possible by reason of marketing methods — frozen blocks of boneless meat, which even after thawing out is not easily distinguishable from the genuine even in the eye of the expert; this is in effect only a fraud always around in the long ago years built up into a massive illicit trade.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 85 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Louise A. Reagan, Stephen J. Walsh and Deborah Shelton

The purpose of this paper is to examine relationships of self-care behavior, illness representation and diabetes knowledge with A1C (level of glycemic control) in 124…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine relationships of self-care behavior, illness representation and diabetes knowledge with A1C (level of glycemic control) in 124 incarcerated persons.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a cross-sectional design, summary scores and items from the self-care inventory revised, brief illness perception questionnaire and the spoken knowledge for low literacy in diabetes were evaluated using linear regression to assess their relationship to A1C.

Findings

Metabolic control was suboptimal for the majority of inmates with diabetes. The final regression model was statistically significant (F (3, 120)=9.51, p=0.001, R2=19.2 percent). Higher log10 HbA1C (A1C) was associated with lower personal control beliefs (B=−0.007, t (122)=−2.42, p=<0.02), higher self-report of diabetes understanding (B=0.009, t (122)=3.12, p=0.00) and using insulin (B=0.062, t (122)=2.45, p=0.02).

Research limitations/implications

Similar to findings with community dwelling participants, enhancing diabetes personal control beliefs among inmates may lead to lower A1C.

Social implications

Highly structured environments with limited options for self-care, personal choices and readily available health care may give some incarcerated persons with diabetes no motivation to improve diabetes control even if they have an understanding of what to do.

Originality/value

While there is abundant research in the community describing how these factors influence A1C levels, research of this nature with incarcerated persons with diabetes is limited. Findings will inform diabetes programming during incarceration to better prepare inmates for reentry.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

1 – 10 of 148