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1 – 10 of over 2000
Article
Publication date: 24 October 2018

Hesam Bakhshi, Erfan Khodabandeh, Omidali Akbari, Davood Toghraie, Mohammad Joshaghani and Alireza Rahbari

In the present study, laminar steady flow of nanofluid through a trapezoidal channel is studied by using of finite volume method. The main aim of this paper is to study…

Abstract

Purpose

In the present study, laminar steady flow of nanofluid through a trapezoidal channel is studied by using of finite volume method. The main aim of this paper is to study the effect of changes in geometric parameters, including internal and external dimensions on the behavior of heat transfer and fluid flow. For each parameter, an optimum ratio will be presented.

Design/methodology/approach

The results showed that in a channel cell, changing any geometric parameter may affect the temperature and flow field, even though the volume of the channel is kept constant. For a relatively small hydraulic diameter, microchannels with different angles have a similar dimensionless heat flux, while channels with bigger dimensions show various values of dimensionless heat flux. By increasing the angles of trapezoidal microchannels, dimensionless heat flux per unit of volume increases. As a result, the maximum and minimum heat transfer rate occurs in a trapezoidal microchannel with 75° and 30 internal’s, respectively. In the study of dimensionless heat flux rate with hydraulic diameter variations, an optimum hydraulic diameter (Dh) was observed in which the heat transfer rate per unit volume attains maximum value.

Findings

This optimum state is predicted to happen at a side angle of 75° and hydraulic diameter of 290 µm. In addition, in trapezoidal microchannel with higher aspect ratio, dimensionless heat flux rate is lower. Changing side angles of the channels and pressure drop have the same effect on pressure drop. For a constant pressure drop, if changing the side angles causes an increase in the rectangular area of the channel cross-section and the effect of the sides are not felt by the fluid, then the dimensionless heat flux will increase. By increasing the internal aspect ratio (t_2/t_3), the amount of t_3 decreases, and consequently, the conduction resistance of the hot surface decreases.

Originality/value

The effects of geometry of the microchannel, including internal and external dimensions on the behavior of heat transfer and fluid flow for pressure ranges between 2 and 8 kPa.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Masoud Kharati-Koopaee and Mahsa Rezaee

The purpose of the current research is to study the turbulent flow through microchannels having a micropost in aligned and staggered arrangements.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the current research is to study the turbulent flow through microchannels having a micropost in aligned and staggered arrangements.

Design/methodology/approach

Numerical calculations are performed on the basis of the finite volume approach, which is based on the SIMPLEC algorithm. In this work, the slip velocity, flow velocity distribution and friction factor for the two micropost patterns are examined at friction Reynolds numbers of Reτ = 395 and 590, relative module widths of Wm = 0.1 and 1 and cavity fraction range of Fc = 0.1 to 0.9.

Findings

Results reveal that for the two micropost patterns, as the friction Reynolds number, relative module width or cavity fraction increases, the slip velocity increases and friction factor decreases. It is found that the aligned micropost configuration leads to higher slip velocity and lower friction factor. Numerical findings indicate that the existence of the continuous cavity surface along the flow direction could be a significant criterion to realize if the velocity distribution deviates from that of the smooth channel. It is also shown that the turbulent flows are capable of producing more drag reduction than the laminar ones.

Originality/value

Previous studies have shown that microchannels consisting of a micropost pattern in aligned and staggered arrangements could be viewed as a promising alternative in the microscale flows for the heat removal purposes. Therefore, understanding the fluid flow through microchannels consisting of these configurations (which is a prerequisite to better understand thermal performance of such microchannels) is a significant issue, which is the subject of the present work.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2006

Gong Hee Lee and Je Hyun Baek

To investigate the effect of aspect ratio on the quantitative analogy between developing laminar flows in orthogonally rotating straight ducts and stationary curved ducts

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate the effect of aspect ratio on the quantitative analogy between developing laminar flows in orthogonally rotating straight ducts and stationary curved ducts

Design/methodology/approach

A fractional step method is used to obtain the numerical solution of the governing equations by decoupling the solution of the momentum equations from the solution of the continuity equation. In order to clarify the similarity of the two flows, dimensionless parameters KLR and Rossby number, Ro, in a rotating straight duct were used as a set corresponding to Dean number, KLC, and curvature ratio, λ, in a stationary curved duct.

Findings

Under the condition that the aspect ratio was larger than one and that the magnitude of Ro or λ was large enough to satisfy the “asymptotic invariance property” the quantitative analogy between the two flows was established clearly.

Research limitations/implications

As the aspect ratio decreased below one, the difference between the secondary flow intensities of these two flows increased, and therefore, the analogy between the two flows was not as evident as that for the larger aspect ratios.

Practical implications

Based on this methodology, the characteristics of the developing flow in orthogonally rotating ducts of higher aspect ratio can be predicted by considering the flow in stationary curved ducts, and vice versa.

Originality/value

The results obtained in this study will suggest an optimal criterion for the application of this approach to the flow similarity analysis in rectangular ducts with arbitrary aspect ratios.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1971

Y.R. REDDY and M.S. KONNUR

A BLOWER is a rotodynamic machine converting the mechanical energy into fluid energy. Its performance represents the combination of performance of all the components. In…

Abstract

A BLOWER is a rotodynamic machine converting the mechanical energy into fluid energy. Its performance represents the combination of performance of all the components. In the present study the number of blades has been chosen as a variable, keeping the rest of the system same. Earlier work done by Kearton showed that 16 bladed impeller out of the 4 impellers studied by him gave good overall performance. Theoretical considerations of Stodola, Busemann and Pfleiderer indicated that the blade exit angle and the number of blades controlled the unit's performance. Recently Bommes carried out extensive experiments on blowers by varying both the blade exit angle and the number of blades. When Pfleiderer's method was used to predict the number of blades, the predictions were not in agreement with the experiments. In this a theoretical equation has been developed which agrees well with the experimental results.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 43 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2002

Gong Hee Lee and Je Hyun Baek

A numerical study of a quantitative analogy of fully developed turbulent flow in a straight square duct rotating about an axis perpendicular to that of the duct and a…

Abstract

A numerical study of a quantitative analogy of fully developed turbulent flow in a straight square duct rotating about an axis perpendicular to that of the duct and a stationary curved duct of square cross‐section was carried out. In order to compare the two flows, the dimensionless parameters KTR=Re1/4/√Ro and the Rossby number, Ro=wmdh, in the rotating straight duct flow corresponded to KTC=Re1/4/√λ and the curvature ratio, λ=R/dh, in the stationary curved duct flow, so that they had the same dynamical meaning as those parameters for fully developed laminar flow. For the large values of Ro or λ, the flow field satisfied the “asymptotic invariance property”; there were strong quantitative similarities between the two flows, such as in the flow patterns and friction factors for the same values of KTR and KTC. Based on these similarities, it is possible to predict the flow characteristics in rotating ducts by considering the flow in stationary curved ducts, and vice versa.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 October 2020

Ali Cemal Benim and Sai Bhagavan Maddala

The purpose of this paper is the numerical investigation of the friction laws for incompressible flow in undulated channels, with emphasis on the applicability of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is the numerical investigation of the friction laws for incompressible flow in undulated channels, with emphasis on the applicability of the hydraulic diameter concept. A focal point of the study is the derivation of correlations to increase the accuracy of the hydraulic diameter approach.

Design/methodology/approach

Calculations are performed for laminar and turbulent flow, for Reynolds number ranges between 10–2,000 and 5,000–100,000. For turbulent flow, the shear stress transport (SST) model is used. A simple, sawtooth-like undulation shape is considered, where the channel geometry can be described by means of three length parameters. Letting each to take three values, totally 27 geometries are analyzed.

Findings

It is observed that the hydraulic diameter concept applied via analytical or empirical expressions to obtain friction coefficients does not lead to accurate results. For laminar flow, the maximum deviations of analytical values from predicted are about 70%, while 20% deviation is observed on average. For turbulent flow, deviations of Blasius correlation from predicted ones are smaller, but still remarkable with about 20% for maximum deviation and about 10% on average.

Originality/value

Applicability of the hydraulic diameter concept to undulated channels was not computationally explored. A further original ingredient of the work is the derivation of correlations that lead to improved accuracy in calculating the friction coefficient using hydraulic diameter. For laminar flow, the maximum and average deviations of present correlations from numerical predictions are below 5% and 2%, respectively. For turbulent flow, these numbers turn out to be approximately 12% for the maximum deviation and about 2% for the average.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 June 2019

Han-Cheng Dan, Zhuo-Min Zou, Jia-Qi Chen and An-Ping Peng

The soil water retention curve (SWRC) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (UHC) are crucial indices to assess hydraulic properties of porous media that primarily depend…

Abstract

Purpose

The soil water retention curve (SWRC) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (UHC) are crucial indices to assess hydraulic properties of porous media that primarily depend on the particle and pore size distributions. This study aims to present a method based on the discrete element model (DEM) and the typical Arya and Paris model (AP model) to numerically predict SWRC and UHC.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the DEM (PFC3D software) is used to construct the pore and particle size distributions in porous media. The number of particles is calculated according to the AP model, which can be applied to evaluate the relationship between the suction head and the moisture of porous media. Subsequently, combining critical path analysis (CPA) and fractal theory, the air entry value is applied to calculate the critical pore radius (CPR) and the critical volume fraction (CVF) for evaluating the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity.

Findings

This method is validated against the experimental results of 11 soils from the clay loam to the sand, and then the scaling parameter in the AP model and critical volume fraction value for many types of soils are presented for reference; subsequently, the gradation effect on hydraulic property of soils is analyzed. Furthermore, the calculation for unbound graded aggregate (UGA) material as a special case and a theoretical extension are provided.

Originality/value

The presented study provides an important insight into the relationship between the heterogeneous particle and hydraulic properties by the DEM and sheds light on the directions for future study of a method to investigate the hydraulic properties of porous media.

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 24 October 2022

Babak Lotfi and Bengt Ake Sunden

This study aims to computational numerical simulations to clarify and explore the influences of periodic cellular lattice (PCL) morphological parameters – such as lattice…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to computational numerical simulations to clarify and explore the influences of periodic cellular lattice (PCL) morphological parameters – such as lattice structure topology (simple cubic, body-centered cubic, z-reinforced body-centered cubic [BCCZ], face-centered cubic and z-reinforced face-centered cubic [FCCZ] lattice structures) and porosity value ( ) – on the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the novel trussed fin-and-elliptical tube heat exchanger (FETHX), which has led to a deeper understanding of the superior heat transfer enhancement ability of the PCL structure.

Design/methodology/approach

A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is proposed in this paper to provide better understanding of the fluid flow and heat transfer behavior of the PCL structures in the trussed FETHXs associated with different structure topologies and high-porosities. The flow governing equations of the trussed FETHX are solved by the CFD software ANSYS CFX® and use the Menter SST turbulence model to accurately predict flow characteristics in the fluid flow region.

Findings

The thermal-hydraulic performance benchmarks analysis – such as field synergy performance and performance evaluation criteria – conducted during this research successfully identified demonstrates that if the high porosity of all PCL structures decrease to 92%, the best thermal-hydraulic performance is provided. Overall, according to the obtained outcomes, the trussed FETHX with the advantages of using BCCZ lattice structure at 92% porosity presents good thermal-hydraulic performance enhancement among all the investigated PCL structures.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is one of the first in the literature that provides thorough thermal-hydraulic characteristics of a novel trussed FETHX with high-porosity PCL structures.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Jinya Zhang, Yongjiang Li, K. Vafai and Yongxue Zhang

Numerical simulations of a multistage multiphase pump at different operating conditions were performed to study the variational characteristics of flow parameters for each…

200

Abstract

Purpose

Numerical simulations of a multistage multiphase pump at different operating conditions were performed to study the variational characteristics of flow parameters for each impeller. The simulation results were verified against the experimented results. Because of the compressibility of the gas, inlet volume flow rate qi and inlet flow angle ßi for each impeller decrease gradually from the first to the last stage. The volume flow rate at the entrance of the pump q, rotational speed n and inlet gas volume fraction (IGVF) affect the characteristics of qi and ßi.

Design/methodology/approach

The hydraulic design features of the impellers in the multistage multiphase pump are obtained based on the flow parameter characteristics of the pump. Using the hydraulic setup features, stage-by-stage design of the multistage multiphase pump for a nominal IGVF has been conducted.

Findings

The numerical simulation results show that hydraulic loss in impellers of the optimized pump is substantially reduced. Furthermore, the hydraulic efficiency of the optimized pump increases by 3.29 per cent, which verifies the validation of the method of stage-by-stage design.

Practical implications

Under various operating conditions, qi and ßi decrease gradually from the first to the fifth stage because of the compressibility of the gas. For this characteristic, the fluid behavior varies at each stage of the pump. As such, it is necessary to design impellers stage by stage in a multistage rotodynamic multiphase pump.

Social implications

These results will have substantial effect on various practical operations in the industry. For example, in the development of subsea oilfields, the conventional conveying equipment, which contains liquid-phase pumps, compressors and separators, is replaced by multiphase pumps. Multiphase pumps directly transport the mixture of oil, gas and water from subsea oilwells through a single pipeline, which can simplify equipment usage, decrease backpressure of the wellhead and save capital costs.

Originality/value

Characteristics of a multistage multiphase pump under different operating conditions were investigated along with features of the inlet flow parameters for every impeller at each compression stage. Our simulation results have established that the change in the inlet flow parameters of every impeller is mainly because of the compressibility of the gas. The operational parameters q, n and IGVF all affect the characteristics of qi and ßi. However, the IGVF has the most prominent effect. Lower values of IGVF have an insignificant effect on the gas compressibility. Higher values of IGVF have a significant effect on the gas compressibility. All these characteristics affect the hydraulic design of the impellers for a multistage multiphase pump. In addition, the machining precision should also be considered. Considering all these factors, when IGVF is lower than 10 per cent, all the impellers in the pump can be designed uniformly. When IGVF varies from 10 to 30 per cent, the first two stages should be designed separately, and the latter stages are uniform starting with the second stage. When IGVF varies from 30 to 50 per cent, the first three stages should be designed separately, and the latter stages are going to be similar to the third stage. An additional increase in IGVF results in degeneration of the differential pressure of the pump, which will reduce the compressibility of the gas. As such, it can be deduced that only the first three stages should be designed separately, and the latter stages will be similar to the third stage. In addition, for the pump working under a lower volume flow rate than 25 m3/h, the first three stages should be designed individually while keeping the geometrical structure of the subsequent stages the same as the third stage.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 November 2021

Carolina P. Naveira-Cotta, Jian Su, Paulo Lucena Kreppel Paes, Philippe R. Egmont, Rodrigo P.M. Moreira, Gabriel Caetano G.R. da Silva and André Sampaio Monteiro

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of semi-circular zigzag-channel printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) design parameters on heat transfer and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of semi-circular zigzag-channel printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) design parameters on heat transfer and pressure drop of flows under high Reynolds numbers and provide new thermal-hydraulic correlations relevant to conditions encountered in natural gas processing plants.

Design/methodology/approach

The correlations were developed using three-dimensional steady-state computational fluid dynamics simulations with varying semicircular channel diameter (from 1 to 5 mm), zigzag angle (from 15° to 45°) and Reynolds number (from 40,000 to 100,000). The simulation results were validated by comparison with experimental results and existing correlations.

Findings

The results revealed that the thermal-hydraulic performance was mostly affected by the zigzag angle, followed by the ratio of the zigzag channel length to the hydraulic diameter. Overall, smaller zigzag angles favored heat transfer intensification while keeping reasonably low pressure drops.

Originality/value

This study is, to date, the only one providing thermal-hydraulic correlations for PCHEs with zigzag channels under high Reynolds numbers. Besides, the broad range of parameters considered makes the proposed correlations valuable PCHE design tools.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 32 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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