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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2009

J. Sharana Basavaraja, Sathish Sharma and Sathish Jain

The non‐recessed hybrid journal bearings of cylindrical type, when operating at higher rotational speeds can suffer self‐exited vibrations(oil‐whirl Instability), which…

Abstract

Purpose

The non‐recessed hybrid journal bearings of cylindrical type, when operating at higher rotational speeds can suffer self‐exited vibrations(oil‐whirl Instability), which can cause excessive rotor motion causing bearing and sometimes total machine failure. The multi‐lobe journal bearing exhibits better stability as well as a superior capability to suppress oil‐whirl. The paper aims to present a theoretical study pertaining to a two‐lobe hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing by considering the combined influence of surface roughness and journal misalignment on the performance of the bearing.

Design/methodology/approach

The average Reynolds equation governing the flow of lubricant in the clearance space between the rough bearing surfaces together with the equation of flow through a capillary restrictor has been solved using FEM. The bearing performance characteristics have been simulated for a two‐lobe hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing for the various values of offset factor, restrictor design parameter, surface roughness parameter, surface pattern parameter and journal misalignment parameters.

Findings

The two‐lobe hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing system with an offset factor greater than one indicates significant improvement of the order of 15‐25 percent in the values of direct stiffness and direct damping coefficients compared to a circular hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing system. Also the lubricant flow of a two‐lobe hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing is reduced by 25 percent vis‐à‐vis circular bearing.

Originality/value

The present work is original of its kind, in case of two‐lobe hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing. The results are quite useful for the bearing designer.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 61 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2010

Satish Jain, Satish Sharma, J. Sharana Basavaraja and Prashant Kushare

In recent years, researchers have focused a great deal of attention on multirecess hybrid journal bearing systems. The non‐circular journal bearings are widely used in…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, researchers have focused a great deal of attention on multirecess hybrid journal bearing systems. The non‐circular journal bearings are widely used in industry on account of their better stability, simplicity, efficiency and low cost. The purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical investigation into the performance of a two‐lobe multirecess hybrid journal bearing system.

Design/methodology/approach

The Reynold's equation governing the lubricant flow in the clearance space between the journal and bearing together with restrictor flow equations has been solved using finite element method. The bearing static and dynamic performance characteristics have been presented for the various values of the offset factors (0.75, 1, 1.25 and 1.50) for the hybrid mode of operation of the journal bearing system compensated by capillary and orifice restrictors for the commonly used bearing operating and geometric parameters. The offset of the journal has been accounted for by defining a non‐dimensional factor called offset factor delta.

Findings

The numerically simulated results indicate that a two‐lobe four recessed hybrid journal bearing provides a better performance than the corresponding similar circular recessed journal bearing system. The study further reveals that in order to get an improved performance of a two‐lobe four recessed journal bearing, a proper selection of bearing offset factors along with type of restrictor (capillary or orifice) is essential.

Originality/value

The results presented in this paper are useful for bearing designers.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 62 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2018

Pankaj Khatak and H.C. Garg

Hybrid journal bearing have long been used in machines requiring large load and high speed capacity operating under wide range of temperatures. Different compensating…

Abstract

Purpose

Hybrid journal bearing have long been used in machines requiring large load and high speed capacity operating under wide range of temperatures. Different compensating devices are used in for efficient operation of bearings. This paper aims to help in selection of optimum compensating device by evaluating the comparative performance of constant flow valve, capillary compensated and slot entry hybrid journal bearing under the combined influence of thermal effects and micropolar nature of lubricant.

Design/methodology/approach

The variation in micropolar parameters and viscosity change due to temperature increase of lubricant are considered in present study. Finite element method is used for combined iterative solution of micropolar Reynolds, energy and conduction equations. Micropolar lubricant is assumed to be governed by two parameters, coupling number and characteristic length. The results in the study are presented for symmetric and asymmetric configurations of hole entry and slot entry non-recessed hybrid journal bearings

Findings

The results indicate that constant flow valve compensated hole entry hybrid journal bearing is the highest performing bearing for the given range of micropolar parameters of lubricant in terms of maximum fluid pressure and dynamic coefficients.

Originality/value

The performance variations of various configurations of hybrid journal bearing are presented in a single paper. The reader can get overview of combined effects of micropolar parameters and viscosity decrease due to temperature increase of the lubricant.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2012

H.C. Garg

The purpose of this paper is to present theoretical investigations of the static performance characteristics of orifice compensated symmetric hole‐entry hybrid journal

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present theoretical investigations of the static performance characteristics of orifice compensated symmetric hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing considering the combined influence of rise in temperature and non‐Newtonian behavior of the lubricant.

Design/methodology/approach

The thermohydrostatic (THS) rheological solution of a hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing system requires the simultaneous solution of Reynolds equation, energy equation and conduction equation along with appropriate boundary conditions. In the present study an iterative numerical solution scheme is used to establish pressure and temperature fields in the lubricant fluid‐film.

Findings

It is found that there is an increase in the oil requirement for a hybrid journal bearing with the specified operating and geometric parameters, when the viscosity of the lubricant decreases due to the rise in temperature and non‐Newtonian behavior of the lubricant.

Originality/value

The available literature concerning the orifice compensated symmetric hybrid/hydrodynamic journal bearings indicates that the thermal effects together with non‐Newtonian behavior of lubricant due to additives mixed in the lubricants have been ignored in the analysis so as to obviate the mathematical complexity.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2013

H.C. Garg and Vijay Kumar

This paper aims to investigate the effect of plugging of holes on the static performance characteristics of a constant flow valve compensated hole‐entry hybrid journal

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effect of plugging of holes on the static performance characteristics of a constant flow valve compensated hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing system operating with Newtonian and non‐Newtonian lubricants. The analysis considers the generalized Reynolds equation governing the flow of lubricant having variable viscosity in the clearance space and equation of flow of lubricant through constant flow valve restrictor. The non‐Newtonian lubricant is assumed to follow the power law. The performance characteristics are computed for the two values of power law index (n=1.0 and 0.566). The computed results indicate that the blockage of holes during operation will not be the likely causes for the imminent failure of a well‐designed non‐recessed hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing.

Design/methodology/approach

Finite element method has been used to solve generalized Reynolds equation governing the flow of lubricant having variable viscosity in the clearance space and equation of flow of lubricant through constant flow valve restrictor.

Findings

The computed results indicate that the blockage of holes during operation will not be the likely causes for the imminent failure of a well‐designed non‐recessed hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing. The bearing configuration with plugged holes provides sufficient fluid film thickness and low power requirement as less lubricant is required to be pumped in the bearing.

Originality/value

To the best of the author's knowledge, no study which considers the influence of plugging of holes on the static performance characteristics of a constant flow valve compensated hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing system operating with Newtonian and non‐Newtonian lubricant is yet available in the literature.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 65 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

Hem Chander Garg and Vijay Kumar

The slot-entry hybrid journal bearings have been successfully used in various engineering applications because of their good performance over wide range of speed and load…

Abstract

Purpose

The slot-entry hybrid journal bearings have been successfully used in various engineering applications because of their good performance over wide range of speed and load, besides their relative simplicity in manufacturing. Most of the research work pertaining to non-recessed journal bearing assumes standard symmetric and asymmetric configurations. However, many more configurations are possible by changing the position of slot which may improve the performance of the slot-entry journal bearing. In the present work study of static performance characteristics of slot-entry journal bearing of different configuration has been carried out. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

FEM has been used to solve the Reynolds equation governing the flow of lubricant in the bearing clearance space along with the restrictor flow equation. The non-Newtonian lubricant has been assumed to follow the cubic shear stress law. The performance characteristics of slot-entry hybrid journal bearings are computed by developing a computer program.

Findings

The simulated results of bearing characteristics parameters in terms of minimum fluid-film thickness and bearing flow have been presented for the wide range of various values of non-linearity factor and external load. It is found that there is an increase in the oil requirement for slot-entry hybrid journal bearing with the specified operating and geometric parameters, when the viscosity of the lubricant decreases due to the non-Newtonian behavior of the lubricant. The effect of the decrease in the viscosity of the lubricant due to non-Newtonian behavior of the lubricant diminishes the attitude angle. The computed performance characteristics are helpful for the bearing designer while choosing a particular configuration of bearing.

Research limitations/implications

The performance characteristics have been computed by considering the non-Newtonian lubricants. The thermal effects have been ignored in the analysis so as to obviate the mathematical complexity.

Originality/value

Get idea from already published manuscripts.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 66 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2007

Vijay Kumar Jadon and Madhvender Singh

Hybrid bearings have found increasing applications in various machines owing to their large number of favorable characteristics like high load carrying capacity, increased…

Abstract

Purpose

Hybrid bearings have found increasing applications in various machines owing to their large number of favorable characteristics like high load carrying capacity, increased minimum fluid film thickness, long life and increased damping making them attractive for various applications such as turbo machinery, machine tool spindles, precision grinder spindles, etc. A careful design of such bearing for optimum performance has always been among the key issues of the researchers. The present work has been carried out to study the effect of bearing geometric parameters on performance of hybrid journal bearing and supply cut‐off behavior has also been studied for the improved performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The generalized Reynold's equation governing the fluid flow in the clearance space between bearing and journal has been solved using finite element method to determine the pressure distribution, subsequently performance of hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing are computed. The journal centre equilibrium position for the given load is computed and the formulation is explained. The geometric parameters include aspect ratio, land width ratio, number of rows and number of holes per row. Further, performance of the bearing is computed with increasing the load, which induces negative pressure or the backpressure at the supply holes subsequently those are plugged to support the higher load.

Findings

The obtained results are presented in graphical form and logical conclusions are drawn and the modified configurations with reduced number of holes are suggested for higher load. It is observed that the bearing configuration with aspect ratio = 1.0 and land width ratio = 0.2 is best for high load support for low power requirement as less lubricant is required to be pumped in the bearing yet it provides sufficient fluid film thickness and lower values of maximum pressure. The load carrying capacity of the bearing can be further increased by plugging the holes on which backpressure is obtained for same bearing configuration. A feedback control with hybrid bearing system will sustain the sudden increase of load by shutting off the supply of the lubricant through supply hole where negative pressure is encountered.

Originality/value

The paper addresses the performance of non recessed hybrid journal bearings with wide range of geometric parameter. The results are quite useful for the bearing designer. The supply cut‐off is another aspect of originality of the paper as it provides the better load support.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 59 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2012

Satish C. Sharma, Vikas M. Phalle and S.C. Jain

Noncircular journal bearings are used in industry because of their simplicity, efficiency and low cost. During the life time of a machine, these are required to be…

Abstract

Purpose

Noncircular journal bearings are used in industry because of their simplicity, efficiency and low cost. During the life time of a machine, these are required to be operated over a number of years and are submitted to several stops and starts. As a result, the bush becomes progressively worn out and the bearing performance changes. The purpose of this paper is to study theoretically the influence of wear on the performance of a non‐circular 2‐lobe four‐pocket multirecess hybrid journal bearing system.

Design/methodology/approach

The Reynolds equation governing the flow of lubricant in the clearance space of a non‐circular 2‐lobe multirecess worn hybrid journal bearing system has been solved using FEM along with appropriate boundary conditions. The defects caused by wear are centered on the load line and range from 10 per cent to 50 per cent of the bearing radial clearance.

Findings

The numerically simulated results based on a Newtonian lubricant and the steady state flow field system have been presented in terms of maximum fluid film pressure, minimum fluid film thickness, lubricant flow rate, direct fluid film stiffness and damping coefficients and stability threshold speed margin. The paper demonstrates that, for the bearing configurations studied, the bearing behavior is clearly affected by wear. The numerically simulated results indicate that for an offset factor of δ=1.2, the value of min reduces by 21.21 per cent at δ¯w=0.5.

Originality/value

The presented results have valuable data in case of 2‐lobe four pocket hybrid journal bearing compensated with constant flow valve restrictor. The paper outcomes are sure to be of interest for researchers and useful for bearing designers.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 64 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Chandra B. Khatri and Satish C. Sharma

The aim of the present paper is to study the combined influence of textured surface and micropolar lubricant behaviour on the performance of two-lobe hole-entry hybrid

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the present paper is to study the combined influence of textured surface and micropolar lubricant behaviour on the performance of two-lobe hole-entry hybrid journal bearing system. The bearing performance parameters of the textured circular/two-lobe hole-entry hybrid journal bearing system have been computed against the constant vertical external load supported by the bearing.

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, Eringen’s micropolar fluid theory has been used to derive the governing Reynolds equation. The consequent solution of the governing Reynolds equation has been obtained by using finite element method (FEM) numerical technique.

Findings

The present study indicates that the use of the textured surface, two-lobe profile of bearing and micropolar lubricant, significantly enhances the bearing performance as compared to non-textured circular journal bearing.

Originality/value

The present study concerning the influence of surface texturing on the behaviour of the two-lobe hole-entry hybrid journal bearing lubricated with micropolar lubricant is original. The theoretically simulated results of the present study will be useful to design an efficient journal bearing system.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 69 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

H.C. Garg and Vijay Kumar

The changing technological scenario necessitated hybrid journal bearings to operate under severe conditions of heavy load and high speed resulting into temperature rise of…

Abstract

Purpose

The changing technological scenario necessitated hybrid journal bearings to operate under severe conditions of heavy load and high speed resulting into temperature rise of the lubricant fluid-film and bearing surface. To predict the performance of a bearing realistically, theoretical model must consider the combined influence of the rise of temperature and non-Newtonian behavior of the lubricant. The aim of the present paper is to study the effect of viscosity variation due to temperature rise and non-Newtonian behavior of the lubricant on performance of constant flow valve compensated multiple hole-entry hybrid journal bearings.

Design/methodology/approach

Finite element method has been used to solve Reynolds equation along with restrictor flow equation, 3D energy equation and 3D conduction equation using suitable iterative technique. The non-Newtonian lubricant has been assumed to follow cubic shear stress law.

Findings

The thermohydrostatic rheological performances of symmetric and asymmetric hole-entry hybrid journal bearing configurations are studied. The computed results illustrate that variation of viscosity due to rise in temperature and non-Newtonian behavior of the lubricant affects the performance of hole-entry hybrid journal bearing system quite significantly.

Originality/value

In the present work, the influences of the viscosity variation due to temperature rise and non-Newtonian behavior of the lubricant on the performance characteristics of non-recessed hole-entry hybrid journal bearing with symmetric and asymmetric configurations compensated with constant flow valve restrictors have been investigated for generating the design data to be used by bearing designer. The design data computed in the present thesis are a contribution in field of knowledge of bearing design.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 66 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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