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Book part
Publication date: 17 October 2018

Georg Reischauer and Johanna Mair

We are currently witnessing a new wave of the digital economy. A prime example is the sharing economy where an organization operates a platform for its online community…

Abstract

We are currently witnessing a new wave of the digital economy. A prime example is the sharing economy where an organization operates a platform for its online community, the sum of individuals who interact to exchange goods and services. The sharing economy blurs several boundaries of economic life – a fact that extant theory on platform organizing has yet paid little attention. We argue to consider two aspects of the sharing economy and revisit related theory to address this lacuna. First, we revive the concept of hybrid community to denote a variant of an online community that mirrors the boundary-blurring nature of the sharing economy. In a hybrid community, individuals interact both online and offline (instead of only online) and consume as well as produce. Second, we revisit the range of strategic responses suggested by extant literature to minimize the dependence of a platform organization on its hybrid community and show that the sharing economy requires management research to adapt and potentially recast existing claims.

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Toward Permeable Boundaries of Organizations?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-829-3

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2019

James Lappeman, Kristin Ransome and Zach Louw

This paper aims to show that a generic bottom-of-the-pyramid (BoP) segmentation strategy does not represent a multi-country BoP consumer profile. A series of multinational…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to show that a generic bottom-of-the-pyramid (BoP) segmentation strategy does not represent a multi-country BoP consumer profile. A series of multinational entry failures has clearly shown that a one-size-fits-all strategy is inappropriate for emerging markets, especially in Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

The study analysed literature defining and profiling BoP consumers at both a global and local level using South Africa as a case study. Being Africa’s largest economy, South Africa was an ideal subject. The findings were then independently triangulated with seven experts for validation.

Findings

The results show that the South African BoP has eight characteristics that align with definitions in global BoP consumer literature. An additional five characteristics were identified that were not general BoP characteristics, and that applied specifically to South Africa.

Practical implications

The findings add to the growing evidence that BoP markets are complex and heterogeneous, and they make a case to consider each BoP market individually. As there is yet to be a model to define BoP market differences systematically, this study provides a foundation for new developments in BoP segmentation in Africa and in other emerging markets.

Originality/value

While there is evidence that BoP markets are complex and heterogeneous, there is yet to be a model to begin the process of defining these differences systematically to improve strategic direction for multinational companies and regional decision makers. This study, therefore, provides a foundation for new developments in this field of segmentation in Africa and in other emerging markets globally.

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European Business Review, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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Book part
Publication date: 2 September 2009

Nan Lin, Yanlong Zhang, Wenhong Chen, Dan Ao and Lijun Song

The paper advances the argument that social capital operates on both the supply and demand sides of the labor market. Organizations have significant needs for employees…

Abstract

The paper advances the argument that social capital operates on both the supply and demand sides of the labor market. Organizations have significant needs for employees with social capital capacity and skills as they do with human capital. We articulate a theory on why organizations have such needs and how social capital may be differentially and strategically deployed to different positions. Specifically, three types of positions (the top positions, the edge positions, and the exchange-oriented positions) are identified with such needs. We formulated two hypotheses derived from the theoretical articulation: (1) the deploying hypothesis – organizations are expected to strategically recruit and deploy workers with social capital capacity and skills to such key internal and edge positions and (2) the institutional contingency hypothesis – organizations in the more competitive environment (e.g., the private sector) are more likely to show such differential deployment than those in the less competitive environment (e.g., the state sector). The hypotheses were subjected to an empirical examination with a set of firm data from China. Both hypotheses were confirmed. Further, we also found evidence for differential deployment of human capital (education and experience) and hierarchical capital (statuses of prior positions and organizations) in different sectors. We discuss the implications of the theory and findings for future research on organizations in different economic sectors beyond China and how a theory of deploying various types of capital – social capital, human capital, and hierarchical capital – in different economic sectors may be developed.

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Work and Organizationsin China Afterthirty Years of Transition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-730-7

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2010

Guangling “Dave” Liu, Rangan Gupta and Eric Schaling

This paper aims to develops an estimable hybrid model that combines the micro‐founded DSGE model with the flexibility of the atheoretical VAR model.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develops an estimable hybrid model that combines the micro‐founded DSGE model with the flexibility of the atheoretical VAR model.

Design/methodology/approach

The model is estimated via the maximum likelihood technique based on quarterly data on real gross national product (GNP), consumption, investment and hours worked, for the South African economy, over the period of 1970:1 to 2000:4. Based on a recursive estimation using the Kalman filter algorithm, the out‐of‐sample forecasts from the hybrid model are then compared with the forecasts generated from the Classical and Bayesian variants of the VAR for the period 2001:1‐2005:4.

Findings

The results indicate that, in general, the estimated hybrid‐DSGE model outperforms the classical VAR, but not the Bayesian VARs in terms of out‐of‐sample forecasting performances.

Research limitations/implications

The model lacks nominal shocks and needs to be extended into a small open economy framework.

Practical implications

The paper was able to show that, even though the DSGE model is outperformed by the BVAR, a microfounded theoretical DSGE model has a future in forecasting the South African economy.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first attempt to use an estimable DSGE model to forecast the South African economy.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Book part
Publication date: 2 September 2019

Lisa Suckert

Moralized markets are economic markets in which moral aspects are explicitly used to legitimize decisions. Companies involved in such markets have to cope simultaneously…

Abstract

Moralized markets are economic markets in which moral aspects are explicitly used to legitimize decisions. Companies involved in such markets have to cope simultaneously with opposing logics: While they strive for economic growth, their existence is bound to their moral integrity, too. This chapter investigates how ecopreneurs manage this inherent conflict of moralized markets. Based on interviews, documentary analysis and sample purchases, an empirical case study highlights the example of well-renowned ecopreneurial dairies distributing their milk via ecologically disreputable discount stores. By looking into the related struggle between moral and economic expectations, the chapter sheds light on one particular coping strategy: The tacit creation and maintenance of separate fields for moral and economic logics. This strategy of fragmentation is referred to as ‘double game.’ The study emanates from competing logics approaches to hybrid organizations by adopting a field theoretical, Bourdieusian perspective. Its explicit focus on opposing logics and on coping strategies that go beyond reconciliation opens up new perspectives for both sustainability and organization studies.

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The Contested Moralities of Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-120-9

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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2019

Marc Dressler and Ivan Paunovic

The purpose of this study is to provide insight into characteristics of visitor demand for a regionally oriented vinotheque (wine bar and shop) at a UNESCO world heritage…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to provide insight into characteristics of visitor demand for a regionally oriented vinotheque (wine bar and shop) at a UNESCO world heritage destination in Germany. The research especially focuses on expected offer components for a wine bar and shop, including wine-related products and services, to test the theoretical notion of blurred division between product and service offerings. The literature review has revealed that implications of this conceptual notion on wine bar and shop offer creation could be profound as there are different types of wine bar and shops with different product–service combinations. Moreover, the offer creation needs to take into account the overall needs of wine bar and shop visitors and consider them as experience seekers and not necessarily utility-maximizing players. In this sense, the paper expands previous research on vinotheques that primarily took the wine retail perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The study deals with wine-related sales, offer design and the importance of tourism and hospitality for wine sales in a non-growing wine market. However, the concept of increasing wine sales through tourism and hospitality brings to the forefront the issues of creating integrated offerings of products and services. This is why, the study deploys the concepts of hybrid products and experience economy. The primary data have been collected via self-administered, paper-based questionnaire (Appendix 2) amongst visitors at the St. Goar/Loreley tourist destination. The goal has been to reveal the importance of a wine bar and shop as a wine sales channel, whether visitors are interested in visiting a wine bar and shop, what major expectations they have entering a vinotheque, as well as what major offer components of products and/or services are they interested in. Total sample size was N = 400. Major statistical procedure deployed was descriptive statistics, as well as PCA (principal component analysis) of expectations and offer analysis in regards to products and services.

Findings

By deploying the PCA on the data regarding interest in buying wine-related products and services, three offer configurations have been extracted, out of which only one is purely related to products, whilst the other two are hybrid products, meaning a combination of wine-related products and services. Relevance of architectural design illustrates that visitors also seek experience. These findings confirm previously discussed theories on the importance of integrating products and services into hybrid products and creating experience with a suitable combination of products and services.

Research limitations/implications

Data collection has taken place in a confined timeframe (two summer months). No active measures have been taken to ensure the validity of the sample through quotas or similar techniques. The research sample and location are somewhat limited for making conclusions in other geographical regions, but replicating the study in different contexts can add to the comparability of the results on the level of Germany, but also internationally. The empirical evidence for superior customer value of hybrid offerings and integrating services into product-centric offer design is of paramount importance for selling wine in a highly competitive market in absence of market growth. Wine bar and shop allows to differentiate the offer by creating wine-related experience through a combination of product (wine and wine-related products), hospitality/gastronomic services and tourism services. The insights also illustrate the idea of new market opportunities via connecting converging industries.

Practical implications

The study contributes to close a gap identified in the literature review that German wineries lag wine-tourism activities. It provides advice in regards to offer design and hybrid offerings and an experiential experience supported by architectural design. Such an approach offers the potential to win market share in a non-growing market – an ambition of the players in the market but also an obvious challenge.

Social implications

The findings contribute to regional development. Furthermore, arguments for cooperative behavior are provided. This should also help to minimize free ridership and its negative social implications.

Originality/value

The paper adopts a multidisciplinary approach to the creation of wine bar and shop offer. The results point out that offerings should be created around a core wine tourism product – regional and cellar door offer – and be expanded by “food design” – components, attractive architectural elements, as well as web shop services, thereby creating an advanced wine-related experience. It confirms the importance of theoretical concepts such as experience economy, hybrid products and solution provision in the case of wine bar and shop, by testing these concepts on the group of visitors at a German wine and cultural destination.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Bachir Bendjedia, Nassim Rizoug, Moussa Boukhnifer and Farid Bouchafaa

The purpose of this paper is to propose and compare two energy management strategies (EMSs). First, a classic method based on frequency separation with fixed limits on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose and compare two energy management strategies (EMSs). First, a classic method based on frequency separation with fixed limits on fuel cell (FC) power is presented and tested. Then, the improvement of the classic strategy is developed and implemented when the main enhancements are its ease of implementation, hydrogen economy and extending hybrid source lifetime.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed EMS is developed using an online variable power limitation of the FC depending on the battery state of charge while ensuring that the energy of batteries remains in its operating depth of discharge (DOD) range.

Findings

In the objective to show the benefits of the developed strategy, a comparative analysis was conducted between two strategies. The simulation and experimental results show the effectiveness and gains obtained by the improved energy management system (IEMS) in terms of fuel economy (13 per cent) and decreasing the applied stress on the FC (22 per cent) which leads to a longer life span of the whole system.

Originality/value

The proposed approach is developed and tested by simulation. To confirm it, a test bench has been assembled as hardware in the loop (HIL) real-time system. The presented experimental results confirm the efficiency and show the providing gains of the IEMS.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 18 December 2019

Teresa Donateo, Antonio Ficarella and Claudia Lucia De Pascalis

The purpose of this study is to investigate the optimization of design and energy management in a parallel hybrid-electric powertrain to replace the conventional engine of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the optimization of design and energy management in a parallel hybrid-electric powertrain to replace the conventional engine of an existing tactical unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with a Wankel engine with a pre-defined flight mission. The proposed powertrain can work in four different operating modes: electric, thermal, power-assist and charging.

Design/methodology/approach

The power request at propeller axis of each flight segment is used as input for an in-house model that calculates the overall fuel consumption throughout the mission (Mfuel) and the maximum payload weight (Wpay) by means of an average-point analysis. These outputs depend on the energy management strategy that is expressed by the power-split ratio between engine and electric phase (Uphase) of each mission phase, according to which the components of the hybrid system are sized. The in-house model is integrated into an optimization framework to find the optimal set of Uphase and battery size that minimizes Mfuel and maximizes Wpay.

Findings

It was found a 3.24% saving of the fuel mass burned throughout the mission (or, alternative an improvement of endurance by 4.3%) with about the same maximum-payload mass (+0.2%) of the original configuration, or a smaller fuel saving with +11% more payload. The fuel saving of 3.24% corresponds to −3.25% in total emissions of CO2 and a 2.34% reduction of the cost-per-mission.

Practical implications

This study demonstrates that environmental advantages, even if limited, can be already obtained from optimal design and management of the hybrid power system with today technologies while waiting for further benefits from the introduction of advanced technologies for batteries and electric machines.

Originality/value

The main novelties are the design of the powertrain on the basis of the energy management and the application of scalability and hybridization to Wankel engines.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 92 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 16 December 2020

Marian Makkar, Sheau-Fen Yap and Russell Belk

This paper aims to examine the role of technology in shaping the interplay between intimate and economic relations in collaborative consumer networks (CCNs).

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the role of technology in shaping the interplay between intimate and economic relations in collaborative consumer networks (CCNs).

Design/methodology/approach

This research is based on a three-year participatory netnographic and ethnographic field study of hosts, guests and community members within the Airbnb home-sharing network in New Zealand. The data consist of interviews, online and offline participant observations and brief discussions onsite (large-scale Airbnb events, host meetups and during Airbnb stays).

Findings

The findings reveal how technologies shape the relational work of home-sharing between intimate and economic institutions through grooming, bundling, brokerage, buffering and social edgework. This paper proposes a framework of triadic relational work enacted by network actors, involving complex exchange structures.

Research limitations/implications

This study focusses on a single context – a market-mediated home-sharing platform. The findings may not apply to other contexts of economic and social exchanges.

Practical implications

The study reveals that the construction of specific relational packages by Airbnb hosts using their digital technologies pave a path for home-sharing to skirt the norms of the home as a place of intimacy and the market as a place for economics. This allows these two spheres to flourish with little controversy.

Originality/value

By augmenting Zelizer’s relational work, this study produces theoretical insights into the agentic role of technology in creating and stabilising a CCN.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 55 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Fredah Gakii Mwiti and Winfred Ikiring Onyas

The purpose of this paper is to deepen the understanding of subsistence exchange practices and their contribution to international marketing theory and practice. It draws…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to deepen the understanding of subsistence exchange practices and their contribution to international marketing theory and practice. It draws on the notion of embeddedness to examine the hybrid exchange practices unfolding within subsistence communities, and between subsistence communities and (international) firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reports two ethnographic studies conducted in low-income farming and slum communities in Uganda and Kenya, respectively. Both studies involved participant observation, interviews, field note-taking and visual methods.

Findings

The findings demonstrate that hybrid exchange systems prevail in subsistence contexts, supporting both market and non-market logics simultaneously. Actors remain deeply embedded in their social worlds during exchange, making it problematic to disentangle social relations from market exchanges.

Research limitations/implications

The study suggests implications for international firms interested in forging business partnerships with subsistence actors. It calls for international marketers to surpass the traditional marketing roles and develop competences that enable firms to meaningfully embed in subsistence contexts. Further research could explore how international marketers could develop such competences.

Originality/value

The paper draws from diverse exchange literature to demonstrate how subsistence actors become actively involved in shaping hybrid exchanges that (potentially) incorporate international firms. The study calls for a broader understanding of international marketing, which accounts for the embedded marketing practices entailed in serving subsistence markets. It concludes that categorizing exchanges as either economic or social is problematic as both forms co-evolve to constitute multiple levels of intra-community, local marketplace and extensive hybrid exchanges.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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