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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2018

Osama Abdulhameed, Abdurahman Mushabab Al-Ahmari, Wadea Ameen and Syed Hammad Mian

Hybrid manufacturing technologies combining individual processes can be recognized as one of the most cogent developments in recent times. As a result of integrating…

Abstract

Purpose

Hybrid manufacturing technologies combining individual processes can be recognized as one of the most cogent developments in recent times. As a result of integrating additive, subtractive and inspection processes within a single system, the relative benefits of each process can be exploited. This collaboration uses the strength of the individual processes, while decreasing the shortcomings and broadening the application areas. Notwithstanding its numerous advantages, the implementation of hybrid technology is typically affected by the limited process planning methods. The process planning methods proficient at effectively using manufacturing sources for hybridization are notably restrictive. Hence, this paper aims to propose a computer-aided process planning system for hybrid additive, subtractive and inspection processes. A dynamic process plan has been developed, wherein an online process control with intelligent and autonomous characteristics, as well as the feedback from the inspection, is utilized.

Design/methodology/approach

In this research, a computer-aided process planning system for hybrid additive, subtractive and inspection process has been proposed. A framework based on the integration of three phases has been designed and implemented. The first phase has been developed for the generation of alternative plans or different scenarios depending on machining parameters, the amount of material to be added and removed in additive and subtractive manufacturing, etc. The primary objective in this phase has been to conduct set-up planning, process selection, process sequencing, selection of machine parameters, etc. The second phase is aimed at the identification of the optimum scenario or plan.

Findings

To accomplish this goal, economic models for additive and subtractive manufacturing were used. The objective of the third phase was to generate a dynamic process plan depending on the inspection feedback. For this purpose, a multi-agent system has been used. The multi-agent system has been used to achieve intelligence and autonomy of different phases.

Practical implications

A case study has been developed to test and validate the proposed algorithm and establish the performance of the proposed system.

Originality/value

The major contribution of this work is the novel dynamic computer-aided process planning system for the hybrid process. This hybrid process is not limited by the shortcomings of the constituent processes in terms of tool accessibility and support volume. It has been established that the hybrid process together with an appropriate computer-aided process plan provides an effective solution to accurately fabricate a variety of complex parts.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Jingbin Hao, Xin Chen, Hao Liu and Shengping Ye

To remanufacture a disused part, a hybrid process needs to be taken in part production. Therefore, a reasonable machining route is necessary to be developed for the hybrid

Abstract

Purpose

To remanufacture a disused part, a hybrid process needs to be taken in part production. Therefore, a reasonable machining route is necessary to be developed for the hybrid process. This paper aims to develop a novel process planning algorithm for additive and subtractive manufacturing (ASM) system to achieve this purpose.

Design/methodology/approach

First, a skeleton of the model is generated by using thinning algorithm. Then, the skeleton tree is constructed based on topological structure and shape feature. Further, a feature matching algorithm is developed for recognizing the different features between the initial model and the final model based on the skeleton tree. Finally, a reasonable hybrid machining route of the ASM system is generated in consideration of the machining method of each different sub-feature.

Findings

This paper proposes a hybrid process planning algorithm for the ASM system. Further, it generates new process planning insights on the hybrid process service provider market.

Practical implications

The proposed process planning algorithm enables engineers to obtain a proper hybrid machining route before product fabrication. And thereby, it extends the machining capability of the hybrid process to manufacture some parts accurately and efficiently.

Originality/value

This study addresses one gap in the hybrid process literature. It develops the first hybrid process planning strategy for remanufacturing of disused parts based on skeleton tree matching, which generates a more proper hybrid machining route than the currently available hybrid strategy studies. Also, this study provides technical support for the ASM system to repair damaged parts.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 April 2017

Danielle Strong, Issariya Sirichakwal, Guha P. Manogharan and Thomas Wakefield

This paper aims to investigate the extent to which traditional manufacturers are equipped and interested in participating in a hybrid manufacturing system which integrates…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the extent to which traditional manufacturers are equipped and interested in participating in a hybrid manufacturing system which integrates traditional processes such as machining and grinding with additive manufacturing (AM) processes.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted among traditional metal manufacturers to collect data and evaluate the ability of these manufacturers to provide hybrid – AM post-processing services in addition to their standard product offering (e.g. mass production).

Findings

The original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) surveyed have machine availability and an interest in adopting hybrid manufacturing to additionally offer post-processing services. Low volume parts which would be suitable for hybrid manufacturing are generally more profitable. Access to metal AM, process engineering time, tooling requirements and the need for quality control tools were equally identified as the major challenges for OEM participation in this evolving supply chain.

Practical implications

OEMs can use this research to determine if hybrid manufacturing is a possible fit for their industry using existing machine tools.

Originality/value

Survey data offer an unique insight into the readiness of metal manufacturers who play an integral role in the evolving hybrid supply chain ecosystem required for post-processing of AM metal parts. This study also suggests that establishing metal AM centers around OEMs as a shared resource to produce near-net AM parts would be beneficial.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2022

Abdul Wahab Hashmi, Harlal Singh Mali and Anoj Meena

The purpose of this paper is to study the functionality of additively manufactured (AM) parts, mainly depending on their dimensional accuracy and surface finish. However…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the functionality of additively manufactured (AM) parts, mainly depending on their dimensional accuracy and surface finish. However, the products manufactured using AM usually suffer from defects like roughness or uneven surfaces. This paper discusses the various surface quality improvement techniques, including how to reduce surface defects, surface roughness and dimensional accuracy of AM parts.

Design/methodology/approach

There are many different types of popular AM methods. Unfortunately, these AM methods are susceptible to different kinds of surface defects in the product. As a result, pre- and postprocessing efforts and control of various AM process parameters are needed to improve the surface quality and reduce surface roughness.

Findings

In this paper, the various surface quality improvement methods are categorized based on the type of materials, working principles of AM and types of finishing processes. They have been divided into chemical, thermal, mechanical and hybrid-based categories.

Research limitations/implications

The review has evaluated the possibility of various surface finishing methods for enhancing the surface quality of AM parts. It has also discussed the research perspective of these methods for surface finishing of AM parts at micro- to nanolevel surface roughness and better dimensional accuracy.

Originality/value

This paper represents a comprehensive review of surface quality improvement methods for both metals and polymer-based AM parts.

Graphical abstract of surface quality improvement methods

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 April 2018

J. Norberto Pires and Amin S. Azar

This paper aims to introduce the ideas of practical implications of using industrial robots to implement additive/hybrid manufacturing. The process is discussed and…

2123

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to introduce the ideas of practical implications of using industrial robots to implement additive/hybrid manufacturing. The process is discussed and briefly demonstrated. This paper also introduces recent developments on human–machine interface for robotic manufacturing cells, namely the ones used for additive/hybrid manufacturing, as well as interoperability methods between the computer-aided design (CAD) data and material modeling systems. It is presented – using a few solutions developed by the authors – as a set of conceptual guidelines discussed throughout the paper and as a way to demonstrate how they can be applied and their practical implications.

Design/methodology/approach

The possibility to program the system from CAD information, which is argued to be crucial, is explored, and the methods necessary for connecting the CAD data to material modeling systems are introduced. This paper also discusses in detail the main requirements (also from a system point-of-view) needed for a full implementation of the presented ideas and methods. A few simulations to better characterize the interactions from heat conduction and physical metallurgy were conducted in an effort to better tune the additive manufacturing process. The results demonstrate how the toolpath planning and deposition strategies can be extracted and studied from a CAD model.

Findings

The paper fully demonstrates the possibility to use a robotic setup for additive manufacturing applications and shows the first steps of an innovative system designed with that objective.

Originality/value

Using the aimed platform, unsupervised net-shaping of complex components will substitute the cumbersome processes, and it is expected that such a visionary concept brings about a significant reduction in cost, energy consumption, lead time and production waste through the introduction of optimized and interactive processes. This can be considered as a breakthrough in the field of manufacturing and metal processing as the performance is indicated to increase significantly compared to the current instruction-dependent methods.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 April 2022

Qingyong Chen, Guilan Wang, Haiou Zhang and Runsheng Li

The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of different rolling deformation parameters on the morphology, microstructure and mechanical properties of Inconel 718…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of different rolling deformation parameters on the morphology, microstructure and mechanical properties of Inconel 718 superalloy in hybrid plasma arc and micro-rolling (HPAMR) additive manufacturing.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, different deformation strains are designed, which are as-deposited, 15% and 30%. Two straight walls are fabricated by HPAMR for each kind of deformation. One wall underwent post-deposition heat treatment, and the other wall is treated without heat treatment. These samples are further investigated to evaluate the effects of deformation on the morphology, microstructure and mechanical properties.

Findings

As compared to as-deposited samples, the morphology can be significantly improved, the generation of defects and microporosity inside the alloy can be suppressed, and finer equiaxed crystals can be obtained with deformation of 30%. With heat treatment and 30% deformation, the Laves phase at the grain boundary is completely disappearing, more γ” and γ' strengthening phase is precipitated in the crystal and the size of the strengthening phase is smaller. Mechanical properties have been significantly improved.

Practical implications

HPAMR technology is used to successfully manufacture Inconel 718 superalloy aero-engine casing.

Originality/value

Compared with plasma arc additive manufacturing, HPAMR technology adds a rolling process, which can effectively improve the morphology of walls, refine internal grains, eliminate defects and microporosity, increase precipitation of strengthening phase and improve mechanical properties. It provides an optional manufacturing method for the integrated manufacturing of Inconel 718 parts.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 28 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 October 2020

Aldi Mehmeti, Pavel Penchev, Donal Lynch, Denis Vincent, Nathalie Maillol, Johannes Maurath, Julien Bajolet, David Ian Wimpenny, Khamis Essa and Stefan Dimov

The paper reports an investigation into the mechanical behaviour of hybrid components produced by combining the capabilities of metal injection moulding (MIM) with the…

198

Abstract

Purpose

The paper reports an investigation into the mechanical behaviour of hybrid components produced by combining the capabilities of metal injection moulding (MIM) with the laser-based powder bed fusion (PBF) process to produce small series of hybrid components. The research investigates systematically the mechanical properties and the performance of the MIM/PBF interfaces in such hybrid components.

Design/methodology/approach

The MIM process is employed to fabricate relatively lower cost preforms in higher quantities, whereas the PBF technology is deployed to build on them sections that can be personalised, customised or functionalised to meet specific technical requirements.

Findings

The results are discussed, and conclusions are made about the mechanical performance of such hybrid components produced in batches and also about the production efficiency of the investigated hybrid manufacturing (HM) route. The obtained results show that the proposed HM route can produce hybrid MIM/PBF components with consistent mechanical properties and interface performance which comply with the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards.

Originality/value

The manufacturing of hybrid components, especially by combining the capabilities of additive manufacturing processes with cost-effective complementary technologies, is designed to be exploited by industry because they can offer flexibility and cost advantages in producing small series of customisable products. The findings of this research will contribute to further develop the state of the art in regards to the manufacturing and optimisation of hybrid components.

Article
Publication date: 19 August 2019

Danielle Strong, Michael Kay, Thomas Wakefield, Issariya Sirichakwal, Brett Conner and Guha Manogharan

Although the adoption of metal additive manufacturing (AM) for production has continuously grown, in-house access to production grade metal AM systems for small and medium…

Abstract

Purpose

Although the adoption of metal additive manufacturing (AM) for production has continuously grown, in-house access to production grade metal AM systems for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) is a major challenge due to costs of acquiring metal AM systems, specifically powder bed fusion AM. On the other hand, AM technology in directed energy deposition (DED) has been evolving in both: processing capabilities and adaptable configuration for integration within existing traditional machines that are available in most SME manufacturing facilities, e.g. computer numerical control (CNC) machining centers. Integrating DED with conventional processes such as machining and grinding into Hybrid AM is well suited for remanufacturing of metal parts. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Classical facility location models are employed to understand the effects of SMEs adopting DED systems to offer remanufacturing services. This study identifies strategically located counties in the USA to advance hybrid AM for reverse logistics using North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) data on geographical data, demand, fixed and transportation costs. A case study is also implemented to explore its implications on remanufacturing of high-value parts on the reverse logistics supply chain using an aerospace part and NAICS data on aircraft maintenance, repair and overhaul facilities.

Findings

The results identify the candidate counties, their allocations, allocated demand and total costs. Offering AM remanufacturing services to traditional manufacturers decreases costs for SMEs in the supply chain by minimizing expensive new part replacement. The hubs also benefit from hybrid AM to repair their own parts and tools.

Originality/value

This research provides a unique analysis on reverse logistics through hybrid AM focused on remanufacturing rather than manufacturing. Facility location using real data is used to obtain results and offers insights into integrating AM for often overlooked aspect of remanufacturing. The study shows that SMEs can participate in the evolving AM economy through remanufacturing services using significantly lower investment costs.

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2021

Pedram Parandoush, Palamandadige Fernando, Hao Zhang, Chang Ye, Junfeng Xiao, Meng Zhang and Dong Lin

Additively manufactured objects have layered structures, which means post processing is often required to achieve a desired surface finish. Furthermore, the additive

Abstract

Purpose

Additively manufactured objects have layered structures, which means post processing is often required to achieve a desired surface finish. Furthermore, the additive nature of the process makes it less accurate than subtractive processes. Hence, additive manufacturing techniques could tremendously benefit from finishing processes to improve their geometric tolerance and surface finish.

Design/methodology/approach

Rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) was chosen as a finishing operation for drilling additively manufactured carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. Two distinct additive manufacturing methods of fused deposition modeling (FDM) and laser-assisted laminated object manufacturing (LA-LOM) were used to fabricate CFRP plates with continuous carbon fiber reinforcement. The influence of the feedrate, tool rotation speed and ultrasonic power of the RUM process parameters on the aforementioned quality characteristics revealed the feasibility of RUM process as a finishing operation for additive manufactured CFRP.

Findings

The quality of drilled holes in the CFRP plates fabricated via LA-LOM was supremely superior to the FDM counterparts with less pullout delamination, smoother surface and less burr formation. The strong interfacial bonding in LA-LOM proven to be superior to FDM was able to endure higher cutting force of the RUM process. The cutting force and cutting temperature overwhelmed the FDM parts and induced higher surface damage.

Originality/value

Overall, the present study demonstrates the feasibility of a hybrid additive and subtractive manufacturing method that could potentially reduce cost and waste of the CFRP production for industrial applications.

Article
Publication date: 17 August 2021

Xiaoyu Zhang, Dichen Li and Jiale Geng

Laser cladding deposition is limited in industrial application by the micro-defects and residual tensile stress for the thermal forming process, leading to lower fatigue…

Abstract

Purpose

Laser cladding deposition is limited in industrial application by the micro-defects and residual tensile stress for the thermal forming process, leading to lower fatigue strength compared with that of the forging. The purpose of this paper is to develop an approach to reduce stress and defects.

Design/methodology/approach

A hybrid process of laser cladding deposition and shot peening is presented to transform surface strengthening technology to the overall strengthening technology through layer-by-layer forming and achieve enhancement.

Findings

The results show that the surface stress of the sample formed by the hybrid process changed from tensile stress to compressive stress, and the surface compressive stress introduced could reach more than four times the surface tensile stress of the laser cladding sample. At the same time, internal micro-defects such as pores were reduced. The porosity of the sample formed by the hybrid process was reduced by 90.12% than that of the laser cladding sample, and the surface roughness was reduced by 43.16%.

Originality/value

The authors believe that the hybrid process proposed in this paper can significantly expand the potential application of laser cladding deposition by solving its limitations, promoting its efficiency and applicability in practical cases.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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