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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2009

Hung T. Pham and Barry Reilly

This paper seeks to complement earlier studies on ethnic minority underdevelopment in Vietnam by empirically examining the ethnic wage gap for the wage employed in the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to complement earlier studies on ethnic minority underdevelopment in Vietnam by empirically examining the ethnic wage gap for the wage employed in the Vietnamese labour market, using data from a large‐scale household survey conducted in 2002.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses the “index number” decomposition method suggested by Oaxaca to decompose the ethnic wage gap into treatment and endowment effects at both the mean and selected quantiles of the conditional wage distribution.

Findings

The results confirm the existence of an ethnic wage gap in the labour market, though the gap is found to be substantially narrower than the ethnic gap detected using household living standard measures for Vietnam. Decomposition results reveal that the ethnic wage gap is largely attributable to differentials in the returns to endowments, a finding invariant whether the mean or selected quantiles of the conditional wage distribution are examined.

Research limitations/implications

In the absence of feasible alternatives, the paper uses an ad hoc procedure to correct for selectivity into wage employment for the quantile regression models. In addition, due to data constraints with regard to earnings, the paper does not examine the ethnic wage gap for the self‐employed.

Originality/value

The paper is the first to analyse the ethnic wage gap in the Vietnam labour market and one of the few to examine ethnic pay differentials at selected points of the conditional wage distribution using quantile regression analysis.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 8 October 2020

Hung T. Nguyen

While there exist many surveys on the use stochastic frontier analysis (SFA), many important issues and techniques in SFA were not well elaborated in the previous surveys…

Abstract

Purpose

While there exist many surveys on the use stochastic frontier analysis (SFA), many important issues and techniques in SFA were not well elaborated in the previous surveys, namely, regular models, copula modeling, nonparametric estimation by Grenander’s method of sieves, empirical likelihood and causality issues in SFA using regression discontinuity design (RDD) (sharp and fuzzy RDD). The purpose of this paper is to encourage more research in these directions.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature survey.

Findings

While there are many useful applications of SFA to econometrics, there are also many important open problems.

Originality/value

This is the first survey of SFA in econometrics that emphasizes important issues and techniques such as copulas.

Details

Asian Journal of Economics and Banking, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2615-9821

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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2019

Nhat Tan Pham, Hung Trong Hoang and Quyen Phu Thi Phan

Green human resource management (GHRM), seen as a current research trend, plays an important role in organizations’ sustainable development strategies. However, there is…

Abstract

Purpose

Green human resource management (GHRM), seen as a current research trend, plays an important role in organizations’ sustainable development strategies. However, there is still a research gap in the systematization and integration of the available GHRM-related knowledge to suggest detailed future directions. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to conduct a systematic literature review on GHRM aimed at proposing detailed research gaps and agendas for future study.

Design/methodology/approach

First, this work reviews 74 articles, including 61 research/empirical articles and 13 review articles, linked with the GHRM field from the Scopus and Web of Science databases. These publications are then coded and classified into ten categories before the main findings linked with GHRM knowledge are identified. Last, the study addresses existing research gaps and proposes detailed recommendations and a research framework for further studies.

Findings

Analysis of the relevant literature is presented in the following main sections: an overview that illustrates the existing findings related to GHRM coded and classified; a description that stresses research gaps and proposes in detail 16 recommendations; and a research framework that focuses on GHRM for a future research agenda.

Originality/value

This review is important for researchers orient the research in GHRM by identifying research gaps and providing detailed recommendations. It is the first work that proposes a full research framework for future studies, especially suggestions of development related to green behavior outside of organizations, the circular economy, and technology based perspectives/Industry 4.0.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 41 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Ngoc Luu, Le Nguyen Hau, Liem Viet Ngo, Tania Bucic and Pham Hung Cuong

This study is embedded in social exchange and transaction cost theories. The purpose of this paper is to compare the relative importance of process value and outcome value…

Abstract

Purpose

This study is embedded in social exchange and transaction cost theories. The purpose of this paper is to compare the relative importance of process value and outcome value in building affective and cognitive relationship strength and to compare the relative effects of each type of relationship strength on attitudinal and behavioral loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

This empirical study features a quantitative approach. The sample comprises 167 business-to-business (B2B) customers of a large transportation and logistics company in Vietnam.

Findings

Process value and outcome value have different effects on affective relationship strength. The effect of process value is greater than that of outcome value. In addition, cognitive strength has a stronger impact on both attitudinal and behavioral loyalty than affective strength.

Research limitations/implications

These insights extend extant literature regarding the process and outcome components of the service assessment. Further studies also should use a cross-industry, cross-country sample to examine the potential moderating effects of country- or industry-specific factors. These findings show B2B managers how to make appropriate resource allocation and investment decisions to enhance relationship strength and resulting customer loyalty.

Originality/value

To clarify the links among customer value, relationship strength and customer loyalty, this study examines the relative importance of rational and non-rational factors (i.e. process value vs outcome value and affective strength vs cognitive strength) for relationship performance. Unlike most prior research, this study is set in the B2B context of a developing country.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Huy N.A. Pham, Vikash Ramiah, Imad Moosa and Justin Hung Nguyen

The purpose of this paper is to test the effects of financial regulatory announcements on risk and return in the Vietnamese equity market.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the effects of financial regulatory announcements on risk and return in the Vietnamese equity market.

Design/methodology/approach

The event study methodology is used for the return analysis, and asset pricing models are adjusted for the risk analysis. Various robustness tests are used, including the Corrado non-parametric ranking test and the Chesney et al. non-parametric conditional distribution test, as well as GARCH, TARCH, EGARCH and PARCH specifications for the risk models.

Findings

The authors find evidence for both negative and positive reactions as well as risk shifting behaviour in the form of a diamond risk structure.

Originality/value

This paper fills a major gap in the literature by investigating the market’s reaction to bank regulatory announcements across financial and non-financial sectors in the Vietnamese equity market.

Details

Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 July 2020

Pham Hung Cuong, Oanh Dinh Yen Nguyen, Liem Viet Ngo and Nguyen Phong Nguyen

This study aims to use social exchange theory and the principle of reciprocity in proposing a theoretical model to examine the essential but unexplored unique roles of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to use social exchange theory and the principle of reciprocity in proposing a theoretical model to examine the essential but unexplored unique roles of individual customer equity drivers (CEDs) and their contribution to brand loyalty. This study identifies a reciprocity pathway in that brand equity, which mediates the linkage between relationship equity and brand loyalty. This study further posits that the linkage between relationship equity and brand equity is contingent on value equity. The authors then incorporate value equity as a moderator upon which the interrelationships among CEDs and brand loyalty may vary.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample consisted of 2,268 shoppers in a metropolitan city in Vietnam.

Findings

Relationship equity significantly determines brand loyalty through the moderating effect of value equity and the mediating effect of brand equity. Interestingly, these relationships are diverse across different experiential types of consumers.

Research limitations/implications

This study contributes to a better understanding of why and when value equity, brand equity and relationship equity trigger brand loyalty. Brand equity and value equity are the two underlying mechanisms that establish a moderated mediation model between CEDs and brand loyalty. The findings of this study show that experiential consumers are not created equals. The strength of the relationships between CEDs and brand loyalty differ among the five clusters of experiential consumers.

Practical implications

This study reveals the critical relationships between the three components of customer equity in the supermarket industry. The findings provide concrete direction for managers and marketers to be more effective in allocating resources, tailoring their marketing strategies and, accordingly, promoting brand loyalty of different types of consumers.

Originality/value

This study reveals the underlying modus operandi that explains the reciprocity effects of CEDs and the contingency role of brand experience on the CEDs–loyalty link. This study shows that brand equity fosters and sustains the reciprocity generated when consumers perceive a high level of relationship equity, serving as a mediator between relationship equity and brand loyalty. Importantly, value equity is an important moderator for strengthening this reciprocity effect. Furthermore, this study identifies a typology of experience-focussed consumers and shows that the CEDs–loyalty link significantly varies by these types of experiential appeal that characterise the consumers.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2019

Liem Viet Ngo, Nguyen Phong Nguyen, Kim Thien Huynh, Gary Gregory and Pham Hung Cuong

Internal branding efforts are essential in improving employee performance in services marketing. Drawing on reformulation of attitude theory, this paper aims to contribute…

Abstract

Purpose

Internal branding efforts are essential in improving employee performance in services marketing. Drawing on reformulation of attitude theory, this paper aims to contribute to the internal branding literature by positing that while internal brand knowledge (IBK) is essential for transforming brand vision into brand reality, it is not brand knowledge per se but its integration with other brand- and customer-related aspects that drive superior employee performance. In particular, this paper develops a cognitive-affective-behaviour model of internal branding proposing that IBK results in higher levels of employee brand identification (EBI); this sense of identification then motivates employees to engage in both employee-related and brand- and customer-focussed behaviours (i.e. brand citizenship behaviour [BCB] and customer-oriented behaviour [COB]), which in turn foster employee performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypotheses were empirically tested using a sample of 697 from services industry in Vietnam.

Findings

The findings indicate a sequential mediation model in that employee brand knowledge affects employee performance (both objective and subjective measures) through EBI, BCB and COB. Employee brand knowledge results in higher levels of EBI; this sense of identification then motivates employees to engage in employee-related brand and customer-focussed behaviours (BCB and COB), which in turn foster employee performance.

Practical implications

Firms should understand that IBK may not directly result in high levels of service performance, and instead should embrace the culture of self-driven positive brand-connection attitudes that motivate employees to engage in BCB and COB that are consistent with their sense of self.

Originality/value

This study makes a unique contribution to the internal branding literature by unravelling a pathway that integrates employees’ self-related psychological mechanism (EBI) and employee-related brand and customer-focussed behaviours (BCB and COB) through which employee brand knowledge is converted into employee performance.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2020

Nguyen Thi Thao Ho, Subarna Sivapalan, Hiep Hung Pham, Lan Thi Mai Nguyen, Anh Thi Van Pham and Hung Viet Dinh

By using a technology acceptance model (TAM) on survey results collected from two member schools of a Vietnamese educational institution, this study aims to uncover the…

Abstract

Purpose

By using a technology acceptance model (TAM) on survey results collected from two member schools of a Vietnamese educational institution, this study aims to uncover the key factors that affect students’ acceptance of e-learning during the Covid-19 period.

Design/methodology/approach

A bilingual questionnaire in English and Vietnamese was delivered. It was pre-tested on 30 participants before it was finalized. The authors first reviewed the measurement model and made adjustments to the theoretical TAM model. Then the adjusted TAM was used to investigate the relationships of the constructs in the model.

Findings

The results of the structural model show that computer self-efficacy (CSE) has a positive impact on perceived ease of use (PEOU). There is also a positive relationship between system interactivity (SI) and PEOU. Surprisingly, the authors documented that PEOU has no significant impact on students’ attitudes (ATT). The results show that SI can moderately affect ATT. Finally, it is noted that the social factor (SF) directly affects the student’s attitudes (ATT).

Research/limitations/implications

This study contains three limitations. First, as this study only focuses on undergraduate programs, readers should be careful in applying the findings and/or implications of this study to other education levels such as K-12, vocational training and postgraduate programs. Second, the findings are generated within the context of one type of e-learning, conducted via Google Meet. Therefore, future research is needed to provide further validation and comparison across other forms of e-learning. Finally, to further prevent the common bias problem, future research should use both five-point and seven-point Likert scales for the response options in the survey, as well as use negatively worded items. This will help prevent respondents from providing similar answers to all questions.

Originality/value

This study has both theoretical and practical implications. From a theoretical perspective, the study can provide a solid framework for similar studies. From a practical perspective, this study offers implications for governments and universities in the process of adopting e-learning, given that the Covid-19 pandemic is currently in its second and more dangerous wave.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

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Article
Publication date: 16 December 2019

Huy Duc Dang, Au Hai Thi Dam, Thuyen Thi Pham and Tra My Thi Nguyen

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to explain access to formal and informal credit in agriculture of Vietnam; and to compare the effectiveness between regular…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to explain access to formal and informal credit in agriculture of Vietnam; and to compare the effectiveness between regular econometrics and machine learning techniques.

Design/methodology/approach

The multinomial logit (MNL) regression model and the random forest (RF) technique are employed for comparison purposes. To avoid heteroskedasticity, the robust covariance matrix is computed to estimate the sandwich estimator which in turn provides an asymptotic covariance matrix for biased estimators. Additionally, multicollinearity is tested among independent variables with variance inflation factors less than 3. Adequacy approach and sensitivity analysis are used to determine relevant levels of predictors. For models comparison, statistical evaluation metrics including Cohen’s κ, mean absolute error, root mean squared error and relative absolute error are employed.

Findings

The discrepancy between sensitivity analysis and adequacy approach revealed that MNL is more compatible for explaining determinants of credit participation. Due to insignificant differences in the evaluation metrics between models, the winner of choice is undetermined. Among other determinants, collateral, farmsize, income, procedure, literacy and all risk variables stand out to be critical factors when deciding borrowing schemes. While financially literate farmers tend to acquire loans from both sources, borrowing decisions against different risk sources depend on risk type and famers’ own desire to borrow.

Originality/value

Results of the MNL model are more consistent with literatures, which reinforce the role of collateral in the local credit scheme. Besides, financial literacy and farmers’ perception on different risk sources also influence how farmers’ borrowing strategies vary among sources.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 80 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2021

Gen-Yih Liao, Thi Tuan Linh Pham, Tzu-Ling Huang, T.C.E. Cheng and Ching-I Teng

Online games are prevalent internet applications and are known for satisfying the various needs of users. Nonetheless, little is known about whether online games could be…

Abstract

Purpose

Online games are prevalent internet applications and are known for satisfying the various needs of users. Nonetheless, little is known about whether online games could be a resort for users encountering workplace frustration. Explaining how workplace frustration and users' need satisfaction affect loyalty of online gamers, this study aims to formulate hypotheses and develop a framework based on the self-determination theory (SDT).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use an online survey to collect 848 responses and use structural equation modelling to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The authors find that workplace frustration, autonomy need satisfaction and competence need satisfaction are positively related to online gamer loyalty. Moreover, workplace frustration enhances the link between competence need satisfaction and online gamer loyalty.

Originality/value

The authors are the first to use SDT to identify the three antecedents and the moderator of online gamer loyalty. Our findings offer a key message that game providers could design effective means to retain their gamers by understanding their gamers' workplace frustration and informing them that playing games could alleviate the associated negative feelings.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

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