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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 15 November 2022

Hung Ngoc Tran

The study mainly aims to evaluate factors that impact online accounting education in Vietnamese universities during COVID-19.

Abstract

Purpose

The study mainly aims to evaluate factors that impact online accounting education in Vietnamese universities during COVID-19.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is exploratively conducted with a quantitative sample using purposive data-collecting techniques. The sample focused on teaching staff and students at public and private universities in Vietnam during COVID-19.

Findings

The study shows that infrastructure, working/living conditions during COVID-19 and lecturing time are the top three factors impacting online digitizing accounting education.

Research limitations/implications

This research is not without limitations. The limitations are limited time and resources, which did not allow for examining other factors that impact digitizing education in accounting. The forthcoming study should examine extended factors (not mentioned in the study) such as government sponsorship, lecturers’ soft skills, national culture, qualifications and so on.

Originality/value

This study identifies and states significant factors that impact online digitizing accounting education in Vietnamese higher education during COVID-19.

Details

Asian Association of Open Universities Journal, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1858-3431

Keywords

Case study
Publication date: 20 September 2018

Sang Kim Tran and Le Ngoc Hoang Yen

Decision-making seems simple, but, in reality, it is not an easy task to decide the cause for its profound result or consequence, leading to inevitable failures…

Abstract

Subject area

Decision-making seems simple, but, in reality, it is not an easy task to decide the cause for its profound result or consequence, leading to inevitable failures. Therefore, a leader must recognize whether there is something incorrect so as to avoid bad results. A good leader is a person who carefully reviews and analyzes aspects of a problem, knows the strengths and weaknesses of his organization and evaluates what the advantages or risks are. It cannot be denied that the appropriate options will reap many benefits to the business. For such important things, this paper will discuss the dilemma of Viettire, a tire distributor company in Vietnam. Accordingly, its CEO was worried about what strategic option he should adopt to approach the Myanmar market while ensuring a strategic fit to its company’s resources and capabilities and also to the overall market demands of the tire industry environment in both countries. However, with different ideas, the expansion strategies in this new market become controversial. The General Director and Founder of Viettire were wondering how Viettire could expand its existing business into Myanmar. To expand the company to new emerging market in Myanmar, Hoang Nguyen – CEO of Viettire – had conducted a strategic analysis of external environment factors to define the opportunities and threats when doing business in Myanmar by using Porter’s five forces model, S.W.O.T and competitive advantages analysis. The results indicated that Myanmar’s business environment is highly risky for foreign investors because of uncertain political, economic, social reforms in the process. Among three options, namely, exporting, licensing and wholly owned, however, Option 2 is illustrated as the best strategy for its dilemma.

Study level/applicability

Postgraduate/Graduate Business level.

Case overview

As for a market mechanism, what produces, how and for whom, is not the business’s demand but the consumer’s demand. The business sells only what the market needs, not what it has. In the period of increasingly competitive conditions, stabilizing and expanding markets are a prerequisite for survival. If stability is seen as a “defensive” way, expansion is a “defensive attack” like trying to hold on the “pie” that the market gives to itself. This strategic action is to strengthen regular, close relationships with existing customers and establish new customers. As a result, the potential market is transformed into a target market. Hence, decision-making of which market, which method is the issue that a leader has to think the choice to avoid risks. Mr Hung, Viettire’s co-owner, suggests that Myanmar should be taken into account as a company’s new entry, thus exploring this potential market to increase the company’s growth and profitability. In the progress, Viettire’s marketing team had been doing a thorough tire market investigation in Myanmar. It was concluded that this emerging country, especially Yangon City, was the most suitable for those who were willing to embark on an overseas investment expansion. They believe this was a good opportunity to gain market share compared with other entrants and competitive rivals; if Viettire hesitated to invest, others definitely had jumped in with a first-mover advantage. However, the CEO, Mr Hoang, was worried about what strategic option he should adopt to approach this new market while ensuring a strategic fit to its company’s resources and capabilities and also to the overall market demands of the tire industry environment in both countries.

Expected learning outcomes

Understand the basic decisions that firms contemplating foreign expansion must make: which markets to enter, when to enter those markets and at what scale. Recognize the current strategic decisions an organization is facing: positioning, portfolio and market expansion approach. Learn how to develop an effective strategic plan. Be familiar with different strategies for competing globally and their pros and cons. Evaluate various strategic options and decisions in accordance with a company’s resources and capabilities.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Subject Code

CSS 11: Strategy.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

Open Access
Book part
Publication date: 1 December 2022

Huu Minh Nguyen, Thi Hong Tran and Thi Thanh Loan Tran

“The world needs science, science needs women” is the message given by UNESCO in the program for the development of women in science” (UNESCO, 2017). In Vietnam, women’s…

Abstract

“The world needs science, science needs women” is the message given by UNESCO in the program for the development of women in science” (UNESCO, 2017). In Vietnam, women’s participation and achievements in scientific research is considered a great and important resource for industrialization and modernization. Even so, are there gender differences in scientific achievement in the social science research institutes in Vietnam? What factors influence the scientific achievement of female social researchers? The answers will be based on data from a 2017 survey with a sample of 756 researchers, of which 77.6% were female. The survey was conducted by the Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences, a leading, ministry-level national center for the social sciences in Vietnam. This chapter analyzed the scientific achievements of researchers through their position as principal investigators of research projects and their publications, and factors that may impact this. Bivariate and multivariate analyses of factors that may affect the scientific achievement of researchers found that gender differences in academic achievement in the social sciences in Vietnam was still prevalent. Female researchers’ scientific achievements were lower than those of their male counterparts. The contribution to science of Vietnamese female researchers was limited by many different factors; the most important were the academic rank of the researchers and gender stereotype that considered housework the responsibility of women.

Details

Diversity and Discrimination in Research Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-959-1

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 June 2022

Duc Hong Vo, Loan Thi Hong Van, Hien Thi Thu Hoang and Ngoc Phu Tran

Intellectual capital, corporate governance (CG) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) are generally considered three essential pillars to enhance firms’ performance in…

Abstract

Purpose

Intellectual capital, corporate governance (CG) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) are generally considered three essential pillars to enhance firms’ performance in the developed world. However, in developing countries such as Vietnam, these pillars have not received sufficient attention from practitioners. In addition, this study aims to investigate the interrelationship between these three essential pillars and their combined effects, in the Vietnamese context.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses data collected from the annual reports of the largest listed banks in Vietnam from 2011 to 2018. Intellectual capital is measured using a modified value-added intellectual coefficient model. CG is proxied by board remuneration. This study measures CSR using the ratio between charitable contributions and profit before tax. In addition, this study uses the generalized method of moments to overcome several econometric problems exhibited in previous empirical studies.

Findings

Results indicate that CG and CSR have a positive impact on intellectual capital. Intellectual capital plays a moderating role in the relationship between CG and CSR. Moreover, CG and intellectual capital in the previous year significantly affect CG in the current year.

Practical implications

Based on the findings from this study, policy implications have emerged for bank executives and policymakers in formulating and implementing policy about the balance between intellectual capital accumulation, CG and CSR.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first empirical study conducted to examine the interrelationship between intellectual capital, CG and CSR and their combined effects in emerging countries such as Vietnam.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 March 2022

Duc Hong Vo and Ngoc Phu Tran

National intellectual capital is generally considered a strategic advantage for national competitiveness. However, the measurement of intellectual capital across countries…

Abstract

Purpose

National intellectual capital is generally considered a strategic advantage for national competitiveness. However, the measurement of intellectual capital across countries for comparison purposes appears to receive little attention. This study aims to use a new index of national intellectual capital (INIC) to examine the relationship between national intellectual capital and national competitiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses the INIC, developed by Vo and Tran (2021), to measure, compare and contrast differences in the level of national intellectual capital across 104 countries. INIC comprises the most crucial intellectual capital components: human capital, structural capital and relational capital. Various economic and social indicators are used as the proxies for these components of intellectual capital. Principal component analysis is used to derive INIC.

Findings

The results indicate that during the study period the level of national intellectual capital gradually increased. Europe has attained the highest level of national intellectual capital, whereas Africa has achieved the lowest level. This study’s findings confirm a close relationship between the national intellectual capital level and the national income level. Among the ten biggest countries, the USA achieved the highest national intellectual capital level, and China has significantly improved its cumulative level. Finland achieved the highest level of national intellectual capital in the world. National intellectual capital enhances a country’s competitiveness.

Practical implications

Findings in this study shed light on an international comparison of intellectual capital across countries and understanding how national intellectual capital contributes to and improves national competitiveness. Policymakers can consider and use these findings to support the accumulation of national intellectual capital and boost national competitive advantage, especially low-income countries and emerging markets.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to estimate a degree of national intellectual capital around the world and examine its impact on national competitiveness based on publicly available data.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2021

Hung Ngoc Dang, Khanh Hoang, Van Thuy Vu and Linh Van Nguyen

This paper aims to investigate the linkage between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and earnings quality (EQ) in the context of Vietnam, an Asian emerging economy…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the linkage between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and earnings quality (EQ) in the context of Vietnam, an Asian emerging economy characterized by high growth for decades and a socialist orientation. As CSR firms are expected to have high EQ, there arise concerns that corporate managers of CSR firms may use the reputation of the firm as a protection mechanism against the cost of earnings management.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a unique sample of Vietnamese CSR firms listed on Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh Stock Exchanges from 2015 to 2019. Several econometric tests are conducted to investigate whether corporate managers of CSR-active firms actively engage in earnings management and reduce the firms' EQ.

Findings

The empirical results show a negative impact of CSR on EQ, meaning that, in general, corporate managers of CSR firms in Vietnam opportunistically manage earnings. This confirms the paradox of the CSR–EQ relationship. In line with an emerging strand of research in the CSR literature, the finding suggests that the agency problem arises in CSR firms where corporate managers use their managerial discretion over accrual accounting to manipulate reported earnings.

Practical implications

The finding has practical implications for market participants and policymakers in improving monitoring mechanisms and enhancing the information environment in developing capital markets.

Originality/value

This is the first study in the literature that investigates and shows the paradox of the CSR–EQ relationship in the context of Vietnam, a new emerging economy that follows socialist orientation.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 November 2020

Ngoc Phu Tran and Duc Hong Vo

In developed countries, banks are perceived to accumulate a higher level of intellectual capital than firms in other sectors. However, this perception has not been…

Abstract

Purpose

In developed countries, banks are perceived to accumulate a higher level of intellectual capital than firms in other sectors. However, this perception has not been considered or tested in the context of an emerging market such as Vietnam, which has one of the most dynamic economies in the Asian region. This study estimates and compares the level of accumulation of intellectual capital and its four components by financial and nonfinancial firms in Vietnam. Furthermore, this study examines the relationship between intellectual capital and its components and the performance of financial and nonfinancial firms.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses data collected from the annual reports of 75 financial and 75 nonfinancial firms in Vietnam from 2011 to 2018. A modified value-added intellectual coefficient model is adopted to measure the level of intellectual capital at firms. Various aspects of intellectual capital are considered, including the efficiency of human capital, structural capital, capital employed and relational capital. In addition, the generalized method of moments is used to ensure the robustness of the findings.

Findings

Findings in this study indicate that financial firms in Vietnam have accumulated a higher level of intellectual capital than nonfinancial firms. In addition, intellectual capital contributes positively to financial firms' performance. Three components of intellectual capital – structural capital efficiency, capital employed efficiency and relational capital efficiency – positively affect performance by financial firms.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to financial and nonfinancial firms in Vietnam. Empirical studies in the future should incorporate the efficiency aspects of these types of firms because different industries might have different characteristics, in particular, their current efficiency level, which might cause differences in relation to the accumulation of intellectual capital.

Practical implications

The findings of this study provide valuable evidence and implications for executives and policymakers in creating, managing and enhancing intellectual capital within the Vietnamese context, in particular in the financial sector.

Originality/value

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first empirical study conducted in the context of Vietnam, with the following two objectives: (1) to measure and compare the level of accumulation of intellectual capital by financial and nonfinancial firms in Vietnam; and (2) to examine the contribution of intellectual capital and its components to the performance by financial and nonfinancial firms in Vietnam.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 March 2021

Duc Hong Vo and Ngoc Phu Tran

For the past two decades, intellectual capital has played an increasingly important role in firm performance around the world. However, the importance of intellectual…

Abstract

Purpose

For the past two decades, intellectual capital has played an increasingly important role in firm performance around the world. However, the importance of intellectual capital in Vietnam, and especially in the banking sector, has largely been ignored in the literature. This study is the first to examine the effect of intellectual capital on bank performance in Vietnam. In this paper, intellectual capital is decomposed into three components: (1) capital employed efficiency, (2) human capital efficiency and (3) structural capital efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses an unbalanced panel dataset on 14 listed banks in Vietnam for the period 2009–2018 for which required data are available, with the generalized method of moments.

Findings

The findings indicate that intellectual capital contributes significantly and positively to bank performance in Vietnam. In addition, bank performance is driven primarily by capital employed efficiency. Although human capital efficiency appears to contribute positively to bank performance, the effect on bank performance appears to be marginal.

Originality/value

The literature review indicates that the effect of intellectual capital on bank performance is mixed. This effect can be positive or negative or even show a U-shaped relationship. The effects of intellectual capital on firm performance are not consistent, depending on factors such as the quantitative technique and sample used. As such, this paper extends analysis of Vietnam to cover the 10-year period from 2009 to 2018. The literature review reveals that the contribution of intellectual capital to bank performance has largely been ignored in the context of Vietnam. Studies have been conducted on the Gulf countries, such as Buallay et al. (2020). However, because the context in Vietnam differs from that of the Gulf countries, their experience might not be relevant to Vietnam. Vietnam is an emerging market in Southeast Asia, whereas Gulf countries have high income levels. So, it is necessary to examine direct evidence on Vietnam.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 47 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 April 2018

Ha Ngoc Pham

This chapter describes how public sector reform (PSR) became important following the ‘Doi Moi’ (renovation) programme in 1986. Restructuring of state-owned sector was…

Abstract

This chapter describes how public sector reform (PSR) became important following the ‘Doi Moi’ (renovation) programme in 1986. Restructuring of state-owned sector was regarded as crucial for ensuring the quality of economic growth, and the Vietnamese government (www.chinhphu.vn/portal/page/portal/English) put considerable effort in PSR. The 8th Party Congress (1996) emphasized the urgent need for a more transparent, capable and modern public sector, including efforts to improve law-making process and capacity, reducing burdensome bureaucracy, fighting corruption, increasing leadership by senior officials and improving public service delivery. The government specifies the national PSR Master programme, and the Ministry of Home Affairs coordinates its implementation among ministries, central agencies and provincial governments. Local political leaders (party leaders) determine reforms based on guidelines of the party and government. The author writes that in spite of ambitious public service reform programmes and some positive achievements, the quality of public sector remains poor. The professional capacity of civil service is low, pay is low, corruption is high and processes and structures seem ill-fitted for the market economy. Reform scope is too broad, the capacity of public agencies and civil servants is limited and existing monitoring, evaluation and reporting systems are weak. In some successes, leaders use appointment and promotion to encourage lower level to implement reforms and training to increase understanding. They believe that Vietnamese leadership has become less proactive and vigorous in practicing or embracing bold reform experiments.

Details

Leadership and Public Sector Reform in Asia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-309-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 February 2021

Duc Hong Vo and Ngoc Phu Tran

A very few studies have been conducted to measure a degree of national intellectual capital for selected groups of countries. This paper is conducted to construct a new…

Abstract

Purpose

A very few studies have been conducted to measure a degree of national intellectual capital for selected groups of countries. This paper is conducted to construct a new index of national intellectual capital (INIC) which is simple, quantifiable, relevant and comparable for countries around the globe.

Design/methodology/approach

The styudy’s new INIC uses various indicators which are proxies for fundamental aspects of intellectual capital, including (1) human capital, (2) structural capital and (3) relational capital. These indicators are publicly available for many countries. The principal component analysis is utilized to derive the INIC. Various tests have also been conducted to ensure that the new index is appropriate and fit for purpose.

Findings

Findings from this paper confirm that the new INIC has a strong correlation of 0.80 with an index developed by Lin et al. (2014) (the LECB index), an advanced INIC to date. The LECB index has been infrequently updated and covered selected countries due to data and information unavailability. In addition, the study’s tests indicate that a high correlation of 0.75 is observed between the study’s index and GDP per capita. The new INIC represents an advancement in relation to its simplicity, quantification, relevance and international comparison across nations.

Practical implications

The estimates of national intellectual capital using the approach in this study will open a new strand of theoretical and empirical studies in relation to national intellectual capital and other economic and social issues of interests. This novel and innovative approach will provide policymakers with a valuable framework to formulate and implement relevant policies to enhance and improve national intellectual capital.

Originality/value

To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first study of its type, which is conducted to measure national intellectual capital based on publicly available data. Required data cover an extended period of years and a majority of countries. As such, an INIC will enhance transparency and feasibility for international comparison across countries.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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