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The purpose of this study is to analyze the dynamic causal relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI), gross domestic product (GDP) and trade openness (TO) on a…
The purpose of this study is to analyze the dynamic causal relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI), gross domestic product (GDP) and trade openness (TO) on a set of five selected South Asian countries.
This study used newly developed bootstrap auto regressive distributed lags (ARDL) cointegration test to examine the long-run relationship among FDI, GDP and TO for selected South Asian countries for 1975–2016.
The economic growth (EG) is significantly related to TO for Bangladesh, India and Sri Lanka and the expansion of TO is crucial for growth in these countries. The results show that all countries (except Bangladesh) found the existence of long-run cointegration between FDI, GDP and TO, whereas FDI is a dependent variable. These results concluded that FDI and TO are contributing to EG in these selected countries.
This study is one of the first attempts to investigate the causal relationship and address the short and long dynamic among FDI, GDP and TO regarding five south Asian countries such as Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
This empirical analysis tries to examine determinants of private foreign direct investment (FDI) in Pakistan using the bounds test approach. Main determinants of FDI among…
This empirical analysis tries to examine determinants of private foreign direct investment (FDI) in Pakistan using the bounds test approach. Main determinants of FDI among them are the size of the market (Q) macroeconomic stability (r), political stability (PRS), real exchange rate (REX) and institutional quality (INQ).
This study used annual time-series data set starting from 1980 to 2016. This study has used time-series data with ARDL and error-correction model (ECM) and examined main determinants of FDI for Pakistan. The study used the Granger causality test (modified WALD test) to identify the causality among the variables.
Moreover, empirical findings indicate the long-run relationship between GDP, trade openness and institutional quality toward FDI. However, political instability, inflation and real exchange rate harm FDI in Pakistan. Furthermore, results of Granger causality indicate that the bidirectional causality running from FDI and Q toward FDI is significant, providing evidence of FDI-led growth hypotheses in Pakistan. This study determines the correlation between FDI and Q (GDP growth) related to the “feedback hypothesis” in the short and long run. This study also concludes that the short-run causal connection among FDI, REX, PRS, r and Q follows the “feedback hypothesis.” This describes that FDI, REX, PRS, r and Q variables are jointly determined and affected together.
This study also explores the causal association between FDI and its significant determinants, by using methods of Granger causality test and the approach of Toda-Yamamoto-DoladoLutkephol (TYDL) to examine the causal relationship and its directions among these variables.