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Article
Publication date: 15 October 2020

Yaprak Anadol and Mohamed Behery

The main intention of this paper is to understand humanistic leadership through an eminent leader representing the United Arab Emirates (UAE) culture. The authors…

Abstract

Purpose

The main intention of this paper is to understand humanistic leadership through an eminent leader representing the United Arab Emirates (UAE) culture. The authors identified a prominent humanistic leader of a well-known private university in Dubai as an example, analyzing his leadership approach from a humanistic lens and demonstrating humanistic leadership characteristics linked to the cultural roots.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is designed as a single case to examine how humanistic leadership behaviors and practices are applied in an organization and how they are connected to the UAE culture. The leader and his seven followers are interviewed by using semi-structured forms, and inductive conventional content analysis was utilized to identify common themes and concepts related to humanistic leadership traits in the UAE.

Findings

The paper highlights ten themes named humility, respect, care, fairness, transparency, well-being orientation, generosity, family focus and will with humanistic determination. These themes coincide with the various well-accepted humanistic literature theories and are also aligned with salient Islamic values and the existing humanistic leadership theories. A humanistic leadership description is provided to show the implications to the UAE context.

Research limitations/implications

This study only focuses on a single higher education institution, and further studies need to be conducted to reach a generalization.

Practical implications

The paper offers an alternative humanistic leadership for government departments, semi private and private companies to create an organizational culture where those values are flourished and creating an awareness in youth leadership programs to include humanistic leadership principles that will eventually increase social welfare.

Originality/value

This study provides an insight into humanistic leadership phenomenon by giving a contextual example from the UAE. As there has been no attempt to link humanistic leadership to the UAE culture, the findings of this paper will contribute to cross-cultural leadership research.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 July 2020

Wan-Ju Chou and Bor-Shiuan Cheng

While current management theory is largely based on economic assumptions, there is evidence to suggest capitalism is at a crossroads. Humanistic management is accordingly…

Abstract

Purpose

While current management theory is largely based on economic assumptions, there is evidence to suggest capitalism is at a crossroads. Humanistic management is accordingly proposed as an alternative new paradigm. The present study follows this approach in considering Confucianism as a humanistic practice. The purpose of this study is to explore humanistic leadership displayed by a Confucian leader and how he/she presents humanistic concern in corporate management to pursue the common good.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopted a structured–pragmatic–situational approach to conduct a case study and collected data from three sources: semi-structured interviews, consultant observations and archival data.

Findings

The findings reveal that a Confucian leader takes all stakeholders' interests into account while engaging in corporate management and displays humanistic behaviors toward the stakeholders that are in line with five Confucian virtues. The leader cultivates the employees as Confucian humanistic agents. These employees accordingly act as bridges to transmit the humanistic spirit to their customers and other industries in the same market. To initiate an industry change to achieve collective welfare, a Confucian leader must first influence his/her primary stakeholders. The primary stakeholders next collectively influence the secondary stakeholders (i.e. the industry). Consequently, the overall goal of the common good is ultimately sustained.

Originality/value

This study identifies valuable practical implications for humanistic practices in corporate management from a Confucian perspective. In addition, this study takes a significant academic step forward by illuminating the humanistic paradigm.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 July 2020

Davina Vora and Astrid Kainzbauer

To explore how leadership behavior in Thailand relates to humanistic leadership through indigenous and cross-cultural lenses.

Abstract

Purpose

To explore how leadership behavior in Thailand relates to humanistic leadership through indigenous and cross-cultural lenses.

Design/methodology/approach

Analogically based and semi-structured interviews were used. The primary focus was on factors associated with expatriate success in leading Thais in a Thai context. As such, the main sample included 24 expatriates. Two local Thai leaders were also interviewed. Qualitative interviews were analyzed inductively using NVivo.

Findings

Five interrelated themes emerged from the data: guiding, bridging, emotionally supporting, socializing and indirectly communicating. These themes relate to Asian holistic thinking, Thai culture and humanistic management. Evidence for humanistic leadership was found, albeit in culture-specific ways.

Research limitations/implications

Researchers may benefit from studying local, indigenous leadership practices and determining if and how they fit etic concepts such as humanistic leadership. Limitations of this study include a small sample from only one country.

Practical implications

To be successful, leaders should engage in humanistic leadership practices that fit the Thai context. Human resource departments may wish to focus their talent recruitment, selection and development on these behaviors.

Originality/value

This paper adds to the nascent literature on humanistic leadership by providing an indigenous as well as cross-cultural lens to understanding humanistic leadership in the context of Thailand.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 November 2020

Bo Yang, Pingping Fu, ‘Alim J. Beveridge and Qing Qu

Through three case studies, the authors aim to examine how Confucian humanistic philosophy can be applied to leadership practices and show how it is possible to practice…

Abstract

Purpose

Through three case studies, the authors aim to examine how Confucian humanistic philosophy can be applied to leadership practices and show how it is possible to practice humanistic leadership in the Chinese context.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use case studies of three exemplary humanistic leaders and the companies they lead to describe their leadership practices and influence on others and their companies.

Findings

The authors identify three common elements that connect their observations to an emerging scholarly conceptualization of humanistic leadership and develop a framework of Confucian humanistic leadership consisting of five attributes. The cases the authors studied suggest that the five attributes should be understood as being mutually reinforcing and acting in concert, rather than each acting independently of the others. The authors found that there is inherent consistency and connection between the core values of Confucianism and humanistic leadership.

Originality/value

The research contributes to the leadership literature, specifically the emerging literature on humanistic leadership, by introducing a framework for Confucian humanistic leadership. While much of the extant literature on humanistic leadership has been conceptual, the study shows how it is possible to practice humanistic leadership in the Chinese context by drawing on the foundation provided by Confucian humanistic philosophy. The findings also contribute to humanistic leadership research by providing important insights into specific capabilities that can help put the principles of humanistic leadership into practice, but that have not been considered to date.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 September 2020

Pingping Fu, Ernst Von Kimakowitz, Michal Lemanski and Leigh Anne Liu

Abstract

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 October 2020

Ritu Tripathi and Abhishek Kumar

To identify the characteristic features of humanistic leadership in the Tata group in India, and to explicate the key facilitating factors.

Abstract

Purpose

To identify the characteristic features of humanistic leadership in the Tata group in India, and to explicate the key facilitating factors.

Design/methodology/approach

Narrative case-study inquiry via semi-structured interviews with top management leaders and middle managers, and secondary sources of information.

Findings

The top leaders of the Tata companies emphasised the following values and leadership experience: (1) Adherence to the founder's philosophy and the basic core values, (2) Leadership with Trust, (3) Community as the key purpose of the enterprise, (4) Senior leaders as mentors and role-models, (5) Abiding by the ethical code of conduct, (6) Employee-focus and (7) Tacit alignment with Indian cultural values. These resonated with the humanistic leadership tenets. Based on the literature the authors also identified that in Tata leadership, there is an amalgamation of personal values (humata, hukhta, hvarshta: good thought, word and deed) and national cultural ethos (dharma, karma and jnana: emphasis on duty-bound action and knowledge). These leadership values are conveyed and institutionalised in the organisation via strategic initiatives such as the Tata Trusts, Tata Business Excellence Model, Tata Code of Conduct. This synergy of personal values, national cultural ethos and organisational strategy makes Tata group realise the humanistic leadership objectives, while achieving business targets.

Research limitations/implications

The thematic analysis of interview data provides a contextualised understanding of how humanistic leadership gets realised at both the individual behavioural level, as well as at the broader organisational strategic level. This provides inputs to building the theory of humanistic leadership.

Practical implications

By unravelling the factors that facilitate the realisation of humanistic leadership in the Tata group, the authors provide an exemplar for other organisations and business leaders to draw insights from.

Social implications

Humanistic leadership, oriented towards upliftment of community and society, and not just profit maximisation, is critical to creating a more sustainable and peaceful world.

Originality/value

This is one of first studies that conceptualises the Tata leadership from the humanistic perspective. The theoretical insights are of basic and applied use.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 July 2020

Hak Yoon Kim, Joon Hyung Park and Hyun Jeong Kim

The purpose of this study is to identify and explore what leadership characteristics constitute humanistic leadership in the South Korean context. Moreover, this study…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to identify and explore what leadership characteristics constitute humanistic leadership in the South Korean context. Moreover, this study examines how these leadership characteristics are connected to Korean culture.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the information gathered from semi-structured interviews and other sources, including books, case study articles and news articles, this study captures a more comprehensive perspective of Mr. Kook-Hyun Moon, the former CEO of Yuhan–Kimberly.

Findings

The key characteristics of Mr. Moon's humanistic leadership that are identified in this study are: respect for all mankind, benevolence (seeking the greater good), sincerity (building trusting relationships with stakeholders) and continuous learning and innovation (developing self and others). These key characteristics set Mr. Moon apart from other leaders and are connected to the fundamental values and philosophies of Korean culture.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the current leadership literature by identifying and exploring Mr. Moon's humanistic leadership characteristics that enable him to gain respect and contribute to communities and society in the South Korean context. This study also finds that the humanistic leadership characteristics of Mr. Moon reflect three major attributes of Korean culture: the ideology of the Dangun mythology, the principle of Neo-Confucianism in Korea and jeong – an indigenous cultural concept in Korea (these attributes will be discussed in detail in the South Korean values and philosophies section). Such reflection suggests that investigating how humanistic leadership characteristics are connected to local cultural roots is important to enhance the understanding of humanistic leadership.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 July 2020

Charles Keim and Masoud Shadnam

The authors examined the traditional leadership practiced by the Old Order Amish located in the Holmes and Wayne counties of America. Despite popular stereotypes, this…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors examined the traditional leadership practiced by the Old Order Amish located in the Holmes and Wayne counties of America. Despite popular stereotypes, this community is remarkably innovative and resilient. Amish leadership aligns with the central tenets of humanistic leadership and provides a rich illustration of how such a leadership paradigm can foster a vibrant, inclusive and sustainable community. Unlike current leadership models that focus on instrumental values like wealth, profit and growth, Amish leadership is concerned with faith, community and living a simple life with purpose and dignity.

Design/methodology/approach

The primary data required for this paper were collected by the lead author during a six-month ethnographic study on several Amish communities located in Ohio. The authors also consulted a large set of archival data, including think tank reports, census data, biographies, magazine features and academic publications, which helped in placing the primary data in perspective and reminding of the particularities of the contexts from which the primary data were collected. For the data analysis, the authors used a thematic analysis approach to allow the salient themes of Amish humanistic leadership emerge from the data.

Findings

A total offour themes emerged from this study: (1) leadership as local identity and practice; (2) leaders without benefits, chosen by the lot; (3) leaders present matters, followers discuss and decide; (4) community welfare as the yardstick for evaluation. These themes highlighted some of the key aspects of humanistic leadership eclipsed in the mainstream theories of management and leadership. They showed how the Amish respond to the encroachment of technology, which holds critical clues for how humanistic leaders can place the needs of their people before the demands of their shareholders. By examining Amish leadership in detail, this study demonstrated the potential of humanistic leadership for creating a strong and sustainable community while also contributing to the empirical foundation of humanistic management.

Originality/value

Given the closed nature of the Amish, only few academic studies exist, which examined their leadership style. Furthermore, the traditional and conservative nature of the Amish community has prevented critics from investigating their leadership as a model for revitalizing other communities.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Evolving Leadership for Collective Wellbeing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-878-1

Article
Publication date: 12 February 2019

Muhammad Taufiq Amir and Peter Standen

This study argues that existing constructs of psychological resilience of employees focus too narrowly on recovery from adverse events. Therefore, this paper aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

This study argues that existing constructs of psychological resilience of employees focus too narrowly on recovery from adverse events. Therefore, this paper aims to present an alternative construct in which resilience reflects an intention to grow as a person when facing both opportunities and difficulties. Initial evidence for a measure of growth-based resilience is presented.

Design/methodology/approach

In Study 1, a six-step scale development procedure was used. Items were generated deductively, and an exploratory factor analysis on data from a sample of 167 Indonesian managers was used to refine the scale structure. Study 2 validated the Study 1 results using a two-step confirmatory factor analysis, including structural equation modelling, involving a second sample of 241 Indonesian managers.

Findings

Study 1 suggested a scale using 16 items reflecting two dimensions, Developmental Persistency, involving perseverance and commitment to growth, and Positive Emotion. Study 2 generally confirmed the structure of this measure and produced expected correlations with other theoretically related constructs. Overall, the findings support the reconceptualisation of resilience as a response to life challenges and opportunities focussed on growing as a person.

Research limitations/implications

Further testing of the validity of this construct is recommended, and its nomological network should be examined to clarify its relationship to related concepts such as hardiness, coping, thriving and similar qualities.

Practical implications

The growth-based perspective allows organisations to better assess and improve employee resilience as it more accurately reflects the nature of resilience as a fundamental “positive” dimension of human personality, where existing approaches focus merely on recovering from workplace adversities. An implication is that employee development efforts focussed more on personal development than specific work skills, or at least contextualising the latter in the person’s life context, will be more successful.

Originality/value

A more holistic view of resilience as the capacity for responding to life’s challenges and opportunities through personal growth resolves a number of issues created by existing recovery-based constructs.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 42 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

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