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Article

K.B. Antwi and F. Analoui

This paper seeks to explore and understand the public sector reform (PSR) as it affects local governments in Ghana within the context of challenges facing human resource

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to explore and understand the public sector reform (PSR) as it affects local governments in Ghana within the context of challenges facing human resource capacity building and development policies.

Design/methodology/approach

Adopting an exploratory case study design, the research triangulated both secondary and primary sources of data. Primary data generated from self‐completing questionnaire and interview schedule tools covering 105 local government employees selected from national, regional and district levels. Semi‐structured interviews also solicited views from 16 senior public officers and managers in nine public and quasi‐public organizations. These primary sources were complemented with relevant secondary documents from the organizations investigated.

Findings

Amongst others, it was found that Ghana's PSR has significantly influenced the strategic direction of human resource development policies of the decentralized local government service. Major human resource capacity challenges manifest three‐dimensionally as: policy, task/skill/organization and performance motivation induced.

Practical implications

Addressing the human resource capacity challenges has enormous strategic and financial resource implications for policy makers in transition and developing economies, due to their over‐reliance on external donors for funding.

Originality/value

Unlike previous studies, this empirical study did not explore human resource capacity issues of elected officials; rather, it focused on public servants (technocrats) implementing local political decisions. Of much value is that the results were from the perspective of the frontline local government staff whose day‐to‐day inputs are critical for effective decentralization.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

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Article

Adji Achmad Rinaldo Fernandes and Idrus Muhammad Taba

This paper aims to investigate the moderation effect of welding technology on the relationship between government policy and quality human resources and workforce competitiveness.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the moderation effect of welding technology on the relationship between government policy and quality human resources and workforce competitiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is quantitative in nature, i.e. it aims to explain the causality relationship between variables. This research is quantitative research, it aims to explain the causality relationship between variables. The analysis tool was generalized structure component analysis.

Findings

First, government policy has a significant and positive effect on workforce competitiveness, indicating that higher government policy will result in higher workforce competitiveness. Welding technology is the moderating variable in the relationship between government policy and workforce competitiveness. Higher implementation of welding technology will strengthen the relationship between government policy and workforce competitiveness. Second, quality of human resources has a significant and positive effect on workforce competitiveness; higher quality of human resources will therefore result in higher workforce competitiveness. Welding technology is the moderating variable in the relationship between quality of human resources and workforce competitiveness. Higher implementation of welding technology will therefore strengthen the relationship between quality of human resources and workforce competitiveness.

Originality/value

The moderating effect of welding technology in the relationships between government policy and quality of human resources and workforce competitiveness has not been comprehensively studied yet; the present study fills this gap.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

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Article

Herlan Suherlan

The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess an empirical description of how to respond to the needs of future human resource development, and any strategic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess an empirical description of how to respond to the needs of future human resource development, and any strategic alliances that have been made by STP Bandung and Bali to respond to global competition.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a qualitative naturalistic approach, with descriptive methods and case studies. The data were gathered through interviews, observations, and study of the documents. The sampling technique used was purposive. Data analysis was performed using data display, data reduction, and data verification through triangulation process.

Findings

STP Bandung and Bali have carried out various strategic measures through the improvement of both their internal and external environments. Strategic alliances with other institutions are oriented toward the improvement of the quality of education. This is in accordance with the vision and mission of the institution where priorities were put on joint programs, organization of students’ internship programs, support for the development of educational institutions, and optimizing the implementation of the three responsibilities of higher education in Indonesia, both in terms of quantity and quality, along with building a culture of research for lecturers.

Research limitations/implications

This research still needs improvement since there are some limitations in generating its conclusion. Therefore further research is recommended to increase sample number, i.e. by including, among others, students, graduates, employer communities, and region leaders, and also to involve other private, tourism higher education centers.

Practical implications

This study implies that in carrying out its core business, namely, tourism education, STP Bandung and Bali need to strengthen and cultivate the academic and research cultures among faculty members. In conjunction with contributions from research literature and practice, this study confirms the importance of strategic alliances between institutions of tourism education, at the national, regional, and international levels, that are producers of human resources for tourism for the government. Being graduates, they serve as competent members of a government agency responsible for managing a destination or other tourism sectors, at local, provincial, national, regional, and international levels.

Social implications

This study also implies that the Ministry of Tourism should implement the model of strategic education management through strategic alliances, so as to increase the capacity of the human resources for tourism, thus directly or indirectly contributing to the quality of city/regional or tourism destination.

Originality/value

Research studies on strategic alliance in the field of higher education, especially in the field of tourism are still very limited. This study provides a breakthrough that strategic alliances can not only be done in the business world, but also in the education sector. Results of research on strategic alliances in higher education in Indonesian tourism sector can be used as a reference for higher education providers in tourism at regional and international levels.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

Keywords

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Article

Torrence E Sparkman

The purpose of this paper is to understand the factors and conditions that influence national human resource development (NHRD) in Brazil. In this paper, the transitioning…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the factors and conditions that influence national human resource development (NHRD) in Brazil. In this paper, the transitioning nature of the political, economic, social and educational conditions; the current challenges and trends that may impact NHRD; and the current status of NHRD research in Brazil are examined.

Design/methodology/approach

A search of the research literature focused on the political, economic, cultural, social and educational environment and the research associated with NHRD in Brazil was conducted. After searching several databases, including Academic Search Complete, Google Scholar, ERIC and EBSCO, several articles were selected and analyzed based on the depth of description of the conditions and research.

Findings

Among the factors discovered, race, gender and educational equality are still concerns. The complex nature of the relationship between the Brazilian Government, its people and organizations, as well as the efforts of Brazil’s multinational and indigenous organizations to address their national development needs, are also presented.

Originality/value

Brazil is currently and projected to be a long-term player in the global economy; however, it struggles to cope with conditions incongruent to the country’s long-term success. This paper frames the conditions and suggests ways of moving forward through human resource development practice, policy and research in Brazil.

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Book part

Frank M. Horwitz and Harish C. Jain

Two key developments exert an important influence on the nature of human resource management (HRM) in South Africa (SA). The first is two seemingly conflicting…

Abstract

Two key developments exert an important influence on the nature of human resource management (HRM) in South Africa (SA). The first is two seemingly conflicting imperatives, sometimes and arguably wrongly juxtaposed: that of developing a high-growth, globally competitive economy with fuller employment and the sociopolitical imperative of redressing past structural inequalities of access to skilled, professional, and managerial positions, as well as ownership opportunities. The first development is the related influences of globalization and multinational corporations (MNCs), information technology, and increased competition, which have become very prominent in postapartheid SA. South Africa has a dual labor market, with a well-developed formal sector employing some 8.5 million workers in standard or typical work and a growing informal labor market. In the case of the formal, knowledge-based economy, the World Wide Web, and increasing communication that the Internet has made possible, has influenced changes at the organizational level. A second development is that these changes and changing patterns of employment are having a dramatic impact on HR policies within organizations. In a knowledge-based economy, organizations rely on knowledge that is embedded deeply in the individual and in the collective subconscious. It is the property of an individual and cannot be taken away from that person (Harrison & Kessels, 2004). He or she would agree to put it in the service of the collective whole, which is known as organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). In technology-driven advanced firms in SA, there are several themes among the various models of citizenship behavior: helping behavior, sportsmanship, organizational loyalty, organizational compliance, initiative, civic virtue, and self-development (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Paine, & Bachrach, 2000). Many of these themes overlap with the common competencies demanded by advanced MNCs. Thus OCBs rest upon a recognition of mutuality of interest and of responsibility between the organization and the individuals. Increasing globalization and worldwide competition and the knowledge-based economy have their greatest impact on business strategies, process, and practice involving, among others, management of human resources. In this chapter we examine factors influencing the management of human resources in SA and their impact on human resource practices in organizations.

Details

The Global Diffusion of Human Resource Practices: Institutional and Cultural Limits
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1401-0

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Article

David O’Donnell and Thomas N. Garavan

Argues that a human resource development (HRD) strategy, in alliance with a global‐arching human resource management (HRM) strategy, is the most effective way to link…

Abstract

Argues that a human resource development (HRD) strategy, in alliance with a global‐arching human resource management (HRM) strategy, is the most effective way to link training policy and practice to organizational goals. Both manufacturing and service organizations require a critical mass of positive factors related to the effective management of human resources to successfully accomplish organizational goals. This involves the analysis of a myriad internal and external environmental factors contingent to the organization, followed by a strategic approach to influencing key stakeholders, and the formulation of strategic HRD policies and plans in parallel with and sometimes influencing business strategy. This links to a broad range of systems covering all areas of the human resource cycle ‐ selection, appraisal, rewards and development ‐ related to individual/team and organizational performance. Concludes that the HRD function must become more strategic in focus.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 21 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

Keywords

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Article

Meera Alagaraja, Pradeep Kotamraju and Sehoon Kim

This paper aims to review technical vocational education and training (TVET) literature, identify different components of the TVET system and develop a conceptual…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review technical vocational education and training (TVET) literature, identify different components of the TVET system and develop a conceptual framework that integrates human resource development (HRD) and national human resource development (NHRD) outcomes. The renewed focus on technical vocational education and training (TVET) is important for human resource development (HRD), as it expands current understanding of its role in economic development through workforce training. National human resource development (NHRD) perspectives recognize the role of TVET in linking regional and national economic development strategies. Furthermore, TVET’s focus on literacy education, poverty alleviation and inclusion of marginalized and vulnerable populations emphasizes social development outcomes that are critical for NHRD. Using this background, the integration of HRD and NHRD outcomes into one conceptual TVET framework for addressing workforce, economic and social development outcomes has been proposed.

Design/methodology/approach

A targeted literature review approach was used for exploring relevant research on TVET systems, identifying the components which support and/or inhibit its effectiveness and an integrative framework that connects education, workforce development, social development and economic development was developed.

Findings

Three major themes were identified. The first theme identifies nine sub-themes that make an effective TVET system. These are as follows: national TVET policy, regional TVET policy, training, participation, curriculum, coordination of stakeholder institutions, individual and institutional attitudes toward skill development, managing supply-demand mismatches and economic and social development outcomes. The second major theme underlines the increasing overlap and connection between workforce development, social development and economic development strategies. In the third and final finding, effective TVET systems are positioned as the linking pin connecting the four TVET components (skills, education, innovation and knowledge) to the strategic goals of workforce development, economic development and social development.

Originality/value

Integrating national and organizational-based HRD strategies is a unique focus and reflects the broader examination of the differences in the relationship between corporate HRD and more traditional TVET systems. It is argued that the role of TVET in social and workforce development at the regional and societal level cannot be ignored. HRD and NHRD outcomes were integrated by utilizing TVET as a framework for linking economic, social and workforce development strategies.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

Keywords

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Article

Hooi Lai Wan

The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors needed for the development of global human resources for leadership assignments in foreign subsidiaries. The paper aims…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors needed for the development of global human resources for leadership assignments in foreign subsidiaries. The paper aims to find an answer to enhance expatriate mission accomplishment rate at subsidiaries abroad.

Design/methodology/approach

This study examines the development of global human resources. In-depth face-to-face interviews were employed to collect data from eight senior HR managers in three financial institutions in Taiwan, while data from 28 expatriates in the overseas subsidiaries were obtained from asynchronous e-mail interviews. Conventional content analysis was used to code categories directly from the data.

Findings

The results of the study revealed that organizational policies do not focus on developing global human resources. To portray a global image, the focus is on staffing overseas subsidiaries with foreigners and Taiwanese that can speak English. Development to prepare staff for expatriation is limited to pre-departure training that focused mainly on language and cultural awareness training. However, organizational support during expatriation and repatriation is important. Expatriates view security briefing crucial and familiarization visit helps them to decide whether or not to accept expatriation. Organizational policies favor those that were not expatriated in terms of career progression deter managers from accepting international assignments.

Originality/value

It highlights some best practices in developing global human resources taking into consideration the herd mentality and social perspective. Social support, social learning and social capital are instrumental in developing global human resources as these hasten cultural adjustment.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

Keywords

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Article

Kyungran Roh, Hyunok Ryu and Gary N. McLean

The purpose of this study is to explore ways to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of national human resource development (NHRD) policies led by South Korean central…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore ways to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of national human resource development (NHRD) policies led by South Korean central government agencies, identifying what policy decisions have been made and how they were implemented.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected data from the 2016 NHRD policy budget plans of the ministries and used content analysis. The unit of analysis was the fourth level, a sub-task, in each ministry’s policy budget plan. All coded policy contents were analyzed in terms of the centralized NHRD model, as well as through the perspective of developmental task theory.

Findings

The study yielded the following policy and implementation problems. First, the current system of NHRD policies established and implemented by individual ministries risks hampering the validity and effectiveness of the policies. Second, the structure of NHRD policy execution may cause similarity and redundancy across policies, thereby hindering the efficiency of the policies. Third, it is problematic when NHRD policies focus on solving short-term problems to the exclusion of long-term ones.

Originality/value

This study provides public recommendations to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of NHRD policies created by South Korea’s Central Government. If such an analysis has been made internally by the government, it has not been made publicly available. It also offers practical insights that might help to improve state-led human resource development policies for other countries – especially developing countries – that are planning to introduce central government-led NHRD or to improve existing NHRD policies.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 44 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

Keywords

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Article

K.B. Antwi and F. Analoui

The purpose of this paper is to explore and try to understand the human side of public sector reform (PSR) in local government in Ghana in the context of the challenges…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore and try to understand the human side of public sector reform (PSR) in local government in Ghana in the context of the challenges facing human resource capacity building and development policies.

Design/methodology/approach

Adopting an exploratory case study design, the paper triangulates both secondary and primary sources of data. Primary data were generated from self‐completing questionnaire and interview schedule tools covering 105 local government employees selected from national, regional and district levels. Semi‐structured interviews also solicited views from 16 senior public officers and managers in nine public and quasi‐public organizations. These primary sources were complemented with relevant secondary documents from the organisations investigated.

Findings

It was found that Ghana's PSR has significantly influenced the strategic direction of human resource development policies of the decentralized local government service. Major challenges in human resource capacity manifest themselves as related to policy, task, skill and organisation issues and performance motivation.

Practical implications

Addressing the human resource capacity challenges has enormous strategic and financial resource implications for policy makers in transitional and developing economies, due to their over‐reliance on external donors for funding.

Originality/value

Unlike previous studies, this paper did not explore HR capacity issues of elected officials; rather, it focused on the public servants (technocrats) implementing local political decisions. Of much value is that the results were derived from the experience of frontline local government staff, whose day‐to‐day inputs are critical for effective decentralization.

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