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Article

Angela Marie Hartsell

This paper expounds theoretical reasons behind and practical applications of urban natural space as part of the ontological whole of the city.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper expounds theoretical reasons behind and practical applications of urban natural space as part of the ontological whole of the city.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, nonsecular and secular relationships between humans and nature are explored from an ontological perspective.

Findings

The characteristics of the savanna hypothesis are shown to be tectonic elements that have been used historically in human-defined landscapes and can be implemented in urban planning and design to enhance urban green spaces and improve the overall quality of urban life.

Social implications

The humannature relationship has morphed and adapted as civilizations and their belief systems have grown and fallen aside. The humannature relationship has affected the form of cities while human development and technological advancements have affected nature’s representation in the urban realm. Throughout the periods of nonsecular affection for nature and secular applications of nature, one theme has persisted: human innate preference for certain arrangements of certain natural elements. Though existing long before the first human settlements were formed, the savanna hypothesis was not coined until the 20th century.

Originality/value

Ultimately, the savanna hypothesis is exhibited as a joining concept that connects nonsecular affection for nature to secular qualities of urban nature and natural infrastructure.

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Book part

Timothy Rutzou

The relationship between ontology, realism, and normativity is complex and contentious. While naturalist and realist stances have tended to ground questions of normativity…

Abstract

The relationship between ontology, realism, and normativity is complex and contentious. While naturalist and realist stances have tended to ground questions of normativity in ontology and accounts of human nature, critical theories have been critical of the relationship between ontological and normative projects. Queer theory in particular has been critical of ontological endeavors. Exploring the problem of normativity and ontology, this paper will make the case that the critical realist ontology of open systems and complex, contingent, conjunctural causation deeply resonates with queer theory, generating a queer ontology that both allows for and undermines ontological and normative projects.

Details

Critical Realism, History, and Philosophy in the Social Sciences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-604-0

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Article

Necati Aydin

The purpose of this paper is to offer a new theory of human nature to explain the happiness paradox of capitalism.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to offer a new theory of human nature to explain the happiness paradox of capitalism.

Design/methodology/approach

It is argued that happiness crisis in capitalism stems from the lack of full understanding of human nature which is like a black box from which key assumptions in capitalist market system are derived. The author attempts to unlock this black box in order to understand the failure of capitalism in bringing happiness.

Findings

As the success of capitalism comes from its partial understanding of human nature, its failure comes from its partial misunderstanding or exploitation of human nature. This leads to ignoring the needs and desires of certain elements of human nature for the sake of serving only the animal spirit and self‐centric ego. The proposed new theory offers a new understanding of happiness and its determinants. Comparing the human body to a luxury recreational vehicle (RV) and the elements of human nature to the companions on this vehicle, the theory suggests that an individual cannot be truly happy if he or she listens only to one of his/her residents while disregarding the others. The new theory offers better explanation for the 2008 financial crisis and the happiness paradox in wealthy nations. It also provides an underlining framework for the existing happiness theories.

Research limitations/implications

The new theory needs to be tested through empirical studies.

Social implications

The paper theoretically argues that that authentic happiness is possible if individuals listen to the voices of all elements of human nature and try to fulfil their needs and desires in a balanced manner.

Originality/value

The paper offers a new comprehensive theory on human nature.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Article

Thomas O. Nitsch

In previous efforts the author has examined the various“men” of economics or humannature assumptions of“economic thinkers” as a way of treating the history andphilosophy…

Abstract

In previous efforts the author has examined the various “men” of economics or humannature assumptions of “economic thinkers” as a way of treating the history and philosophy of the discipline. Here, under the thematic penumbra of “Man as the Centre of the Social Economy”, and hoping to incorporate the fruits of further inquiry into the matter, those “creatures” and their fashioners are critically reconsidered with a view towards arriving at a more adequate conception of a truly human “economiser” and – accordingly – science of human economy. In Part II, having presented homo oeconomicus in both his/her “impudent” and “honourable” versions, we shall attempt to transcend homo socioeconomicus and even our own (former) homo oeconomicus humanus as well.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article

Tibor R. Machan

Here Marx's philosophy is dissected from the angle of bourgeois capitalism which he, Marx, sought to overcome. His social, political and economic ideas are criticised…

Abstract

Here Marx's philosophy is dissected from the angle of bourgeois capitalism which he, Marx, sought to overcome. His social, political and economic ideas are criticised. Although it is noted that Marx wanted to ameliorate human suffering, the result turned out to be Utopian, contrary to his own intentions. Contrary to Marx, it is individualism that makes the best sense and capitalism that holds out the best hope for coping with most of the problems he sought to solve. Marx's philosophy is alluring but flawed at a very basic level, namely, where it denies the individuality of each person and treats humanity as “an organic body”. Capitalism, while by no means out to guarantee a perfect society, is the best setting for the realisation of the diverse but often equally noble human goals of its membership.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 15 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article

Necati Aydin

This paper aims to discuss the crises of free market capitalism in terms of its understanding of human nature. It reveals how recent market madness can be attributed to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss the crises of free market capitalism in terms of its understanding of human nature. It reveals how recent market madness can be attributed to certain elements of human nature.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a conceptual and philosophical approach to analyze crises of free market capitalism. It links both success and failure of capitalism to its understanding of human nature. It compares and contrasts economic assumptions of human nature in conventional and Islamic economics. It attempts to explain the 2008 financial crisis through a comprehensive theory of human nature.

Findings

It sheds some light on the irrational aspect of human nature as the driving factor behind the 2008 financial crisis. It elaborates on the importance of knowing self for knowing human decisions in free market economy. It concludes with the need for a comprehensive theory of human nature to predict and prevent irrational and irresponsible behaviors of populist politicians, greedy capitalists and conspicuous consumers. The paper also reflects on the 2013 Nobel Prize in economics as a victory for the study of human nature.

Originality/value

The paper offers a new perspective to understand crises of free market capitalism.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Article

Anne K. Randerson

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the religious and philosophical ways humans view nature, and how we perceive and treat our planet, including all its living…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the religious and philosophical ways humans view nature, and how we perceive and treat our planet, including all its living entities. Its purpose is to make a positive influence on individuals living in the Eastern and Western hemispheres, so that those who are unaware may be given an unexpected glimpse at our current human situation, which appears increasingly discouraging with regard to sensitivity towards nature.

Design/methodology/approach

By offering a subtle, insightful view of human nature and its connection to religion and the universe, rather than facts and statistics on pollution alone, this conceptual paper introduces theoretical and philosophical discussions from comparative literature as well as narratives from actual interviews conducted in Japan.

Findings

As human beings, we need to better define our position in this world, in order to learn to appreciate the true value of our own existence. With regard to the question of where humans lie in nature, a basic difference exists between Asian and Western views. The Asian view of nature has traditionally regarded humans and the universe as continually interacting together – human beings are an integral part of life. This differs from the basic Western notion of humans and nature comprising two separate, opposing elements.

Originality/value

This paper offers readers a deeper understanding of how humans feel and perceive nature, to help them realize how urgent it is for us to respect our natural resources on Earth.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

Keywords

Abstract

Purpose

Aboriginal people across Australia have diverse practices, beliefs and knowledges based on thousands of generations of managing and protecting their lands (Country). The intimate relationship Aboriginal people have with their Country is explored in this chapter because such knowledge is important for building insight into the relationship between social and ecological systems. Often in research Aboriginal views have been marginalised from discussions focused on their lands to the detriment of ecosystems and human health. This chapter aims to understand if such marginalisation is evident in Western humannature relationship discourses.

Approach

This chapter provides a critical literature review which examines whether Aboriginal people’s diverse understanding of their ecosystems have been incorporated into humannature theories using the biophilia hypothesis as a starting point. Other concepts explored include solastalgia, topophilia and place.

Findings

Critiques of these terminologies in the context of Aboriginal people’s connection to Country are limited but such incorporation is viewed in the chapter as a possible mechanism for better understanding human’s connection to nature. The review identified that Aboriginal people’s relationship to Country seems to be underrepresented in the humannature theory literature.

Value

This chapter emphasises that the integration of Aboriginal perspectives into research, ecological management and policy can provide better insight into the interrelationships between social and ecological systems.

Details

Ecological Health: Society, Ecology and Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-323-0

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Article

John Conway O'Brien

A collection of essays by a social economist seeking to balanceeconomics as a science of means with the values deemed necessary toman′s finding the good life and society…

Abstract

A collection of essays by a social economist seeking to balance economics as a science of means with the values deemed necessary to man′s finding the good life and society enduring as a civilized instrumentality. Looks for authority to great men of the past and to today′s moral philosopher: man is an ethical animal. The 13 essays are: 1. Evolutionary Economics: The End of It All? which challenges the view that Darwinism destroyed belief in a universe of purpose and design; 2. Schmoller′s Political Economy: Its Psychic, Moral and Legal Foundations, which centres on the belief that time‐honoured ethical values prevail in an economy formed by ties of common sentiment, ideas, customs and laws; 3. Adam Smith by Gustav von Schmoller – Schmoller rejects Smith′s natural law and sees him as simply spreading the message of Calvinism; 4. Pierre‐Joseph Proudhon, Socialist – Karl Marx, Communist: A Comparison; 5. Marxism and the Instauration of Man, which raises the question for Marx: is the flowering of the new man in Communist society the ultimate end to the dialectical movement of history?; 6. Ethical Progress and Economic Growth in Western Civilization; 7. Ethical Principles in American Society: An Appraisal; 8. The Ugent Need for a Consensus on Moral Values, which focuses on the real dangers inherent in there being no consensus on moral values; 9. Human Resources and the Good Society – man is not to be treated as an economic resource; man′s moral and material wellbeing is the goal; 10. The Social Economist on the Modern Dilemma: Ethical Dwarfs and Nuclear Giants, which argues that it is imperative to distinguish good from evil and to act accordingly: existentialism, situation ethics and evolutionary ethics savour of nihilism; 11. Ethical Principles: The Economist′s Quandary, which is the difficulty of balancing the claims of disinterested science and of the urge to better the human condition; 12. The Role of Government in the Advancement of Cultural Values, which discusses censorship and the funding of art against the background of the US Helms Amendment; 13. Man at the Crossroads draws earlier themes together; the author makes the case for rejecting determinism and the “operant conditioning” of the Skinner school in favour of the moral progress of autonomous man through adherence to traditional ethical values.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 19 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article

Sigmund Wagner‐Tsukamoto

The purpose of the paper is to critically question conventional views of the one‐dimensional, mechanistic and negative image of human nature of Scientific Management. Both…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to critically question conventional views of the one‐dimensional, mechanistic and negative image of human nature of Scientific Management. Both for worker behavior and for managerial behavior positive aspects of an image of human nature are reconstructed in organizational economic terms.

Design/methodology/approach

Through institutional economic reconstruction, drawing on the methods and concepts of organizational and institutional economics, the portrayal of workers and managers by Scientific Management is critically assessed.

Findings

It is suggested that a conceptual asymmetry exists in Taylor's writings regarding the portrayal of human nature of workers and managers. Whereas for workers a model of self‐interest was applied (through the concepts of “systematic soldering” and “natural soldiering”), Taylor portrayed managers through a positive, behavioral model of human nature that depicted the manager as “heartily cooperative”. The key thesis is that by modeling managers through a rather positive image of human nature Taylor could no longer methodically apply the model of economic man in order to test out and prevent interaction conflict between potentially self‐interested managers and workers.

Research limitations/implications

The paper focused on Scientific Management to advance the thesis that the portrayal of human nature has been ill approached by management and organization theorists who were apparently pioneering an institutional and organizational economics. Future research has to broaden the scope of research to other pioneers in management and organization research, but also to critics in behavioral sciences, such as organization psychology, who may misunderstand how economics approaches the portrayal of human nature, in particular regarding self‐interest.

Practical implications

Taylor's portrayal of managers as naturally good persons, who were not self‐interested, caused implementation conflict and implementation problems for Scientific Management and led to his summoning by the US Congress. By modeling managers as heartily cooperative, Taylor could no longer analyze potentially self‐interested behavior, even opportunistic behavior of managers in their interactions with workers. Scientific Management had thus no remedy to handle “soldiering” of managers. This insight, that managerialism needs to be accounted for in a management theory, has manifold practical implications for management consultancy, management education, and for the practice of management in general. Students and practitioners have to be informed about the necessary and useful role a model of self‐interest (economic man) methodically plays in economic management theory.

Originality/value

The paper reconstructs the portrayal of human nature in early management theory, which seemingly anticipated the advances – and certain pitfalls – of modern institutional economics. The paper unearths, from an economic perspective, conceptual misunderstandings of Taylor regarding his image of human nature of workers and managers.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

Keywords

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