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Article

Oluwaseyi Popogbe and Oluyemi Theophilus Adeosun

Human capital flight from Nigeria to developed countries has remained a topical issue. This paper aims to empirically analyze the push factors for the migrants who explore…

Abstract

Purpose

Human capital flight from Nigeria to developed countries has remained a topical issue. This paper aims to empirically analyze the push factors for the migrants who explore the various legal migrant schemes from a macro perspective. The authors examine human capital development and its role in contributing to human capital flight to more developed counties.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is anchored on the push–pull model. Using secondary data from 1990 to 2019, the authors look at the relationship between human capital flight and variables such as life expectancy, infant mortality rate, population growth rate and Nigeria’s unemployment rate. The auto-regressive lag model (ARDL) was adopted to estimate the empirical relationship among these variables.

Findings

The results from the ARDL model suggest a positive relationship exists between population growth rate and migration rate. A negative relationship was, however, observed between life expectancy and migration rate. This study also found that an increase in the infant mortality rate negatively impacted migration significantly. Therefore, an increase in infant mortality rate lowered the migration rate. Finally, an increase in the unemployment rate increased migration; however, insignificantly.

Research limitations/implications

The findings from this study are limited to the push factors influencing migration out of Nigeria. These factors are also restricted to variables for which data can be derived under the study’s scope. The results of this study have far-reaching implications, especially for policymakers and citizens alike. Better human capital development through enhanced life expectancy and reduced population in Nigeria will reduce the migration rate. Therefore, this study calls for the doubling of developmental and infrastructural efforts at all levels of governance.

Originality/value

This paper’s importance lies in its ability to elucidate push factors that influenced migration out of Nigeria empirically. An empirical approach to the subject matter will explain these factors and the degree to which they influence migration. This will guide the policy-making process in curbing brain drain, which is a major challenge in Nigeria.

Details

Journal of Humanities and Applied Social Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN:

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Article

Akira Shimada

Households suffering from poverty often rely on parental migration and/or paid child labour for survival. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of…

Abstract

Purpose

Households suffering from poverty often rely on parental migration and/or paid child labour for survival. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of parental migration on paid child labour and human capital formation in a dynamic context, explicitly taking the effects of parental migration on child’s school and home education into account.

Design/methodology/approach

The author utilises a mathematical method. In particular, an overlapping-generations model is built, with agents who have a two-period life. The amount of paid child labour is determined as a solution of the utility maximisation problem.

Findings

Contrary to intuition, parental migration possibilities do not necessarily reduce paid child labour. In addition, parental migration possibilities do not necessarily raise human capital. Moreover, a trade-off might exist between alleviating paid child labour and raising human capital under parental migration possibilities.

Research limitations/implications

Migration possibilities are given exogenously evenly among potential migrants by the foreign country. However, in general, they depend on potential migrants’ human capital so that migration possibilities differ across agents.

Practical implications

Migration is usually considered effective in alleviating poverty. However, since it does not necessarily reduce paid child labour and raise human capital, migration should be regulated in some cases as a means to escape from poverty.

Originality/value

This paper deals with parental migration and paid child labour in an identical dynamic model. This paper assumes that human capital is built not only by school education but also home education, the amount of which changes with the duration of parental migration.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article

Jialu Liu

Many countries have experienced, or are experiencing, urbanization. One such example is China. Even though the large‐scale rural‐urban migration seems chaotic on the…

Abstract

Purpose

Many countries have experienced, or are experiencing, urbanization. One such example is China. Even though the large‐scale rural‐urban migration seems chaotic on the surface, there are certain underlying forces driving individual decisions. The purpose of this paper is to provide some understanding of the relationship between human capital, migration, and occupational choices.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper starts with an overlapping generations model. Human capital plays various roles across different occupations – it does not affect the income of farmers, it affects income of workers linearly, and it has increasing returns in rural non‐farm business. The paper then derives income profiles for individuals with heterogeneous human capital, and finds the human capital thresholds of occupations. The paper calibrates the model to China, and simulates the model to answer two questions: how does an improving human capital distribution affect rural wages, quantities of migrants and return migrants? How does a fast‐growing urban wage rate affect rural wages, quantities of migrants and return migrants?

Findings

First, depending on the initial human capital level, policies aiming to enhance human capital may have different impacts on migration. If the initial human capital level is low, these policies will yield more permanent migrants; on the contrary, if the initial human capital is at a relatively high level, then a shrinking permanent migrant class with a growing entrepreneur class can be expected. This results in an inverted U‐shaped relation between the initial human capital level and the size of the permanent migrant class. Second, even though the non‐farm business of return migrants helps raise rural wages, the income inequality between rural and urban areas is not eliminated and migration is persistent. Third, borrowing constraints limit the size of rural non‐farm businesses and slow down the development of rural industry. The fourth and final point is that, migration costs discourage labor mobility and reduce the quantities of both permanent migrants and entrepreneurs.

Originality/value

This is an original paper on this subject.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

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Abstract

Details

Urban Dynamics and Growth: Advances in Urban Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44451-481-3

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Article

Akira Shimada

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how parental migration due to poverty affects a child’s education and human capital formation through changes in the child’s…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how parental migration due to poverty affects a child’s education and human capital formation through changes in the child’s supply of unpaid labour.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a small open overlapping generations model where the parent migrates for the family’s subsistence and that the child has to give up a part of education to do the housework during the parent’s absence.

Findings

The paper finds that given the level of the human capital, reducing the child’s burden of housework and promoting parental migration to high-wage countries do not necessarily raise the amount of child’s education. The paper also finds a possible underdevelopment trap in the dynamic context.

Originality/value

Unlike previous studies on child labour, this paper focuses on unpaid labour, whose share is actually larger than that of paid labour. Even if paid labour is available, children cannot re-allocate their time from doing the housework to the market work; so the author cannot disregard this observation. Investigation into the dynamics of human capital formation under such child labour is new.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 42 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part

Mrittika Basu and Rajib Shaw

Over the last few years, impacts of environmental variability on population migration have been an increasing concern over the world. Estimates have suggested that between…

Abstract

Over the last few years, impacts of environmental variability on population migration have been an increasing concern over the world. Estimates have suggested that between 25 million and 1 billion people could be displaced by climate change over the next 40 years. Though it is very difficult to delineate the specific drivers behind human migration, an attempt has been made in this chapter to discuss various reported cases across the world and more specifically, India where environment has played a major role in population movement. The chapter begins by outlining important definitions of migration and environmentally induced migration. It focuses on how environmental change and environmental hazards, especially water scarcity, contribute to human migration by exploring the mechanisms through which vulnerability and migration are linked. The process of movement and migration is usually subject to a complex set of push and pull forces, where push forces relate to the source area while pull factors relate to the destination. Emphasizing water scarcity as one of the prime push factors behind migration, various instances of population movement have been discussed from various parts of India. Understanding the importance of migration in development of a sustainable society, the chapter identifies various gaps that need to be addressed, which, in turn, will help in incorporating environment-induced migration into the decision-making process.

Details

Water Insecurity: A Social Dilemma
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-882-2

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Article

Prince Agwu, Uzoma Okoye, Prince Ekoh, Ngozi Chukwu, Chinyere Onalu, Ijeoma Igwe, Paul Onuh, Gift Amadi and George Nche

Sex work migration involves a huge number of females from Nigeria, and has attracted concerns within and across the country. To add to ongoing conversations about…

Abstract

Purpose

Sex work migration involves a huge number of females from Nigeria, and has attracted concerns within and across the country. To add to ongoing conversations about responsible migration, our review underscores the prevalence of sex work migration in Edo State, Nigeria, the drivers and interventions.

Design/methodology/approach

The review adopted exhaustive search terms coined with the aid of “Boolean Operators”. Search terms were entered into several search engines and databases to elicit peer-reviewed and grey literature within sex work migration and human trafficking for commercial sex. An output of 578 studies was recorded with 76 (43 academic papers and 33 grey literature) meeting the inclusion criteria.

Findings

The study acknowledged wide-spread prevalence of sex work migration involving Nigerian females who are largely from Edo State. It achieved a prioritization of the factors that drive sex work migration based on how frequent they were mentioned in reviewed literature: economic (64.4%), cultural (46%), educational (20%), globalization (14.5%) and political factors (13.2%). Several interventions were highlighted together with their several limitations which include funding, absence of grass-roots engagement, dearth of appropriate professionals, corruption, weak political will, among others. A combination of domestic and international interventions was encouraged, and social workers were found to be needful.

Originality/value

Our systematic review is the first on this subject, as none was found throughout our search. It seeks to inform policy measures and programmes, as well as horizontal efforts poised to tackle the rising figures of sex work migrants and attendant consequences in Nigeria.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 40 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Book part

Debesh Bhowmik

In this chapter, the author has described the nexus between climate change and the evolution of refugee problems. The concept of climate refugee and the controversy…

Abstract

In this chapter, the author has described the nexus between climate change and the evolution of refugee problems. The concept of climate refugee and the controversy between refugee and climate refugee were extensively elaborated. The estimates of climate refugees under various dimensions in different parts of the world were exemplified with statistical figures. The solutions of the refugee problems, funding, directions of estimates and social responsibilities towards refugees are described in the activities of international institutions like UNHCR, CCDO, UNFCCC, IPCC, the Red Cross and many others. The chapter also highlights some important policy issues such as charters, funds, response strategy to disaster and disaster recovery plans, support capacity building and climate change adaptation and so on and also cited policies taken by the G20 summit to care for refugees. Besides, the recommendations of COP23 were also included. In conclusion, ‘no climate change, no climate refugees’ slogan is incorporated with suggestions of taking care of sizable percentage shares of refugees by the rich nations.

Details

Refugee Crises and Third-World Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-191-2

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Article

Luigi Aldieri, Maxim Kotsemir and Concetto Paolo Vinci

What is the effect of an increase of migration inflows on the R&D and innovative performance of developing countries? The purpose of this paper is to investigate the…

Abstract

Purpose

What is the effect of an increase of migration inflows on the R&D and innovative performance of developing countries? The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of migration inflows on the R&D and innovation activity (measured as expenditures on R&D and technological innovations) in Russian regions.

Design/methodology/approach

To this end, the authors use data on 85 Russian regions for the period 2010-2016 through a multi-region economic geography model. In particular, the authors test the hypothesis about the importance of migration inflows on R&D and technological innovation activity (H1) and the hypothesis about the importance of immigrants’ (incoming migrants) human capital (measured by the education level of incoming migrants) on R&D and innovation activity (H2).

Findings

Empirical findings support the evidence in favour of a positive causal link between innovation and migration inflows. Results of our investigation are important because they suggest useful insights for formulating science and innovation policies in Russia, which is a developing country where the recent policies favouring the technological innovation as the transition period have not yet achieved a satisfying outcome.

Originality/value

This paper increases the knowledge in the field with respect to the existing literature, shedding further light on the migration inflows effects, which is a political topic to manage very relevant in all countries.

Details

foresight, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

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Article

Francis A. Adzei and Emmanuel K. Sakyi

The purpose of this paper is to examine the trend of return migration of health professionals to Ghana and how it is impacting the delivery of health services in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the trend of return migration of health professionals to Ghana and how it is impacting the delivery of health services in the country. It also highlights the challenges facing returnees to the country.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative exploratory case study approach was employed in the study. Data gathered were analysed using the sequential model of qualitative content analysis.

Findings

It was found that while push factors dominantly influence out-migration, pull factors rather dominated reasons for return migration. Other determinants of return migration include social and financial benefits to the home country, achieving goals for travelling, skills’ improvement and spousal consideration. The paper also highlights some of the challenges returnees usually encounter in the home country.

Social implications

This paper makes reasonable recommendations regarding how return migration of Ghanaian health professionals might be smoother.

Originality/value

The study brings to the fore, the necessity for the government to plan for health professionals, who returned to Ghana to contribute to the health system.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

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